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presented to 

£be Xtbran? 

of tbe 

THniv>ersit\> of Toronto 


4- S. Lo^^sjUL , X<w 

1 i "I »>^^(WWWP 



Accident— Alpha Shaft 260 

A Curious Earl C. Cleaveland 387 

Accidents, Railroad 207 

Accommodations for Employees E. P. Kennedy.... 453 

Accounts for the Superintendent, Mine 

Algernon Del Mar.... 454 

Accumulation and Absorption of Gold Amalgam by 

Copper Plates 806 

Acid-Resisting Alloy 700 

Act, Canadian Industrial Disputes. .. .Frank A. Ross.... 104 

Actual Situation of Copper James Douglas.... 7 

Adaptation of a Steam-Driven Compressor to Water- 
Power Horace G. Nichols.... 230 

Advice to Mining Students J. H. Collins «38 

Affairs in San Francisco Editorial 719 

Ainsworth New Theodolite 434 

Air-Compression, Simple Problems in. Edward A Rlx.... 394 

Pressure Pumping, Weslinghouse Direct 819 

Rock Penetration by J. P. K 520 

Alabama Gold Mines 266,780 

Alaska Alfred H. Brooks 20 

Cassiterlte in 253 

Mining in the Wrangell District 191S 

Progress In Southeastern 133 

The Copper River District (I. II) 

W. M. Brewer 71, 101 

Allen, Alfred Concerning Superintendents.... 229 

Allentown Electric Pump 368 

Allls-Chalmers Suspended Iron Frame Vanner 399 

Alloy, Acid Resisting 700 

Alpha Shaft Accident 260 

Alpine and American Tunnel Records 781 

Aluminum in Steel 450 

Amalgam 384 

By Copper Plates. Accumulation and Absorption of 

Gold 806 

Amalgamated Report and Copper Costs. . .Editorial. .. . 823 

Amalgamation 350 

Ditto D. M 452 

Cyaniding Mill Pulp After Cyril E. Parsons 660 

American Tunnel Records, Alpine and 7^1 

Spiral Pipe' Connections 6 <*9 

Switching Locomotive 751 

Anaconda, Two Copper Mines Editorial. ...* 141 

Analysis of Production of Two Great Copper Mines 160 

Antimony Ore in California J. Henry Rickard.,.. 558 

Price of 286 

Apparatus, Life-Saving W. E. Wlngramm. . . . 770 

Appelbaum. Misha E The Outlook for Copper.... 76 

Archbold, T. R Psychology of Mining Booms.... 319 

Argall, Philip Rock Oxidation at Cripple Creek 883 

Arnold, C. Everard Method of Mining.... 495 

Arrival of the Fleet Editorial 610 

Artesian Basins 710 

Assay, Copper E. L Larison.... 483 

Ditto E. R. Rice 319 

Furnace. Gasoline Connections for. II. W. Cuming.... 697 

Statements. Misleading Engineer.... 521 

Value of Mill Products and Smelter Contracts, Re- 
lation Between Gelaslo Caetani.... 25 

Values. Standardization of Bullion and 878 

Assaying Battery Chips 712 

Braun Electrolytic 206 

With Pan 222 

Assessment Work 253, 3 1 X 

Work. Road Work for 286 

Assisting Graduates Editorial .... 49 

Association, The New John B. Hastings.... 558 

Work for the Miners' Editorial 304 

Atlas Bottom Delivery Electric Charging Car 643 

Scale Charglng-Car 174 


Auriferous Gravels of Sierra Nevada 350 

Austin. L S Heat of Fusion of Silver-Lead 

Blast-Furnace Slag 566 

Ditto Lake Superior Ore-Dressing Practice.... 259 

Ditto Smelting in Globe in 1893 196 

Ditto Treatment of Sulphide Ores by the 

Huntington-Heberlein Process 611 

Ditto. . .Welfare of Laborers in Reduction Works.... 489 


Bain, H. Foster. .. .Leasing the Federal Coal Lands.... 

Banking, Mexican Editorial .... 

Bary tea 

Battery Chips, Assaying 

Battleship, From Mine to T. A. Rickard.... 

Bauxite 553. 

Bayles. L C Drill Contest on the Rand.... 

Becker. Arnold .Depth at Goldfleld. . . . 

Ditto Geological Possibilities at Goldfleld.... 

Behrend Concentrator 

Belt Lacing, Bristol Metal 

Bering Sea, Recent Volcanic Eruptions in 

Arthur S. Eakle 

Bernewltz. M W. von. Water Supply for Kalgoorlle. . . . 
Biographical Note Editorial . . . . 

Ditto William G. Devereux .... 

Black Sand. Separation of Platinum 

Biast-Furnare. Drying Air for 

Blue Book. Professional Editorial.... 

Bogus Promoters H. F. M. ("rookshanks. . . . 

Bohn, C. A Mexico. Progress in 1907.... 

Bolivia. Burma, and Chile. Recent Mining Wanderings 

In I. H. Curie 

Booms, Psychology of Mining T. R. Archbold. . . 

Ditto Conservador, . . . 

Ditto I. H. Curie 

Ditto Claude Sachs. . . . 

Bore-Hole. Deepest 

Bore-Holes, Deviation of Joseph Kltchln... 


Boss, M. P Crushing Ore.... 

Boston Consolidated Mill 

Bottom Delivery Electric Chnrglng-Car. Atlas 

Boursln, Henry Puddling a Wet Shaft. . . . 

Braun, Electrolytic Assaying 

Brewer. W. M The Copper River District 

Alaska (I, II) 71. 

Brewster. T. J .... Electric Furnace In Zinc Smelting.... 

Bristol Metal Belt Lacing 

Brlttaln, Doss. . . .Mining Costs in the Joplin District .... 

Broken Hill, Flotation Processes at 

Brooks. Alfred H Alaskn .... 

Brown, Joseph Rodney El Oro Tube-Mill Lining.... 

Brush as Fuel In Roasting, Use of. . . .Arthur C. Nahl. . . . 

Bucket Elevator. Novel P. R. Whitman.... 

Bullock, L. N. B Cyanide Practice at Copala 

Bureau, National Mining 16". 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 

Ditto Geo. Otis Smith.... 

Of Mines 

Ditto Editorial .... 

Of Mines, Federal Editorial.... 

State Mining Editorial ... . 

Burma. Chile, and Bolivia, Recent Mining Wanderings 

In I. H. Curie... 

Burning Liquid Fuel Without Steam or Compressed Air. 

Robert Schorr. . . . 

Butte, Montana. Earth Movements at R. II. Chapman. 
Butters Cyanide Plant at San Juanclto, Honduras 

G. L. Guthrie... 

ButterH. Henry A Stock Companies and 

Company Promotion 

By-Laws of the Institution Editorial.... 








:::, 1 
6 1 3 


Rfl I 
5 2 6 





4 93 






Caetani, Gelasio Relation Between the Assay- 
Value of Mill Products and Smelter Contracts 

Cages, Skips and S. A. Worcester. . . . 

Caldecott, W. A Cyanidation of Ore 

Containing Both Coarse and Fine Gold 

Ditto Cyanidation of Silver Ore in Mexico 

(I, ID 426, 

California Charles G. Yale 

Antimony Ore in J. Henry Rickard. . . . 

Minerals Arthur S. Eakle 

Primary Chalcocite in Oscar H. Hershey.... 

The Smelter of the Mammoth Copper Mining Com- 
pany at Kennett Donald F. Campbell. . . . 

Calorimeter, A Simple 

Calumet & Hecla, Two Copper Mines Editorial.... 

Campbell, Donald F A Handy Tramway. . . . 

Ditto Mine Fires 

Ditto The Smelter of the Mammoth Copper 

Mining Company, at Kennett, California 

Canadian Industrial Disputes Act. .. .Frank A. Ross.... 

Canvas Pipes 

Capitalization of Rand Mines. .. .Thomas H. Leggett.... 

Capitalizing Equipment Edward Walker.... 

Car, Atlas Bottom Delivery Electric Charging 

Handy E. McCormick. . . . 

Carat Weight E. J. Vallentine 

Carpenter, Franklin R Mine Fires. . . . 

Carson City, Nevada, A Tertiary River Channel near... 

John A. Reid.... 

Carter, E. E. . Churn-drill as a Means for Prospecting. . . . 

Cassiterite in Alaska 

Cement, Portland 

Central Nevada A. H. Elftman.... 

Chain Links, Strength of 

Chalcocite in California, Primary . .Oscar H. Hershey.... 

Chamberlin, T. C The Fault Problem 

Chance, H. M Mining and Metallurgical 

Society of America 

Channing, J. Parke. . .Copper Smelting in Tennessee.... 
Chapman, R. H. Earth Movements at Butte, Montana.... 

Charging-Car, Atlas Scale 

Chile, Bolivia, and Burma, Recent Mining Wanderings 

in J. H. Curie 

China, Mining Regulations in 

'Chinaman' Ore-Chute 

Chrome-Steel Cone-Head 

Churn-Drill as a Means for Prospecting. E. E. Carter. . . . 

Civilization, A Tribute to Editorial. . . . 

Claims in Mexico, How to Acquire Title to Mining 

Cleaning Mercury 

Cleaveland. Earl C A Curious Accident.... 

Clown and the Hippodrome Editorial. . . . 

Coahuila, Coal in Ezequiel Ordonez.... 

Coal Consumption ■ 

Cutter for Room and Pillar, Shortwall 

In Coahila Ezequiel Ordonez. . . . 

Lands, Leasing the Federal H. Foster Bain.... 

On Pacific Coast 

Cobalt Frank C. Loring. . . . 

Ontario H. B. Smith 

Code, Philippine Mining Editorial.... 

Coeur d'Alene, Labor Conditions in the J. P. K.... 

Milling in the George Huston 

Colbath, James S Iron Screen in Zinc-Boxes. . . . 


Collecting Statistics, Method of.Waldemar Lindgren.... 

College Instructors Walter E. Koch .... 

Ditto Tohn A. Reid 

Collins, Edgar A Cyanidation in Nevada 63, 

Collins, J. II Advice to Mining Students. . . . 

Colorado Forbes Rickard 

Historical Development of T. A. Rickard.... 


Company Promotion Editorial. . . . 

Promotion and Stock Companies 

Henry A. Butters.... 

Comparative Crushing Experiment by Rolls and Ball 


Tests of Shoes and Dies 

Compressor to Water-rower. Adaptation of a Steam - 

Driven Horace G. Nichols 

Comstock, Recent Work on the... Walter D. O'Brien.... 

Concentration Algernon Del Mar.... 

By Flotation 

Concentrator, Behrend 

A Make-Shift 

Concerning Promoters Tom L. Gibson. . . . 

Rawhide Editorial 

Superintendents Alfred Allen 

Ditto C. R. G 

Concrete House, Poured 






















Cone-Head, Chrome Steel 643 

Conical Tube-Mill H. W. Hardinge 223 

Conservative Finance Editorial. . . . 647 

Constitution and By-Laws of Mining and Metallurgical 

Society 603 

Consumption of Power in Mill 286 

Contracts, Relation Between the Assay-Value of Mill 

Products and Smelter Gelasio Caetani.... 25 

Control, Railroad Editorial 786 

Convenient Small Steam Hammer. 855 

Conveyor 416 

Co-operation in Mining and Geology. .. .U. S. Grant.... 333 

Copala, Cyanide Practice at L. N. B. Bullock.... 63 

Copper, Actual Situation of James Douglas.... 7 

Assay E. L. Larison 483 

Ditto E. R. Rice 319 

Belt of the Sierra Nevada, Foothills 

Oscar H. Hershey. . . . 591 

Ditto John A. Reid 388 

Deposits in the Western Foothills of the Sierra 

Nevada William Forstner. . . . 743 

From Cupriferous Waters, Precipitation of 

Frank H. Probert .... 27 

Mines, Analysis of Production of Two Great 160 

Mines, Two Editorial. . . . 141 

Mining Methods, Michigan Lee Fraser.... 847 

The Outlook for Misha E. Appelbaum. . . . 76 

Production 100 

Ditto Editorial 239 

The Production of L. C. Graton 102 

River District, Alaska (I, II) W. M. Brewer 71, 101 

Simultaneously, Refining and Shaping 674 

Smelting in Tennessee J. Parke Channing.... 97 

Core-Drill, New Type 334 

Cornish Pumps of New Design E. P. Jones .... 94 

Ditto Old Timer 592 

Correction Arthur DeW. Foote.... 195 

Corrected C. H. Shaw Pneumatic Tool Co. . . . 322 

Cost of Dredging 525 

Of Mining 518 

Of Sinking 332 

Costs, Cyanide W. A. Moulton 803 

In the Joplin District, Mining Doss Brittain 526 

Timber and Mine Editorial .... 504 

Variations In Mining Algernon Del Mar.... 156 

Ditto J. R. Finlay 22 

Ditto John B. Hastings. . . . 420 

Ditto Tributer 590 

Cripple Creek, Rock Oxidation at Philip Argall 883 

Crookshanks, H. F. M Bogus Promoters. . . . 802 

Crushing, Mechanics of Ore Courtenay De Kalb. . . . 155 

Ore MP. Boss .... 354 

Cuming, Herbert W Gasoline Connections for 

Assay Furnace 697 

Cupellation Losses 488 

Cupriferous Waters. Precipitation of Copper From 

'. Frank H. Probert.... 27 

Curious Accident Earl C. Cleaveland. . . . 387 

Curie. J. H Psychology of Mining Booms.... 8 

Ditto Recent Mining Wandering in 

Burma. Chile, and Bolivia 879 

Customs, Professional Editorial .... 108 

Cyanidation, History of F. Percy Rolfe. ... 93 

In Nevada Edgar A. Collins. ... 63. 257 

Ditto Bertram Hunt.... 256 

Ditto Lochiel M. King.... 123 

Ditto A. G. Kirby 836 

Of Ore Containing Both Coarse and Fine Gold 

W. A. Caldecott. 

Ditto Edwin C. Holden . 

Ditto E. P. Kennedy. 

Ditto George A. Packard. 

Ditto Walter L. Reid. 

Ditto E. A. H. Tays. 

Ditto .las. S. C. Wells. 



Of Silver Ore in Mexico (I. II). W. A. Caldecott ... .426, 594 



Cyanide Correspondence (I. L. Guthrie. 

Costs \V. A. Moulton. 

In Creek 4S2 

. Methods Alfred James. . 

Mill in Mexico. Recent 

Practice at Copala I,. N. B. Bullock.. 

Process. History of Fredk. Darners Power.. 

Sodium E. A. Holbrook., 

Treatment. The Separation of Slime in 

Horace G. Nichols.. 

Cyaniding Mill Pulp After Amalgamation 

Cyril E. Parsons . . 

Cyclone Core-Drill 








Dam Made of Slag Herbert W. Ross.... 224 

De Bavay Process 32S 


Decay of Stone 

Degree of Curve 

De Kalb, Courtenay Diffusion as a Factor 

In Ore Deposition 

Ditto The Mechanics of Ore-Crushing. . . . 

Ditto Mining Law. . . . 

Del Mar, Algernon Concentration .... 

Ditto Drills for Stoping. . . . 

Ditto Mine Accounts for the Superintendent.... 

Ditto Variations in Mining Costs. . . . 

Deposition, Diffusion as a Factor in Ore 

Courtenay De Kalb.... 

Ditto Lewis T. Wright 

Theories of Ore Editorial .... 

Theory of Ore Hiram W. Hixon . . . . 

Ditto J. E. Spurr 261, 

Ditto Horace V. Winchell 

Deposits, Tendencies In the Study of Ore 

Waldemar Llndgren .... 

Unconformity and Otto Ruhl. . . . 

Depth at Goldfleld Arnold Becker. . . . 


Devereux", W. G Biographical Note. . . . 

Deviation of Bore-Holes loseph Kltchln. . . . 

Devious Ways Editorial .... 

Diamond-Drill, Prospecting with the...R. B. Weddle.... 

Difficult Bit of Geology John M. Henton 

Difflusion as a Factor in Ore Deposition 

Courtent y De Kalb. . . . 

Ditto Lewis T. Wright 

Disputes Act, Canadian Industrial. ... Frank A. Ross.... 

Dissue, Resue or S. . . . 

Dividends of Transvaal Mines Editorial. . . . 

Dos Estrellas Mill 

Douglas, James Actual Situation of Copper. . . . 

Drainage of the Comstock Mines. .Walter D. O'Brien.... 

Dredging In New Zealand Jas. W. Nelll. . . . 

Drill Contest on the Rand 

Ditto Mine Manager. . . . 

Ditto L. C. Bayles 


Drills for Stoping Algernon Del Mar. . . . 

Druclcer, A. E Treatment of a Concentrate Slime.... 

Drying Air for Blast- Furnaces 

Dumps. Sampling of Mine Henry S. Munroe. . . . 

Duncan. O. A Submerged Facta and Filters.... 

Durability of Electrical Apparatus 

I 'ynamlte 

Ditto Charles W. Morse 


7 7:: 








Eakle. Arthur S California Minerals 98 

Ditto. .. Recent Volcanic Eruptions in Bering Sea. .. . 353 

Earth Movements iit Butte, Montana. .R. 11. Chapman.... 493 

Earthquake Shocks in New Jersey 234 

Editorial Affairs In San Francisco.... 719 

Ditto Amalgamated Report and Copper Costs.... 823 

Ditto inaconda 141 

Ditto Arrival of the Fleet 610 

Ditto Assisting Graduates.... 49 

Ditto Biographical Note 272 

Dltt< Bureau of Mines 577 

Ditto Il)'-Uwi of the Institution.... 238 

Ditto Calumet & Hecla. ... 141 

Ditto The Clown and the Hippodrome.... 436 

Ditto Company Promotion.... 575 

Ditto Concerning Rawhide. . . . 436 

Ditto Conservative Finance. ... 647 

Ditto Copper Production. ... 239 

Ditto Devious Ways 755 

Ditto. .The Engineer and the Economic Geologist. .. . 542 

Ditto The Falls of Niagara 505 

Ditto Federal Bureau of Mines. ... 79 

Ditto Financial Farce. . . . 336 

Ditto Fundamental Facts. ... 718 

Ditto The Goldfleld Strike.... 140 

Ditto Greatest Gold Mine 682 

Ditto Greeting.... 1 

Ditto \„ Interval 4 

Ditto. Inventions and Patents. . . . 140 

Ditto Thomas W. Lawson.... 305 

Ditto The Lead Market 208 

Ditto Manufacturing Good Times.... 754 

Ditto Metal Markets.... 273 

Ditto Metal Prices. . . .207, 369 

Ditto Mexican Banking 755 

Ditto Mining and Gambling 577 

Ditto Mining and Metallurgical 

Societies (I, II, III) 337. 370. 402 

Ditto Mining Law.... 337 

Ditto Mining Law nt El Oro .... 468 

Ditto Mountain Copper Company Smoke Suit... 336 

Ditto National Mining Bureau ... 208 

Ditto The New Society 

Ditto Ore Stealing 

Ditto Philippine Mining Code. . . . 

Ditto Postal Regulations. . . . 

Ditto Preservation of Natural Resources.... 

Ditto President's Message. . . . 

Ditto Professional Blue Book.... 

Ditto Professional Customs. . . . 

Ditto Prospecting for a Meteorite. . . . 

Ditto Railroad Control 

Ditto Rawhide, Nevada. . . . 

Ditto Reports and Prospectuses. . . . 

Ditto Reports of Mining Companies.... 

Ditto Reform Movement in San Francisco. . . . 

Ditto Retrospect and Prospect. . . . 

Ditto Revival in Gold Mining 

Ditto Revision of Mexican Mining Laws.... 

Ditto Silver Cyanide. . . . 

Ditto Smoke Suits 

Ditto Snares for the Unwary 

Ditto State Mining Bureau. . . . 

Ditto Technical and Other Journals. . . . 

Ditto Technical Education. . . . 

Ditto Theories of Ore Deposition 

Ditto Timber and Mine Costs. . . . 

Ditto A Treasure Island.... 

Ditto A Tribute to Civilization.... 

Ditto Two Copper Mines.... 

Ditto Valuation of Mining Shares 

Ditto White Lead. . . . 

Ditto Work for the Miners' Association.... 

Ditto Yukon Gold 

Ditto Yukon Gold Claims. . 

Education, Mining Thomas T. Read. . . . 

Technical t Editorial. . . . 

Egyptian Excavation 

Electric Furnace In Zinc Smelting. .. .T. J. Brewster.... 


Pump In the Anaconda Mine 

Signal System 

Smelting of Iron Ores 

Smelting of Tin Ore 


Electrical Apparatus. Durability of 

Hoisting A. M. Yonge... 

Electrically. Smelting Zinc J. V. Richards.... 

Thawing Tap-Holes 

Electrolytic Assaying. Braun 

Copper, Production of 

Electro-Magnet for Recovering Drill 

Elevator, A Novel Bucket P. R. Whitman... 

Elevators, Gates 

Elftman. A. H Central Nevada... 

El Oro Tube-Mill Lining Joseph Rodney Brown. . . 

Emerson Vacuum Pumps 


Employees, Accommodations for E. P. Kennedy... 

Engineer and the Economic Geologist Editorial... 

Equipment. Capitalizing Edward Walker. . . 

Ethics. A Matter of Socrates... 

Explosion Heard Afar.. C. H. Wlldman... 









:. 1 :i 

4 85 
4 53 


I 1 '.) 


Falls of Niagara Editorial.... 505 

Fan, Stevens Ventilation 33 i 

Farce. Financial Editorial.... 336 

Farrell, J. K, . .Kansanshie Mine and Mine Sampling.... 528 


Problem T. C. Chamberlln. . . . I 

F.-deral Bureau of Mines Editorial. . . . 

Coal Lands, Leasing the II Foster Bain.... 

Ferris, W. C Snares for the Unwary. .. . 4 

Ferro-Alloys 3 

Ferro- Vanadium I 

Filter. Rldgway Mark It. Lamb.... 7 

Filtering and Straining Machine L. c. Trent.... 2 

Filters and Patents, Sllmc Vs'kin Nicholas.... 1; 

And Patents, Tube-Mill Lining. Slime 

Irtlmr DeW. Foote. . . . 1 

Slime •'. Y. K.... 5 

Submerged Facts and <".. A. Duncan ... . 7 

Finance, Conservative Editorial.,., li 

Financial Farce Editorial.... 3 

System Wrong. Is the Thomas E. Kcpner. . . . '■' 

Flnlay, J. R Variations in Mining Costs.... 

Fire at the Homestake Mine 8 

Fires, Mine Donald F. Cnniphell . . . .• 4 

Ditto Franklin R. Carpenter.... 6 

Ditto Waller 11. Snelllng. ... 4 

Fleet, Arrlcal of the Editorial.... 6 

Flotation Processes :it Broken Mill 4 

Flue Gas Analysis 3 



Foote, Arthur l)c\V Tube-Mill Lining, Slime- 
Filters, and Patents 

Foothill Copper Belt of the Sierra Nevada 

Oscar H. Hershey .... 

Ditto John A. Reid. . . . 

Forest Reserves. Mining Claims on 

Forstner, William Copper Deposits in the 

Western Foothills of the Sierra Nevada 

Fraser, Lee Michigan Copper Mining Methods. . . . 

Freight by Rail, The Shipment of Supplies and 


From Mine to Battleship T. A. Rickard . . . . 

Frozen Ground 

Fuel in Roasting, Use of Brush Arthur C. Nahl.... 

Fuller's Earth 

Fumes from Metallurgical Works 

Fundamental Facts Editorial. . . . 

Furnace in Zinc Smelting, Electric. .. .T. J. Brewster.... 

Gasoline Connections for Assay 

Herbert W. Cuming. . . . 

A Makeshift Roasting Herbert W. Ross. . . . 

Tops, Water- Jacketed Chas. F. Shelby 







Gambling, Mining and Editorial .... 

Garrison, F. Lyn wood. Gold Production and Its Effect. . . . 

Ditto Zinc and Lead Deposits of 

Southwestern Missouri 291, 

Garthwaite, E. H Mining in Rhodesia. . . . 

Gas Engines Run by Gases from Copper Furnaces 

Gasoline Connections for Assay Furnace 

Herbert W. Cuming. . . . 

Gate Valve, Powell 

Gates Elevators 

Gauge, An Improved Water-Level 

Gayford, Ernest Mill Tests. . . . 

Ditto Ore Testing at Salt Lake 

General Electric Apparatus 

Geological Possibilities at Goldfleld. . .Arnold Becker.... 

Geologist, The Engineer and the Economic. Editorial. .. . 

Geology James F. Kemp. . . .497, 

A Difficult Bit of John M. Henton 

Co-operation in Mining and U. S. Grant. . . . 

Gibson, Tom L Concerning Promoters. . . . 

Globe in 1893, Smelting In L. S. Austin.... 

Gold and Silver, Proof John W. Pack. . . . 

And Silver in Thermal Springs 

Cyanidation of Ore Containing Both Coarse and Fine 

Edwin C. Holden .... 

Ditto E. P. Kennedy 

Ditto Geo. A. Packard 

D 't to Walter L. Reid 

Ditto E. A. H. Tays 

Ditto Jas. S. C. Wells 

Gold, Green Frank A. Leach 

Ditto Lochiel M. King. . . . 

Mine, Greatest Editorial 

Mines in Alabama 266, 

Mines, The Great (I, II) T. A. Rickard lo! 

Mining, Revival in Editorial. . . .' 

Ore, Progress in the Treatment of. . .Alfred James. 

Placers of Seward Peninsula 

Production and Its Effect... F. Lyn wood Garrison 

Golden Circle Editorial .... 

Goldfleld, Depth at Arnold Becker 

Geological Possibilities at Arnold Becker.. 

Nevada (I, II, III, IV, V) \ \ ' ' 

T. A. Rickard. .. .559, 664, 738, 774, 

Ores of 

Strike Editorial 

Grant, U. S Co-operation in Mining and Geology. 

Graton, L. C The Production of Copper 

Ditto United Verde Mine. . . . 

Great Gold Mines (I, II) T. A. Rickard 10, 

Zuni Dam 

Greatest Gold Mine Editorial.. 

Green Gold Frank A. Leacli! 

Ditto Lochiel M. King. . 

Greeting T . A. Rickard. . 

Guthrie, G. L Cyanide Correspondence.. 























Hammer, Proske Steam 

Handy Car E. McCormick. 

Roller for Pump-Rod A. Martin. 

Tramway Donald F. Campbell. 

Hang Fire William Maurice. 

Hardinge, H. W A Conical Tube-Mill. 

Ditto Tube-Mill Lining. 

Hardsocg Drill 






Hastings, John B The New Association.... 558 

Ditto Variations in Mining Costs.... 420 

Heat of Fusion of Silver-Lead Blast-Furnace Slag 

L. S. Austin 566 

Henton, John M A Difficult Bit of Geology 94 

Hershey, Oscar H Foothill Copper Belt of the 

Sierra Nevada 591 

Ditto. Mining in Panama. . . . 255 

Ditto Primary Chalcocite in California.... 429 

Historical Development of Colorado. . .T. A. Rickard.... 295 

History of Cyanidation F. Percy Rolfe.... 93 

Of Cyanide Process Fredk. Danvers Powers.... 319 

Hixon, Hiram W A Theory of Ore Deposition. . . . 800 

Hoist, Novel Electric 607 

Hoisting, Electrical A. M. Yonge. . . . 351 

Holbrook, E. A Sodium Cyanide 660 

Holden, Edwin C Cyanidation of Ore 

Containing Both Coarse and Fine Gold 62 

Homestake Mine, Fire at 809 

Honduras, San Juancito, Cyanide Plant at 

G. L. Guthrie 810 

How to Acquire Title to Mining Claims in Mexico 331 

Hubnerite in Montana 265 

Hungary. Nagybanya Edward Skewes .... 66 

Hunt, Bertram Cyanidation in Nevada. . . . 256 

Huntington-Heberlein Process, Treatment of Sulphide 

Ores by the L. S. Austin 641 

Huston, George Milling in the Coeur d'Alene.... 232 


Industrial Disputes Act, Canadian. .. .Frank A. Ross.... 104 

Institution, By-Laws of the Editorial. . . . 238 

Instructors, College Walter E. Koch .... 194 

Ditto John A. Reid 93 

Interesting Telegram 888 

Interval, An Editorial .... 4 

Inventions and Patents Editorial.... 140 

Iron Ores, Electric Smelting of 853 

Screen in Zinc-Boxes James S. Colbath.... 123 

Is the Financial System Wrong. .Thomas E. Kepner.... 320 

James, Alfred Cyanide Methods. . . . 256 

Ditto Progress in the Treatment of Gold Ore. ... 41 

Jeffrey. Shortwall Coal Cutter for Room and Pillar 892 

Joint Pump Connections 679 

Jones, E. P Cornish Pumps of New Design. ... 94 

Joplin District, Mining Costs'in the... Doss Brittain . . . . 526 

Journals, Technical and Other Editorial.... 468 

Kalgoorlie Mines, Life of 

Water Supply for M. W. von Bernewitz. . . . 

Kansanshi Mine and Mine Sampling. . . .J. R. Farrell. . . . 
Kemp, James F Geology. . . .497, 

Ditto Waters, Meteoric and Magmatic. . . . 

Kennedy, E. P Accommodations for Employees.... 

Ditto Cyanidation of Ore Containing Both 

Coarse and Fine Gold 

Kepner, Thomas the Financial System Wrong.... 


King, Lochiel M Cyanidation in Nevada. . . . 

Ditto Green Gold 

Kirby, A. G Cyanidation in Nevada.... 

Kitchin. Joseph Deviation of Bore-Holes.... 

Knox, Newton B Valuation of Mining Shares.... 

Koch, Walter E College Instructors. . . . 

Koppel Egyptian Excavation 



Labor Conditions in the Coeur d'Alene J. P. K. 

Laborers in Reduction Works, Welfare of 

L. S. Austin. 

Lake Superior Ore Dressing Practice. .. .L. S. Austin. 
Lamb, Mark R Mexican Notes (I. II) . . . .7 

Ditto Mill Tests. 

Ditto Ridgway Filter. 

Large Blast 

Larison. E .L Copper Assay. 

Law, Mining Editorial. 

Ditto Courtenay De Kalb. 

Ditto Charles H. Shamel. 

Ditto h. W. Turner. 

Reformation, Mining E. A. H. Tays. 

Revision of Mexican Mining Editorial. 

Lawson. Thomas W Editorial. 








<, >.i 



Leach. Frank A (ireen Gold. 

Ditto Production of Precious Metals. 

Lead Deposits of Southwestern Missouri, Zinc 

F. Lynwood Garrison .... 29 

Market Editorial . . . 

White Editorial . . . 

Leasing the Federal Coal Lands H. Foster Bain. . . 

Leggelt, Thomas H. .. .Capitalization of Rand Mines... 

Ditto Mining Conditions on the Rand. . . 

Life of the Kalgoorlie Mines 

Saving Apparatus W. E. Wingramm. . . 

Lindgren, Waldemar. Method of Collecting Statistics... 

Ditto. .. .Tendencies in the Study of Ore Deposits... 
Lining, El Oro Tube-Mill. .. .Joseph Rodney Brown... 

Slime-Filters, and Patents, Tube-Mill 

Arthur DeW. Foote. . . 

Tube-Mill H. W. Hardinge. . . 

Ditto H. E. West... 

Liquid Fuel, Without Steam or Compressed, Air, Burnin 

Robert Schorr. . . 

Locations, Grouping of 

Locomotive, American Switching 

Longest Railway Tangent 

Lorlng, Frank C Cobalt. . . 

Loss of Quicksilver 


. 195 

1, 32r, 











. 158 
. 418 
. 418 

. 851 
. 222 
. 751 
. 453 
. 96 
. 322 
. 492 

MacFarren, H. W Why Are Engineers Poor?.... 

Magnesium, Volumetric Determination of 

Makeshift Concentrator 

Roasting Furnace Herbert W. Ross.... 


Mammonth Copper Mining Company, at Kennett, Cali- 
fornia. The Smelter of.... Donald F. Campbell.... 

Manufacturing Good Times Editorial. . . . 

Markets, Metal Editorial 

Martin. A A Handy Roller for Pump-Rod 

Mason, F. H Plumas-Eureka Mine 

Ditto A Protest 

Matter of Ethics Socrates.... 

Maurice, William Hang Fire.... 

McCormiek, E A Handy Car 

Mechanics of Ore-Crushing Courtenay De Kalb.... 

Mercury, Cleaning 

Merrill, F. J. II.... The Mineral Resources of Sonora. . . . 

Ditto Surface Enrichment in Sonora. . . . 

Message, The President's Editorial 

Metal Belt Lacing. Bristol 

Markets Editorial 

Prices Editorial 207, 

Metallurgical Works, Fumes from 

Meteoric and Magmatic, Waters James F. Kemp.... 

Ditto T. A. Rlckard 

Meteorite, Prospecting for a Editorial. . . . 

Method of Collecting Statistics. .Waldemar Lindgren.... 

Of Mining 

Ditto C. Everard Arnold 

Methods, Cyrtnide Alfred James. . . . 

Michigan Copper Mining Lee Eraser. . . . 

Mexican Banking Editorial 

Mining Law, Revision of Editorial.... 

Notes (I, II) Mark R. Lamb 702, 

Mexico, Cyanldation nf Silver Ore In (I, III 

W. A. Caldecott 426, 

How to Acquire Title to Mining Claims In 

Progress In 1907 C. A. Bohn 

Recent Cyanide Mill In 

Michigan Copper Mining Methods Lee Eraser .... 

Mill. Boston Consolidated 

The Dos Estrellas 

Tests Ernest Gayford 

Ditto Mark R. Lamb 

Milling In the Coeur d'Alene George Huston. . . . 

Mine Accounts for the Superintendent 

Algernon Del Mar.... 

Costs, Timber and Editorial . . . . 

Dumps. Sampling of Henry S. Munroe. . . 

Eires Donald F. Campbell .... 

Ditto Franklin R. Carpenter.... 

Ditto Walter O. Snelling. . . . 

Greatest Gold Editorial.... 

Sampling, Kansanshle Mine and I. II. Earrell. . . . 

Signal System 

To Battleship, From T. A. Rlckard .... 

United Verde j.. C. Graton 

Miner. Rights of the I. v. Richards.... 

I>'tto Theo. E. Van Wagenen . . . . 

.Mineral Resources of Sonnrn E. J. H. Merrill.... 

Resources of the United States 


Minerals, California Arthur S. Eakle. . . . 





E 9 I 

4 83 




Miners' Association, Work for the Editorial 

Mines, Bureau of 

Ditto Editorial 

Federal Bureau of Editorial 

The Great Gold CI, II) T. A. Rlckard . . . 

Two Copper Editorial 

Mining and Gambling Editorial 

And Geology, Co-operation in U. S. Grant 

And Metallurgical Societies (I, II, III) 

Editorial 337, 

And Metallurgical Society of America 

H. M. Chance 

And Metallurgical Society, Constitution and By-L 

Booms, Psychology of T. R. Archbold 

Ditto J. H. Curie 

Ditto Claude Sachs 

Bureau, National 

Ditto Editorial 

Ditto Geo. Otis Smith 

Bureau, State Editorial 

Claims on Forest Reserves 

Companies, Reports of Editorial 

Conditions on the Rand Thomas H. Leggett 

Costs In the Joplin District Doss Brittaln 

Costs, Variations in Algernon Del .Mai- 
Ditto J. R. Finlay 

Ditto John B. Hastings 

Education Thomas T. Read 

In New Zealand 

In Panama Oscar II. Hershey 

Ditto.- Scott Turner 

In Rhodesia E. H. Garthwalte 

In the Wrangell District, Alaska 

Law Editorial 

Ditto Courtenay De Kalb 

Ditto II. W. Turner 

Ditto Charles H. Shamel 

Law at El Oro Editorial 

Law Reformation E. A. II. Tays 

Method of 

Ditto C. Everard Arnold 

Regulations in China 

Stock, Value of M. I.. Requa 

Misleading Assay Statements Engineer 

Missouri, Zinc and Lead Deposits of Southwestern.. 

E. Lynwood Garrison.... 

Montana. Earth Movements at Butte. R. II. Chapman 



Morse, Charles W Dynamite 

Moss Copper 

Moulton. W. A Cyanide Costs 

Mountain Copper Company Smoke Suit .... Editorial 
Movements at Butte. Montana, Earth. R. H. Chapman. 

Munroe, Henry S Sampling of Mine Dumps 

Mr. Murphy on the New Society 


. 304 

. 103 

. 577 

. 79 






370, 402 


aws 603 




. . 208 
.. 258 
.. 176 
. . 887 
. . 812 
. . 526 
.. 156 
. . 420 


33 7 



91, 325 

. . 4!<:: 

. . t::i 

.. 33 2 

. . 67t; 

. . 360 

. . 803 

. . 336 

. . 493 

. . 711 

. . 701 


Nagybanya, Hungary Edward Skewes. . . . 

Nahl. Arthur C....Use of lirnsh as Fuel in Roasting.... 
National Mining Bureau 165, 

Ditto Editorial 

Ditto Ceo. Otis Smith 

Will. Jas. W Dredging in New Zealand. . . . 

Nevada Charles G. Yale. . . . 

Central A. II. El ft man. . . . 

Cyanldation in Edgar A. Collins. .. .63, 

Ditto Bertram Hunt. . . . 

Ditto Lochlel M. King 

Ditto A. G. Kirby 

Goldfleld (I, II. III. IV, V) 

T. A. Rlckard 559, 604. 738, 774, 

Notes on Rawhide 

Rawhide Editorial. . . . 

Ditto !■:. S. Shanklln 

Round Mountain .George A. Packard .... 

A Tertiary River Channel near Carson City 

lolm A. Reld.... 

New Association lohn B. Hastings.... 

Precipitation Process 

San Francisco T, A. Rlckard. . . . 

Society .' Editorial 

Theodolite, Ainsworth 

Type of Core-Drill 

New Zealand, Dredging in las. \V. Will.... 

Mining in 

Niagara. The Falls of Editorial.... 

Nicholas. Askln Slime-Filters anil Patents.... 

Nichols. Horace fl Adaptation of a Steam- 
Driven Compressor to Water-Power 

Ditto. .Separation of Slinro in Cyanide Treatment.... 
Notes on Rawhide, Nevada 










.",.", s 
5 7 6 
1 3 I 
33 I 



6 62 

4 2 I 


Novel Bucket Elevati 
Electric Hoist . . . 


Whitman. . . . 850 


O'Brien, Walter D. . . .Recent Work on the Comstock. . . . 

O'Hara Pocket Mine 

Oil, Burning "Without Steam or Liquid Air 

Robert Schorr. . . . 

Industry of the United States 

Old Ways 

Ontario, Cobalt H. B. Smith 

Ordonez, Ezequiel Coal in Coahuila. . . . 

Orebodies of Cripple Creek 

Ore-Crushing, The Mechanics of. .Courtenay De Kalb . . . . 

Ore Deposition, Diffusion as a Factor in 

Courtenay De Kalb .... 

Ditto Lewis T. Wright ... . 

Deposition, Theories of Editorial.... 

Deposition, A Theory of Hiram W. Hixon .... 

Ditto J. E. Spun- 261, 

Ditto Horace V. Winchell. . . . 

Deposits, Tendencies in the Study of 

Waldemar Lindgren. . . . 

Dressing, Practice, Lake Superior ... .L. S. Austin.... 


Stealing Editorial. . . . 

Testing at Salt Lake Ernest Gayford. . . . 

Oregon, Quicksilver Mines of 

Origin of Petroleum , 

Outlook for Copper Misha E. Appelbaum . . . . 

Oxidation at Cripple Creek, Rock Philip Argall.... 






Pacific Coast, Coal on 

Pack, John W Proof of Gold and Silver. . . . 

Packard, George A Cyanidation of Ore 

Containing Both Coarse and Kine Gold 

Ditto Round Mountain, Nevada.... 

Palmer, Chas. S Producer-Gas Power. . . . 

Panama, Mining in Oscar H. Hershey. . . . 

Ditto Scott Turner. . . . 

Paper Gaspipes 

Park, Mungo Theory .... 

Parsons, Cyril E Cyaniding Mill Pulp 

After Amalgamation 

Passivity of Gold 

Patents, Inventions and Editorial.... 

Slime-Filters and Askin Nicholas. . . . 

Tube-Mill Lining, Slime-Filters, and 

Arthur DeW. Foote. . . . 

Peat Coke 

Penetration by Air, Rock J. P. K . . . . 

Peroxide in the Chemical Laboratory, Sodium 

Herbert W. Ross and N. M. Zoph .... 

Perry, O. B Yukon Gold.... 

Petroleum at Virgin City, Utah 

Philippine Mining Code Editorial. . . . 


Phosphate Rock 


Photographs of Mines 

Pittsburg, Effect of Panic Editorial .... 

Placers of Seward Peninsula, Gold 


Separation from Black Sand 

Plumas-Fureka Mine F. H. Mason. . . . 

Pocket Mine, O'Hara 


Poor, Why Are Engineers H. W. MacFarren. . . . 

Portland Cement 

Postal Regulations Editorial .... 

Poured Concrete House 

Powell Gate Valve 

Power, Fredk. Danvers History of the 

Cyanide Process 

Power, Producer-Gas Chas. S. Palmer . . . . 

Precious Metals, Production of Frank A. Leach.... 

Precipitation of Copper from Cupriferous Waters 

Frank II. Probert. . . . 

Of Zinc from Solutions ' 

Process, A New 

Room at Portland Mine 

Preservation of Natural Resources Editorial.... 

Of Timber 

President's Message Editorial. . . . 

Prevention of Rusting 

Price of Aluminum 

Prices of Metals Editorial 

Primary Bornite in Colorado 

Chalcolite in California Oscar H. Hershey.... 









53 2 


.", 1 9 

1 5 7 
5 66 
51 S 
4 29 



I.. ■it, Frank il Precipitation of Coppei 

from Cupriferous Waters 

Producer-Gas Power Chas. S. Palmer.... 

Production and Its Effect, Gold.F. Lynwood Garrison.... 


Ditto Editorial. . . . 

Of Copper L. C. Graton .... 

Of Electrolytic Copper 485 

Of Precious Metals Frank A. Leach .... 9 

Of Two Great Copper Mines, Analysis of 160 

Products and Smelter Contracts, Relation Between the 

Assay-Value of Mill Gelasio Caetani .... 25 

Professional Blue Book Editorial .... 209 

Customs Editorial.... 108 

Progress in 1907, Mexico C. A. Bonn. ... 43 

In Southeastern Alaska 133 

In the Treatment of Gold Ore Alfred James. ... 41 

Promoter, Concerning Tom L. Gibson. . . . 451 

Promoters, Bogus H. F. M. Crookshanks. . . . 802 

Promotion, Company Editorial.... 575 

Stock Companies and Company. .Henry A. Butters. . . . 597 

Proof Gold and Silver John W. Pack 324 

Proske Steam Hammer 855 

Prospecting, the Churn-Drill as a Means for 


E. E. Carter . . 

For a Meteorite Editorial. . 

Witli the Diamond-Drill R. B. Weddle. . 

Prospectuses, Reports and Editorial. . 

Protest, A F. H. Mason . . 

Psychology of Mining Booms T. R. Archbold. . 

Ditto Conservador. . 

Ditto J. H. Curie . . 

Ditto Claude Sachs . . 

Puddle 384 

Puddling a Wet Shaft Henry Boursin 127 

Pulp After Amalgamation, Cyaniding Mill 

Cyril E. Parsons. . . . 660 

Pump Connections 679 

In the Anaconda Mine, Electric 368 

Rod, A Handy Roller for A. Martin 660 

Pumping, Westinghouse Direct Air Pressure 819 

Pumps, Emerson Vacuum 400 

Of New Design, Cornish E. P. Jones. ... 94 

Ditto Old Timer.... 592 

Purr Cyanide in Silver Plating 290 

Purington, C. W Valuation of Mining Shares.... 771 

Ores . 

Mines of Oregon 365 



Railroad Accidents 

Control Editorial. . . . 

Manufacturing Good Times Editorial. . . . 

Rand, Drill Contest on the 

Ditto L. C. Bay les .... 

Ditto Mine Manager. . . . 

Mines, Capitalization of Thomas H. Leggett.... 

Mining Conditions on Thomas H. Leggett. . . . 

Tube-Mills on 

Rawhide, Concerning Editorial. . . . 

Nevada Editorial. . . . 

Ditto E. S. Shanklin.... 

Nevada. Notes on 

Read, Thomas T Mining Education. . . . 

Recent Cyanide Mill in Mexico 

Mining Wanderings in Burma, Chile, and Bolivia.... 
J. H. Curie 

Volcanic Eruptions in Bering Sea. Arthur S. Eakle.... 

Work on the Comstock Walter D. O'Brien. . . . 

Refining and Shaping Copper Simultaneously 

Reform Movement in San Francisco Editorial.... 

Reformation, Mining Law E. A. H. Tays. . . . 

Reid, John A College Instructors. . . . 

Ditto. . . Foothill Copper Belt of the Sierra Nevada. . . . 

Ditto A Tertiary River Channel Near Carson 

City. Nevada 

Reid, Walter I Cyanidation of Ore 

Containing Both Coarse and Fine Gold 

Reinforced Concrete Mine-Timbers 

Relation Between tin- Assay-Value of Mill Products and 

Smelter Contracts Gelasio Caetani . . . . 

Replacement Deposits 

Reports and Prospectuses Editorial. . . . 

Of Mining Companies Editorial . . . . 

Requa, M. L Value of Mining Stock. . . . 

Resue or Dissue s . . . . 

Resources of Sonora, The Mineral....!'. J. H. Merrill.... 

Of the United States. Mineral 

Preservation of Natural Editorial . . . . 

1 86 







3 29 


6 S3 



Retrospect and Prospect . . . . Editorial .... 5 

Revival in Gold Mining Editorial. ... 272 

Revision of Mexican Mining Law Editorial .... 822 

Rhodesia. Mining in E. H. Garthwaite 352 

Rice. E. R Copper Assay 319 

Richards, J. V Rights of the Miner. ... 875 

Ditto Smelting Zinc Electrically. ... 519 

Richmond. Mine Signal System 10 6 

Rickard, Forbes Colorado .... 65 

Rickard. J. Henry Antimony Ore in California.... 558 

Rickard. T. A From Mine to Battleship.... 622 

Ditto Goldfield, Nevada 

(I. II. Ill, IV, V) 559. 661, 738, 774, 810 

Ditto The Great Gold Mines (I. II) 10, 161 

Ditto Greeting 1 

Ditto Historical Development of Colorado. . . . 295 

Ditto The New San Francisco. . . . 554 

Ditto Waters. Meteoric and Magmatic. . . . 872 

Ridgway Filter Mark R. Lamb 769 

Rights of the Miner J. V. Richards 875 

Ditto Theo. F. Van Wagenen .... 669 

River Channel Near Carson City, A Tertiary 

John A. Reld 522 

Rix. Edward A.. Simple Problems in Atr-Compresslon . . . . 394 

Roadwork for Assessment Work 286 

Roasting Furnace, A Makeshift .... Herbert W. Ross.... 527 

Use of Brush as Fuel in Arthur C. Nahl. ... 123 

Rock Oxidation at Cripple Creek Philip Argall 883 

Penetration by Air J. p. K. . . . 520 

Rolfe, F. Percy History of Cyanidatlon. ... 93 

Roller for Pump- Rod. A Handy A. .Martin. . . . 660 

Rolls and Ball Mill, Comparative Crushing Experiments. 572 

Ross. Frank A Canadian Industrial Disputes Act 104 

Ross, G. McM Separation of Slime 697 

Ditto Whiskey-Water Barrel 767 

Ross, Herbert W Dam Made of Slag. . . . 221 

Ditto A Makeshift Roasting Furnace.... 527 

Ditto Sodium Peroxide In the 

Chemical Laboratory 266 

Round Mountain, Nevada George A. Packard. . . . 807 

Ruhl, Otto Unconformity and Deposits. . . . 778 

Rules for Employees at Goldfield 298 

Rusting. Prevention of 704 


Sachs. Claude Psychology of Mining Booms. . . . 156 

Salt Lake, Ore Testing at Kin est Gay ford. ... 134 

Sampling, Kansanshl Mine and Mine.... J. R. Farrell.... 528 

Of Mine Dumps Henry S Munroe. ... 711 

San Francisco, Affairs In Editorial .... 719 

• Reform Movement in Editorial.... 858 

The New T. A. Rickard 554 

Scale Charglng-Car. Atlas 174 

Schorr, Robert Burning Liquid Fuel Without 

Steam or Compressed Air 851 

Schutx Separator 236 

Screen In Zinc-Boxes. Iron lames S. Col bath. ... 123 

Seger Cones 637 

Separation of Slime <;. McM. Ross. . . . 69 7 

Of Slime In Cyanide Treatment. Horace <; Nichols. . . . 563 

Seward Peninsula. Gold Placers of 677 

Shaft. Puddling a Wet Henry Boursln. . . . 127 

Shamel, Charles H Mining Law. . . 696 

Shanklin. E. S Rawhide. Nevada .... 557 

Shares. Valuation of Mining Editorial.... 751 

Ditto Newton R. Knox.... 733 

Ditto C. W. I'urlngton 771 

Shelby, Chas. F Water-Jacketed Furnace Tops.... 322 

Shipley. Grant B Suspended Iron Frame Vanner. . . . 399 

Shipment of Supplies and Freight by Rail 1 :!.■>, 

Shortwall Coal Cutter for Room and Pillar 892 

Shovel for Electrical Operation. Thew 236 

Siberia. Winter Phcnomen-. In H. K. West.... IS.! 

Sierra Nevada, Copper Deposits in the Western Foothills 

of William Forstner.... 713 

Nevada. Foothill Copper Belt of the 

Oscar II. Hershey. . . . 

Ditto John A. Reld... 

Signal System. Electric 

System. Mine 

Sliver Cyanide Editorial 

Lead Veins , 

Ore In Mexico. Cyanidatlon of (I. II) 

W. A. Caldecott. . . . 126. 594 

Proof Gold and John W. Pack. . . . :::'l 

Sulphides 711 

Simple Problems In Alr-Compresslon . Edward A. Rlx... n *« » 

Situation of Copper, Actual James Douglas.... 7 

Skewes, Edward Nagybanya. Hungary 66 

Skips and Cages S. A. Worcester. ... 186 

Slag, Dam Made of Herbert W. Ross. . . . 221 



Heat of Fusion of Silver-Lead Blast-Furnace 

L. S. Austin 

Slime Filters C. Y. K 

Filters and Patents Askin Nicholas. . . . 

Filters and Patents, Tube-Mill Lining 

Arthur DeW. Foote. . . . 

In Cyanide Treatment, Separation of 

Horace G. Nichols .... 

Separation of G. McM. Ross. . . . 

Treatment of Concentrate A. E. Drucker. . . . 

Smelter Contracts, Relation Between the Assay-Value of 

Mill Products and Gelasio Caetani. . . . 

Of the Mammoth Copper Mining Company at Kennett, 

California Donald F. Campbell. . . . 

Smelting in Globe in 1893 L. S. Austin. . . . 

Electric Furnace in Zinc T. J. Brewster. . . . 






Of Iron Ores, Electric 853 

Zinc Electrically J. V. Richards. . . . 519 

Smith, Geo. Otis National Mining Bureau.... 258 

Smith, H. B Cobalt, Ontario 876 

Smoke Suits Editorial.... 49 

Snares for the Unwary Editorial. . . . 304 

Ditto W. C. Ferris 417 

Snelling. Walter O Mine Fires. ... 431 

Societies, Mining and Metallurgical (I. II, III) 

Editorial 337, 370, 402 

Society of America. The Mining and Metallurgical 

H. M. Chance 698 

Mining and Metallurgical. Constitution and By-Laws. 603 

Mr. Murphy on the New 701 

The New Editorial. . . . 576 

Sodium Cyanide E. A. Holbrook.... 660 

Peroxide In the Chemical Laboratory 

Herbert W. Ross and N. M. Zoph. . . . 266 

Soldering Iron. Use of W. H. Washburn. ... 453 

Sonora. The Mineral Resources of. . . . F. J. IT. Merrill. ... 33 

Surface Enrichment in F. J. H. Merrill 802 

Spokane. Tin Ore at 536 

Spurr, J. E A Theory of Ore Deposition. . . .261, 662 

Standard Oil Company, Government Report, Oil Industry 

of the United States 202 

Standardization of Bullion and Assay Values 878 

State Mining Bureau Editorial.... 176 

Statistics. Method of Collecting. .Waldemar Llndgren . . . . 11 

Steam-Driven Compressor Adapted to Water Power 230 

1 lammer 855 

Steel Shot 222 

Stevens Ventilation Fan 334 

Stock Companies and Company Promotion 

Henry A. Butters. . . . 597 

Value of Mining Investor... 699 

Ditto ML. Requa. ... 329 

Slope Drill Competition 527 

Sloping, Drills for Algernon Del Mar.... 169 

Strength of Chain Links 781 

Strike. Goldfield Editorial 140 

Students. Advice to Mining J. II. Collins.... 638 

Submerged Facts and Filters G. A. Duncan.... 769 

Suffloni, I'm- of 397 

Suggestion Musher . . . .96, 321 

I il t to W. P. R . . . . 195 

Sulphide (ires by the lluntlngton-Heberleln Process, 

Treatment of L. S. Austin.... 611 

Superintendent. Mine Accounts for the 

Algernon Del Mar.... 154 

Superintendents, Concerning Alfred Allen ... . 229 

Surface Enrichment In Sonora !•'. J. H. Merrill.... 802 

Holes 222 

Surveying It 

Suspended Iron Frame Vanner 

Swedish Nickel Ores 

.Grant B. Shlple 

. 399 
. 365 
Switching Locomotive. American 751 

Tantallte In Australia 300 

Tantalum 731 

Tap-Holes. Thawing Elect rleally 668 

Tays, K. A. II Cyan Illation of Ore 

Cunt. lining Both Coarse and Kinc Cold 02 

I 'It to Mining Law Reformation. .. . ::.'. I 

Technical and Other Journals Editorial .... 168 

Education Editorial 787 

Writing A. W. Warwick 2S7 

Telegram. An Interesting SSS 

Tellurldes, Volatilization Loss 230 

Tellurium (vs. 659 

Tendencies In the Study of Ore Deposits 

Waldemar Llndgren . . . . 567 

Tennessee. c,,|,|,er Smelting In I. I 'ark.- Channlng. . . . 9 7 

Tertiary River channel Near Carson City. Nevada 

lohn A. Iteiii.... 522 

Testing al Salt Lake, Ore Kin est (Jay ford. . . . I :: I 

Tests, Mill Ernest Gayford.... 6(',| 



Thawing Tap-Holes Electrically 668 

Theodolite, Ainsworth 434 

Theories of Ore Deposition Editorial .... 370 

Theory Mungo Park.... 661 

Of Ore Deposition Hiram W. Hixon .... 800 

Ditto J. E. Spurr 261, 662 

Ditto Horace V. Winchell 385 

Thermal Springs, Gold and Silver in 562 

Thew Shovel for Electrical Operation 236 

Timber and Mine Costs Editorial. . . . 504 

Tin in Idaho 253 

Ore at Spokane 536 

Ore, Electric Smelting of 853 

Title to Mining Claims in Mexico, How to Acquire 331 

Tramway, A Handy Donald F. Campbell. . . . 675 

Transvaal Mines, Dividends of Editorial. . . . 238 

Treasure Island Editorial.... 469 

Treatment of a Concentrate-Slime. .. .A. E. Drucker.... 458 

Of Gold Ore, Progress in the Alfred James. ... 41 

Of Sulphide Ores by the Huntington-Heberlein Process 

L. S. Austin 641 

Trent Filtering and Straining Machine 269 

Tribute to Civilization Editorial.... 48 

Tube-Mill, Conical H. W. Hardinge 223 

Mill Lining H. W. Hardinge 418 

Ditto H. E. West 418 

Mill Lining, El Oro Joseph Rodney Brown. . . . 289 

Mill Lining, Slime-Filters, and Patents 

Arthur DeW. Foote 158 

Mills on the Rand 26 

Tungsten Lamps in Michigan 265 

Tunnel Records, Alpine and American 781 

Turner, H. W Mining Law. ... 452 

Turner, Scott Mining in Panama. . . . 130 

Two Copper Mines Editorial. . . . 141 


Unconformity and Deposits Otto Ruhl. . . . 778 

United States Geological Survey 425 

Mineral Resources of the 138 

Oil Industry of the, Government Report of the Stand- 
ard Oil Company 202 

United Verde Mine L. C. Graton . . . . 171 

Unwatering of 'Deep Lead' Mines 432 

Use of Brush as Fuel in Roasting. . . .Arthur C. Nahl. . . . 123 

Of Soldering Iron W. H. Washburn .... 452 

Uses of Ground Mica 300 

Vacuum Pumps for Dirty Water 

Vallentine, E. J The Carat Weight 

Valuation of Mining Shares Editorial. . . . 

Ditto Newton B. Knox .... 

Ditto C. W. Purington .... 

Value of Mining Stock Investor.... 

Ditto M. L. Requa .... 

Vanadium 641, 

Vanner, Suspended Iron Frame Grant B. Shipley. . . . 

Van Wagenen, Theo. F The Rights of the Miner. . . . 

Ditto Algernon Del Mar. . . . 

Ditto J. R. Finlay .... 

Variations in Mining Costs John B. Hastings. . . . 

Ditto Tributer. . . . 

Ventilation With a Fan 





Volcanic Eruptions In Bering Sea, Recent 

Arthur S. Eakle 353 

Volumetric Determination of Magnesium 571 

Von Bernwitz, M. W Water Supply for Kalgoorlie. . . . 709 

Vulcan Electric Hoist 607 


Wagner Water-Still 

Walker, Edward Capitalizing Equipment.... 

Warwick, A. W Technical Writing 

Washburn, W. H Use of Soldering Iron 

Water-Jacketed Furnace Tops Chas. F. Shelby 

Level Gauge, An Improved 

Power, Adaptation of a Steam-Driven Compressor to 
Horace G. Nichols. . . . 

Proofing for Canvas 

Supply for Kalgoorlie M. W. von Bernewitz. . . . 

Still, Wagner 

Waters, Meteoric and Magmatic James F. Kemp.... 

Ditto T. A. Rlckard 

Weight, The Carat E. J. Vallentine 

Weddle, R. B. . . .Prospecting with the Diamond-Drill. . . . 

Welfare of Laborers in Reduction Works 

L. S. Austin . . 

Wells, Jas. S. C .' Cyanidatlon of Ore 

Containing Both Coarse and Fine Gold 

West, H. E Tube-Mill Lining 

Ditto Winter Phenomena in Siberia 

Westinghouse Direct Air-Pressure Pumping 

Wet Shaft, Puddling a Henry Boursin 

Whiskey-Water Barrel G. McM. Ross 

White Lead Editorial 

Whitman, P. R Novel Bucket Elevator.... 

Why Are Engineers Poor? H. W. MacFarren. . . . 

Wildman, C. H Explosion Heard Afar.... 

Winchell, Horace V A Theory of Ore Deposition. . . . 

Winding by Electricity 

Wingramm, W. E Life Saving Apparatus 

Winter Phenomena in Siberia H. E. West.... 

Wood Drill Works at Zuni Dam 

Worcester, S. A Skips and Cages. . . . 

Work for the Miners' Association Editorial. . . . 

Wrangell District, Alaska, Mining in the 

Wright, Lewis T Diffusion as a 

Factor in Ore Deposition 

Tale, Charles G California. 

Ditto Editorial . 

Ditto Nevada. 

Yonge, A. M Electrical Hoisting. 

Yukon Gold Editorial. 

Ditto O. B. Perry. 

Gold Claims ...Editorial. 

Gold, The Clown and the Hippidrome. . .Editorial. 



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. 489 






Zinc and Lead Deposits of Southwestern Missouri 

F. Lynwood Garrison. . . .291. 325 

Boxes, Iron Screen in James S. Colbath. . . . 123 

Electrically. Smelting J. V. Richards 519 

Smelting, Electric Furnace in T. J. Brewster.... 801 

Zoph, N. M Sodium Peroxide in the 

Chemical Laboratory 266 

Zuni Dam 502 

Whole No. 2476. TiKr 5 .™ 

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Editorial : Page. 

Greeting T. A. Richard 1 

Notes 2 

Reports of Mining Companies 3 

An Interval 4 

Retrospect and Prospect 5 

Articles : 

The Actual Situation of Copper hunt* Douglas 7 

Psychology of Mining Booms I. H. Curie 8 

Production of Precious Metals Frank A. Leach 9 

The Great Gold Mines T. A. Richard 10 

Method of Collecting Statistics.. WaUh mar Lindgren 14 

California Charles O. Yale 14 

Nevada Charles Q. Yale 18 

Alaska Mfr.d If. Hrooks 20 

Variations in Mining Costs ./. R. Finlay 22 

Relation Between the Assay-Value of Mill Products 

and Smelter Contracts Qtlasio Caetani 2.~> 

Tube-Mills on the Rand 26 

Precipitation of Copper From Cupriferous Waters... 

Frank II. Probert 27 

The .Smelter of the Mammoth Copper Mining Com- 
pany Donald F.Campbell 30 

The Mineral Resources of Sonora F. ./. //. Merrill 33 

Progress in the Treatment of Gold Ore 

il/red James 41 

Mexico. Progress in 1907 C. A. Halm 48 

Dtpartments : 

Market Reports 6 

Personal 6 


rVNCE A YEAR it is pleasant to drop the thin 
^-^ anonymity of the nebulous 'We' and assume the 
intimately personal tone of the singular pronoun. I 
confess to a belief in a journalism that can be human as 
well as technical, that can be vital as well as scientific 
and, to speak frankly, I have no liking for periodical 
literature when its sole purpose is to serve as a lure for 
advertising. Something more than paper and printer's 
ink are needed. Character counts, for good or ill, in the 
making of a technical journal as in any other form of 
human endeavor. The Mining and Scientific Press 
has lived for 47 years because it has received the momen- 
tum given to it by dynamic men, by Alfred T. Dewey, 
Charles G. Yale, Alfred Hotmail, and J. F. Halloran in 
the past, and more recently by a group of men, some of 
whose names appear in the adjacent column. The inven- 
tions of Mergenthaler and Lanston have done wonders 
for the rapid multiplication of the written word, but all 
the automatic devices of mechanical genius cannot elimi- 
nate the value of the |>ersonaI equation. It is the men 
behind the pulp that make the press, whether it be a 
yellow newspaper or a scientific review. And in no 
branch of periodical literature is this so evident as in that 
which mirrors the thoughts and deeds of the engineer. 
For the engineer is very much of a man, he is the least 
emasculated of the products of an advanced educational 
program and he vibrates to all the wireless pulses of his 
time and place. The discussion of civic duties and of 
professional ethics is as much the province of a technical 
journal as is the consideration of the l>est method of 
stoping or the cheapest way to erect a stamp-mill. Man 
does not live by bread alone. The training of clever 
men without any civic spirit, the development of young 
engineers adapted to winning big salaries, the digging 
of gold to make men rich — these are not the only pur- 
poses either of the universities or of those more instant 
mediums of instruction that take the form of newspapers. 
Such at least has lx."en the idea underlying much of the 
matter that has appeared in these pages during 1907, and 
I speak, of course, not for myself alone but for a number 
of contributors. The columns of this journal have been 
honored during the past twelve months by the writing 
of such educators — usin^ the word in its widest sense — 
as Rossiter W. Raymond, S. F. Emmons, .lames F. 
Kemp, James Douglas, and Courtenay De Kail). In the 
furtherance of the application of geology to luiniiifj:, of 
chemistry to metallurgy, and of good sense to both, 
there have appeared articles by James \V. Abbott, L. 
S. Austin, Philip Argall, O. F. Beardsley, F. L. Hosqui, 
C. B. Brodigan, F. W. Bradley, Bus-. E. Browne, 
Charles Butters, YV. R. Crane, J. II. Curie, Edgar Col- 
lins, J. R. Finlay, William Forstner, E. M. Hamilton, 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

F. Lynwood Garrison, Hiram W. Hixon, Ernest A. Her- 
sam, Alfred James, Carlos W. Van Law, Thos. H. Leg- 
gett, Walter McDermott, Ben B. Lawrence, W. J. Loring, 
Waldemar Lindgren, James W. Neill, A. R. Parsons, 
John A. Reid, Thomas T. Read, H. W. Turner, and 
H. V. Winchell — in fact, a list of names that if given in 
full would read like a directory of the profession. If the 
Mining and Scientific Press has made progress in 
1907 — and I am proud to know that it has — the result is 
due to the generous support of a number of men possessed 
of a noble generosity, namely, the willingness to give, 
from the treasury of experience, the information and 
advice that money does not buy. Gentlemen, I thank 
you. 1907 closed amid a financial stringency no less 
astringent to this journalistic enterprise than to any 
other commercial undertaking, but the new year brings 
the assurance of progressive improvement and enlarged 
usefulness. It is my purpose to make this paper the 
spokesman for the profession of mining engineering; our 
columns are open to the free discussion of topics pertain- 
ing to the life and work of the engineer, the geologist, 
and the chemist, all of whom contribute their part to the 
development of the mining industry ; it will be my 
pleasure to give publicity to opinions contrary to my 
own, always provided that they are expressed in good 
faith ; it will be my aim to avoid taking sides in indus- 
trial quarrels, believing that a paper such as this should 
be just rather than partisan ; in fine, it is my hope to 
develop the Mining and Scientific Press along the 
lines of an unattainable ideal — a paper useful to many 
and injurious to none. 

January 1, 1908. 

T. A. Rickard. 

\VfE TAKE PLEASURE in announcing that Mr. 
» ▼ Edward Walker is now our representative at 
London. His office will be in Salisbury House, which is 
the headquarters of many members of the mining pro- 
fession. We invite our English readers to keep in per- 
sonal touch with Mr. Walker, who will be glad to receive 
suggestions likely to make this journal increasingly inter- 
esting and useful to all those engaged in metal mining. 

IN A POSTSCRIPT appended to our last issue, we 
* notified our prospector friends that the bill for remit- 
ting the assessment work due on mining claims had not 
passed the Congress of the United States. It was 
approved by the Senate, but failed to reach the House of 
Representatives before adjournment for the holidays. It 
is stated that the Commissioner of the Land Office is 
opposed to the bill, and it is doubtful whether it will be 
passed when the Congress meets again during January. 
This failure to remove the obligation to perform $100 
worth of work on each location will go hard on mining 
companies controlling a large number of claims on which 
stock has been issued and financial operations have been 
based, but it will hurt very few genuine prospectors. 

\\7 E LEARN from a friend that at Manhattan, 

▼ ▼ Nevada, they read only Debs' Appeal to Reason 

and the San Francisco Examiner. Note the association. 

Do they give club rates for these two highly intellectual, 
refined, patriotic, and noble examples of modern liter- 
ature? We are reminded of the fact that at a Denver 
meeting of sympathisers with Haywood, Moyer, and 
Pettibone, Mr. Eugene V. Debs was introduced by 
the chairman thus: " I, who expect to be in jail, intro- 
duce to you a man who has been in jail, who will speak 
to you in behalf of a man who is now in jail." This 
introduction needs editing; it ought to read: " I, who 
expect to be in jail introduce to you, who ought to be in 
jail, a man, etc." To return to Manhattan, if Debs and 
Hearst are the literary purveyors to that mining camp, 
we do not wonder that its boom has busted. The people 
of Manhattan had better improve their reading by get- 
ting Kemp on 'Ore Deposits' and Richards on 'Ore 

AMONG THE ARTICLES in this issue is one by 
Mr. Alfred James. This cyanide specialist is in 
the habit at the end of each year of sending a circular 
letter to his brother practitioners and in his Epistle to 
the Cyaniders he summarizes the progress of the art that 
is symbolized by KCy. It is fair to say that these obiter 
dicta of Mr. James have a special value in that they are 
the expression of his personal opinion. For instance, his 
remarks concerning filter-pressing devices should not be 
deemed offensive by the inventors or owners of other 
machines of the same type, for Mr. James is interested 
in the manufacture of the Ridgway filter and is pardon- 
ably partial to this clever invention. For the rest, any- 
thing written by so well informed an authority is sure to 
be interesting to our readers, for he has two qualities 
essential to useful writing — knowledge and sincerity. 

NOTHING could be more timely than the article on 
mining booms by Mr. J. H. Curie, for we happen 
just now to be at the end of one period of excessive specula- 
tion and in a mood to listen to the moralist. Mr. Curie's 
contribution is characteristic; in the first place, it was 
posted at Colombo, in Ceylon, when the writer was on his 
way to Burma, and thus illustrates the nomadic activity 
that has made him so well informed- concerning mining 
all over the world; secondly, it is written with the frank 
fearlessness that makes all his writings so effective. He 
is sometimes wrong, but never insincere; he is sometimes 
injudicious (in the eyes of a critic less friendly than the 
Mining and Scientific Press), but he is never the cats- 
paw of a capitalist. There are not many men that can 
afford to be so independent of speech and so outspoken in 
criticism. Mr. Curie has followed his own advice in min- 
ing matters and has made money. This gives force to 
what he has to say and makes it less necessary for him to 
modify his remarks to suit the purposes of high finance 
and low promotion. Naturally, it is a pleasure to publish 
such an article as 'Psychology of Mining Booms' in our 
columns, for we are in accord with the tenor of his preach- 
ment. That booms are hurtful to legitimate mining, that 
mining is a speculation and not an investment, that direct- 
ors ought to be trustees, that titled figureheads (whether 
a governor of Nevada or an Earl of Chesterfield) are mere 
lures to a deluded public, that mining engineers should 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


not gamble in mining shares — these are 
truths the recognition of which it is our 
force. Mining is an industry based upon 
of science, which is in itself only highly 
noon sense; science is based on facts and 
soning from facts; make-believe has no 
and therefore none in mining. 

all unpalatable 
province to en- 
the application 
organized com- 
on correct rea- 
plaee in science 

CHRISTMAS is always celebrated in a pleasant way 
by the managers and men of the North Star mine, 
at Grass Valley, California. It is the custom for the 
company to give to each employee a gold coin, either a 
$5 or a $10 piece, fresh from the San Francisco mint. 
Mr. A. D. Foote, the manager, makes a pleasant speech, 
thanking the men for their co-operation and expressing 
the good wishes suited to the occasion. This is followed 
by refreshments, served in a prettily decorated room. 
Carols and speeches then ensue, and the general effect is 
to promote goodwill all round. Such was the case last 
week and we hope that it may hap|>en with unbroken 
regularity for a hundred years to come. 

NO ENDORSEMENT of the article by Mr. J. R. 
Finlay is needed; both the subject and the writer 
will commend themselves to practical men. Assuredly 
the comparative table of working costs, the preparation 
of which must have involved a great deal of work, will 
prove most suggestive to those in charge of mines. The 
inferences made by Mr. Finlay are open to discussion 
and we shall be glad to publish the views of other engi- 
neers on this vital subject. It is quite certain that the 
fundamental truths dug out of such statistical data are 
highly educating, in that they lead us to appreciate the 
factors dominating the financial success of mining opera- 
tions. Mr. Finlay's experience in the copper and iron 
regions, followed by contact with actualities in Colorado 
and Idaho, gives him a strong grasp of the essential 
problems faced by the mine operator, and other engineers 
can pay him no better compliment than to discuss the 
points that he has elucidated. 

rvi*RIX(J l'.K)7 the affairs of the American Smelting A 
■^ Refining Company passed through a crisis from 
which they have, we hope and believe, been successfully 
extricated. Hut those controlling this imi>ortaut indus- 
trial enterprise have made one blunder, the mention of 
which is timely. We do not refer to the fact that the 
Guggenheims have bitten off financially rather more than 
even this clever family is able comfortably to assimilate, 
nor do we refer to the stock gambling operations in 
which they have become, from time to time, involved; 
we refer particularly to the blunder, curious in a race 
marked by business sagacity, of trying to combine the 
executive and financial management with technical 
work. To speak plainly — and it is the only way worth 
anything — the Guggenheims are ambitious of lx-ing as 
expert in mining and metallurgy as they are skilled in 
the financial operations incident to the industry in which 
they have become so potent a factor; they want to be 
mining engineers and smelters, as well as financiers, as 
if to say: "We pay enormous salaries to these profes- 

sional men; why should not we, or our sons, acquire the 
requisite technical training and so become independent 
of expert advice from outside the family." At least, 
this is how it looks to those at a distance, to whom the 
doings of the smelter people are at least as interesting as 
the performances of the Shah of Persia or the Russian 

Reports of Mining Companies. 

THE beginning of another year renders it opportune 
to review the sources from which the world derives 
the gold that is both the standard of value and the great 
lubricant of commerce. Such a review will be found 
elsewhere in this issue. Any attempt to compile a trust- 
worthy tabulation of the yield of individual mines in 
widely scattered regions develops the fact that the infor- 
mation so interesting to the public and so necessary to 
shareholders is furnished in a fashion as varied as the 
climates and clothes characterizing the localities in which 
gold mining obtains. In the premier goldfleld of the 
modern world — the Transvaal— the Chamber of Mines 
obtains details of production from each operating com- 
pany and publishes the information at the close of every 
month, so that exact data are available. But the peri- 
odical reports furnished by the South African companies 
are severely restricted to a statement of facts accom- 
plished, there is rarely any account of developments 
underground and it is only at the annual meetings, as a 
rule, that shareholders learn much regarding future 
prospects. In consequence, while the financial houses 
controlling grou|>s of mines are kept informed concerning 
the fluctuating value of the mining speculation that is 
represented by each mine, the small shareholder is in the 
dark and takes the chances of a blind pool dominated by 
clever financiers. At one time it was supposed that the 
mines of the Rand were fixed investments superior to 
the ordinary vagaries of gold veins and therefore there 
could be nothing particular to tell the shareholders save 
the chronicles of production. But this is a fallacy that 
has been exploded long ago and the iridescent films of 
the bubble He scattered all over Throgmorton Avenue. 
The disillusionment is one of the reasons why the share 
market in South Africans is depressed, for, apart from 
the interminable labor troubles, the ordinary share- 
holder never knows when the quotation on his stock 
may drop suddenly, to learn subsequently that an unex- 
pected change in the grade of the ore in one part of the 
mine, or an error in former estimates, or a structural 
disturbance due to a dike, lias lessened the value of his 
mine and greatly diminished its earning capacity. Such 
untoward episodes are infrequent, but the unpleasantness 
of them is intensified by the absence of a frank statement, 
at regular intervals, concerning the developments affect- 
ing the life of the mine. Thus the typical South African 
company gives beautiful monthly and quarterly statis- 
tics anil considers that enough. On the other hand, 
many American mines publish annual or semi-annual 
reports and, for the rest, they tell the minority share- 
holder that he has no particular reason for existing. 
Naturally, annual reports are not of much use to the 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

holders of stock in an investment so speculative as a 
mine, the value of which fluctuates weekly more than the 
amount of the dividend. Here also the shareholder, 
being in the dark, becomes a gambler against his will, 
for the uncertainties are needlessly multiplied. Finally, 
there are groups of mines controlled by financial houses 
and engineering firms that really act as trustees for the 
shareholders, whether large holders or small ones, and 
furnish all the information compatible with businesslike 
methods. The Indian mines managed by John Taylor 
& Sons, the Western Australian group directed by 
Bewick, Moreing & Co., and the Mexican companies 
controlled by the Exploration Company, are excellent 
examples of the better tendencies of modern mine man- 
agement. Monthly reports of output, cost, and profit 
are given promptly, by cablegram, and these are followed 
by a detailed description of the developments under- 
ground, the nature of new discoveries, and the prospects 
at each level. Then, at the end of the year, a complete 
review of progress is given to the shareholders, together 
with an analysis of the work done and a fresh estimate 
of the ore reserves, accompanied usually by a luminous 
speech by a chairman of the type of Edgar Taylor or R. 
T. Bayliss, who is no figure-head, but a financial-mining 
authority of wide experience. Such proceedings give 
dignity to the business of mining and emphasize the 
proper status of the industry. 

Another factor rendering comparisons occasionally 
unfair is due to methods of accounting. In the case of 
some West Australian mines, it is found that a lordly 
profit wilts away when ' depreciation ' and ' develop- 
ment ' are deducted. In such instances the ' gross profit ' 
is magnified by treating 'depreciation of plant and 
machinery' as no part of the mining expense; even 
' shaft sinking and development work ' are put down as 
extras, instead of being vital necessities— as vital to a 
mine as ploughing to a farm. Machinery is debited to 
capital account as if it were everlasting and in blind dis- 
regard of the fact that when once the mine is worked out, 
the machinery is just so much scrap. But in these 
respects the business of mining has improved immensely; 
we have traveled far since the days when a false air of 
prosperity was given to a mining enterprise by treating 
timbers underground as capital invested; by considering 
machinery, even drills and other appliances subject to 
excessive wear and frequent repair, as fixed property; by 
regarding cross-cuts, nay, even a working level, as an 
item of development that bore no relation to current 
expense; and so forth. The one paramount item in a 
mining operation is the profit, which is ascertained by 
subtracting costs from receipts, and costs means every- 
thing expended in the complex operations of finding, 
breaking, extracting, and refining the metal. 

Direct comparisons between mines are rendered diffi- 
cult by the fact that the fiscal years of the companies 
controlling them end on different dates, although the 
majority issue statements for the calendar year ending on 
December .Jl. Other dates for closing the accounts are 
due often to the fact that the annual reports start from 
the birthday of the enterprise. Moreover the prompti- 

tude with which annual statements are given to the 
shareholders varies widely, from a few weeks after the 
fiscal year terminates to nearly twelve months later. 
Another obstacle to accurate comparisons arises from the 
different units of weight and value employed by English 
and American mining companies. You may wade 
through a statement of accounts and make your deduc- 
tions, only to trip over the fact that some of the items 
are in terms of Mexican currency, while others are in 
American dollars. Some companies use long tons of 
2240 pounds, others the metric ton of 2204.6 pounds, 
instead of the standard short ton of 2000 pounds. The 
student of statistics rises up and calls the Institution of 
Mining and Metallurgy blessed, for has it not done much 
to remedy this state of chaos ! 

No one can delve into an accumulation of annual 
reports issued by mining companies without remarking 
a coincidence, namely, the enterprises that are best man- 
aged are also the ones that give the most complete 
information to their shareholders. To this rule there is 
scarcely an exception. Those who are acting as real 
trustees for the shareholders are quite willing to give a 
frank and full statement of their stewardship; those who 
are either incompetent or untrustworthy will adopt the 
mask of secrecy or indirection. Publicity is the best cure 
for mismanagement and the most effective spur to right 
action in mining, as in other affairs. 

An Interval. 


N MUSIC an interval has a value of its own; in life 
a period of idleness can be turned to harmonious 
account. By reason of the financial disturbance that 
marked the last quarter of 1907, there has been a curtail- 
ment of expenditure in every form of industry, and one 
of the immediate results has been to throw many pro- 
fessional men out of employment for a while. This 
period of enforced inactivity can be made as useful in 
the furtherance of a career as the intense engagement of 
busy days, if the opportunity be but properly utilized. 
Do not drift; do not go to your office merely to whittle a 
stick or whistle a song. If there is nothing to do, play 
golf and keep yourself physically fit against the time of 
active service that is coming again soon. Take the 
opportunity to study, to investigate matters that were 
put aside during the recent strenuous days. Accept the 
chance to make the closer acquaintance of other pro- 
fessional men. The knowledge of men is power and a 
large acquaintance is stimulating. You may find that 
the fellow in the office just across the hall is an unpros- 
pected gold mine of information and interest; you have 
only had time to nod to him as yet, now is your chance 
to be human and kind. Run a cross-cut and investigate. 
Perhaps you belong to a local technical or scientific 
society, the meetings of which you have as yet had no 
time to attend ; you can go now. Go, by all means, and 
contribute your share to its usefulness. If necessary, 
organize a dinner and lubricate good fellowship in the 
old Anglo-Saxon way. Take out your note-books, put 
them in order, and systematize the odds and ends of 
information collected during your professional journeys. 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

Some of these memoranda are valuable to others besides 
yourself, arrange them in the form of an article and 
send them to the technical papers or to engineering 
societies. Whatever you do, keep awake and cheer- 
ful. This period of lessened activity in mining will not 
last long; prepare yourself for the moment when oppor- 
tunity will knock at your door and call you forth to new 
labors. Make the interval count. 

Retrospect and Prospect. 

*HpHE YEAR just ended has been big with events that 
* throw strong lights and shadows across the future 
of America. History is no longer made by the birth and 
death of kings, by changes of dynasty, by battles, by 
conquests on land or sea. The only history worth any- 
thing is the story of human endeavor and the develop- 
ment of the character of a people and the individuals that 
compose a people. In this respect 1907 has been a great 
year, rich in lesson and bright with promise. 

To many of our readers the e.\|x>sure of wrong may 
seem to overshadow the achievement of right. We 
have seen the violation of the law, the falsification of 
accounts, and the secret rebates of the Standard Oil Com- 
pany dragged to light, the legal proceedings initiated by 
the Government culminating in a $29,000,000 fine; we 
have seen the grand larceny of K. H. Harriman laid 
bare, his unscrupulous use of financial power in disregard 
of all obligations to shareholders, his use of company 
funds to gamble on a colossal wale; we have seen the 
post-mortem dissection of the New York traction com- 
pany flotations and the disclosure of plundering of the 
most impudent kind; we have seen the col la pse of a game 
of pyramids in which banks were mail*' the s|>ort of a 
group of plungers; we have seen a sudden panic, an 
extraordinary collapse of credit, and the s|>ectacle of the 
rescue of the financial position by a coterie of very rich 
men, headed by Mr. J. I'. Morgan— a rescue that car- 
ried with it the sinister suggestion that those who could 
»o easily control the commercial equilibrium for good 
might likewise control it to their own ends. Finally, 
here in San Francisco, we have witnessed the exposure 
of corruption in muuici|>ai life, in business, and in 
jtolitics; we have experienced the effects of an industrial 
vendetta, marked by brutal deeds and loss of life; we 
have seen educated men, rich men, men under obliga- 
tions to support the State, we have seen them on the side 
of a lawlessness that was in effect anarchy and the year 
ended in a pitiful exhibition of labor tyranny as applied 
by the reckless ranter who had the impertinence to be a 
candidate for the mayoralty of Sim Francisco. 

If the chronicle ended here, it would seem tragic 
indeed. If these wrongs were heralded without inciting 
an effort to redress them, the effect would only be to 
make us callous to the essential badness of such occur- 
rences. Hut strong compensatory influences are already 
at work. In San Francisco the forces of corruption are 
deliquescing, public opinion has crystallized, civic spirit 
has l>een aroused; we have elected a mayor who is a 
scholar and a gentleman; the corrupting corporation and 
the corrupted labor union are both discredited, honest 

men need not apologize for living, the fog of a putrid 
kind of politics is beiug swept aside by the strong clear 
air of a brighter day. In national affairs, the aroused 
resentment of the people — not the dreaming head nor the 
subjugated feet, but the mass of ordinary plain folk con- 
stituting the strength of this continental country — has 
given strength to the Government's efforts to enforce the 
law against corporations doing an interstate business and 
the commanding personality of a President — American 
to the core, in his impulsive energy, his frankness, and 
his fearlessness — has given a rallying point to all the 
forces of reform. To anyone able to view the events of 
1907 with any approach to mental detachment it is 
obvious that we have seen the expression of tendencies 
inherent in an industrial civilization under an unde- 
veloped form of representative government. We can 
observe the interplay of rampant individualism, crass 
selfishness, and the misdirected greed for money, un- 
checked by law, in fact, using the law in self-protection, 
undisciplined by government, indeed, corrupting the 
government — of the municipality, State, and Nation — so 
as to go unhindered on its debauching way. Hut these 
constitute a passing phase. It is the measles and whoop- 
ing cough of representative government in America. 
The very ills are creating antidotes more powerful than 
they, the very exposures of wrong are bringing into vig- 
orous assertivcness the patriotic men able to guide the 
forces of reconstruction and upbuilding. San Francisco 
is a type of the United States; the earthquake and the 
fire, the breath of pestilence and the more pestilent 
breath of municipal corruption, the selfishness of the few 
and the ignorance of the many — not otie of these, nor all 
together, has sufficed to stay the forces of reconstruction 
that out of a terrible desolation of smouldering ruin has 
caused to spring up, bit by bit, but surely and swiftly, a 
new city, finer and more safe than the old one; a city 
that on the stepping stones of her dead self shall rise to 
!«• the realization of the unconquerable spirit of man. 
We believe it, as we believe in the development of the 
kind of government that is called popular and is meant 
to l»e representative. There have been excesses, the 
excesses of youth — greediness, an unruly spirit, self- 
assert iveness. It is likely that to correct these tendencies 
we must have a severe dose of paternalism. The Federal 
Government must lay a heavy hand on all forms of 
industrial activity that reach beyond the boundaries of 
single States, and the law must be enforced to the annoy- 
ance even of well-meaning people. Commercial piracy 
must be checked, predatory finance called to order, the 
tyranny of corporations and labor unions alike curbed, 
and in the sequel the Government may have to perform 
many duties heretofore left to individual or corporate 
agencies. Hut beyond this era of paternalism, and (lur- 
ing this period of discipline, there is the promise of the 
development of representative government such as the 
world has never seen, as much better than the anachro- 
nisms <if Europe as the monarchies of the old world are 
iH'tter than the rule of a mob. We have full faith in the 
outcome; we are in the morning of the time--, the world 
is young, and life an epic. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 


O. W. Merrill is visiting Goldfleld. 

Mark R. Lamb is now at Mexico City. 

Ben. S. Revett is here for the holidays. 

A. C. Beatty has returned to New York. 

Frank H. Probert is here, from Los Angeles. 

Charles Butters has returned from New York. 

W. A. Caldecott has returned to Johannesburg. 

H. P. Garthwaite is on his way back to Salvador. 

Henry Hunt, lately at Bingham, is here for a few days. 

Frederick F. Kett, lately at Goldtield, is in San Fran- 

Norris English has arrived in San Francisco from New 

John W. Finch is at Denver, and will go to Europe 

H. H. Webb will leave San Francisco shortly, to proceed 
to Mexico. 

H. H. Laing, lately at Kendall, Mont., is on a visit to 
San Francisco. 

Frederick Hellman is expected at New York from 

Alexander McNeil has left Halifax and will reside at 
Washington, I). C. 

A. P. Stanley Macquisten, of Salt Lake City, was in 
San Francisco this week. 

Reginald W. Brock has been appointed director of the 
Geological Survey of Canada. 

Oscar H. Hershey is now assistant to the editor of the 
Mining and Scientific Press. 

R. T. Bayliss has been elected a vice-president of the 
Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. 

John R. Farrell, of the Tanganyika Concessions, Ltd., 
is at lhe Key Route Inn, Oakland. 

Arthur W. Jenks has moved from Portland to Seattle, 
where his office is in the Alaska Building. 

F. H. Minard now has an office in the Trinity Bdg., New 
York, as well as his former office at Denver. 

G. H. Barnh art, lately in British Columbia, is now man- 
ager for the Torpedo- Eclipse Co., at Ouray, Colorado. 

C. C. Broadwater, manager of the Little Mono mine, in 
Siskiyou county, Cal., is spending the holidays at Oakland. 

J. M. Boutwell is expected at Los Angeles, from Can- 
anea, where he has been making a geological study of the 
copper deposits. 

F. B. Close is now with the Compania Metalurgica y 
Refinadora del Pacifico, at Fundicion, Sonora, as general 
superintendent of mines. 

W. H. Trewartha-James, of James Brothers, has re- 
turned from his recent mission to British Columbia and left 
for Mexico December 14. 

J. E. Spurr, chief geologist for the Guggenheim interests, 
has arrived at New York after a three months' tourof prop- 
erties in Missouri, Colorado, California, and Mexico. 

James F. Berry, formerly with the National Metal Co., 
of Mexico City, has become chief chemist to the Compania 
Metalurgica y Refinadora del Pacifico, at Fundicion, 

James Chambers Dick has been appointed general 
superintendent of the properties of the Tintic Mining & 
Development and Yampa Smelting Co. with headquarters 
at Salt Lake City. Charles W. Saxman, the general 
manager, will make his headquarters at New York here- 

Latest Market Reports. 


Antimony 12@16c Quicksilver (flask) H6.6 

Casting Copper 17%<a*18%c Spelter 6@ 6.75c 

Pig Lead 3.85® 4.80clTln 33@34%c 


Cablid from London. 

Dec. 2 
£. s. 

Camp Bird 13 I 

El Oro I 1 

Esperanza 1 8 

Dolores 1 

Oroville Dredging 13 

Stratton's Independence 3 

Tomboy 1 10 

Jan. 2. 



1 1 
1 9 


1 7 



6 ex dlv. 

(By courtesy of W. P. Bon bright A Co., 24 Broad St., New York.) 


By wire from New York. 
A verage daily prices in cents per pound. 

Dec. 27 


Electrolytic Copper Lead 

135/ie 3.50 

28 135/i6 3.50 

29 Sunday. No market. 

30 13y, 6 3.50 

31 13% 3.55 

1 Holiday. No market. 

2 13% 3.55 






hV/ t 



Closing Prices. 

Dec. 26. Jan. 2. 

Alaska Mexican 5% 

Alaska Treadwell 27% 28 

Bingham Central % % 

Boston Copper 9% 10% 

Cumberland Ely 5% 6% 

El Rayo 1% \'A 

Guanajuato Con 2% 2% 

Giroux Con 2% 2% 

Nevada Con &/* 

Nlplsslng V/ a 6% 

Tennessee Copper 19% 28 

Tonopah Ex 1.25 1.60 

Tonopah-Belmont 0.69 

Tonopah 5.37 4 

United Alaska 3% 

United Copper 7 7% 

Utah Copper 17% 20*J 

(By courtesy of Hayden, Stone & Co., 25 Broad St., New York.) 


San Francisco, Jan. 2. 

Atlanta % 28 Laguna 85 

Belmont 69 Manhattan Con 23 

Columbia Mtn 17 Midway 54 

Combination Fraction 68 Mlzpah Extension 10 

Daisy 91 Mohawk 11.00 

Fan-view Eagle 40 Montana Tonopah 1.86 

Florence 3.85 Nevada Hills 2.90 

Gold Bar (Bullfrog) 38 Red Top 

Goldfleld Con 4.60 Sandstorm 20 

Goldfleld of Nevada Silver Pick 28 

Gold Kewanas 

Great Bend 

Jim Butler 


Jumbo Extension.. 

26 St. Ives 44 

25 Tonopah Extension 1.25 

41 Tonopah of Nevada 4.10 

] Tramp Con 17 

681 West End 33 

(By courtesy of W. C. Ralston, 368 Bush St.) 


Closing prices. 
Jan. 2. 

Adventure 2% 

Ahmeek 50 

Allouez 28% 

Amalgamated 48 


Atlantic 9 

Balaklala 1% 

Bingham Con 4% 

Boston Con 10% 

Butte Coalition 16% 

Calumet & Arizona 102 

Calumet & Hecla 595 

Centennial 24% 

Con. Mercur 25 

Copper Range 57% 

Daly-West 7 

Franklin 7?.," 

Granby 75% 

Greene-Cananea, ctf 7 

Isle Royale 17% 

Mass 3% 

Closing prices. 
Jan. 2. 

Michigan 9 

Mohawk 47 

Nevada Con 8% 

North Butte 43% 

Old Dominion. 29 

Osceola 86 

Parrot 10 

Phamlx 75 

Qutncy 81 

Raven 87 

Rhode Island 2% 

Santa Fe 2' 4 

Shannon 10 

Superior & Pittsburg 10% 

Tamarack 65 

Trinity 14% 

United Copper com _ 

Utah Copper 20% 

Victoria 4'< 

Winona 4% 

Wolverine 115 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

The Actual Situation of Copper. 

Written for the Mining and Scientific Prkss 
By James Douglas. 

The copper industry, like the rest of the country, has 
been living in a fool's paradise for the better part of two 
years, and finds it difficult to accommodate itself again 
to normal conditions of existence. 

When the value of stocks of all kinds rises to fictitious 
figures, the value of commodities not unreasonably fol- 
lows suit. Men believed that their paper wealth was real 
wealth, and spent accordingly, giving too often, however, 
paper checks in exchange for what they bought. And 
while this extravagant expenditure prevailed, to meet 
the demand for the articles wanted and to realize the 
extravagant prices paid for their commodities, the man- 
ufacturer forced production to a degree in excess of his 
actual legitimate resources and facilities. When the 
world returned to its sober senses and realized that things 
were not what they seemed, instead of soberly and rea- 
sonably reorganizing its business as well as its household 
expenses, it suffered a violent reaction of remorse and 
fear and fell into a panic for which there was no really 
good reason. This is eminently true of the copper trade. 
It has been passing through the same phases — first, 
excessive elation, then morbid depression, and now slow 
recovery toward reasonableness. No sensible man 
believed copper to be worth 25 cents or supposed that it 
would maintain that price; but the price, under abnor- 
mal conditions, kept soaring and the large mills kept 
buying ahead, to the loss of the producers and the mills' 
material gain, as long as the market continued steadily 
rising. Unfortunately for the owners of the mills they 
did not realize that the balloon was leaking gas, and 
therefore did not stop buying soon enough. Nor did the 
producers know or appreciate soon enough the extent to 
which the demand for the manufactured article had 
begun to dec-line. This really commenced in April and 
became pronounced in May; nevertheless, during the 
whole summer the mines and smelters continued pouring 
out their boom production, with the result that when the 
bubble actually burst they found themselves loaded with 
a lot of copper which it was inconvenient to carry. Some 
companies closed down their smelting works entirely 
and devoted their feeble efforts underground to picking 
up development work, which in the stress of production 
had fallen woefully behind. Others were only too glad 
to reduce production !>elow the normal, and give their 
overworked staff a breathing spell. Hut others, esjiecially 
in operating very low-grade mines, have maintained 
their output and continue to employ their full force. 

In Arizona none of the big mines have been closed, 
and but few of the second and third class. In the War- 
ren district it was considered by the Copper Queen and 
the Bonanza group good policy to reduce production, and 
therefore the smelting works of these two groups, which 
during the first three months of the year sent into the 
market 41,000,000 lb. of copper bullion, during the last 
three months shipped only 26,500,0<M> 11). The Clifton 
district, working on ore that does not average over 2\ fc 
copper, and contains no gold and silver, and where there- 
fore administration expenses form a large proportion of 
the cost, have not reduced their production or abated 
their activity. 

The Old Dominion furnaces have turned out during the 
j«st year approximately the same amount of copper as 
in the previous year, and there is no apprehension of a 
serious falling off during 1908. Hut forecasts are doubt- 
ful, as so many unforeseen contingencies arise, disturbing 
the most cautious calculations. 

In the southwest the most regrettable incident of the 

recent depression has been the closing of the Humboldt 
smelter, on which the many small mines around Prescott 
had been depending for the treatment of their ore. It is 
to be hoped that the embarrassment of the company will 
be soon relieved. Custom works have run a very serious 
risk, and inevitably do so when the market has been as 
unstable as of late. They must pay small customers 
cash for their ores, and yet cannot realize the copper for 
approximately the three months during which the bullion 
is being transported to the East and refined electrolyti- 
cally. Upon a rising market they gain and are liable 
then to reduce their smelting charges with a view to in- 
creased business, or put their gains into enlarged works 
for increased capacity. When, therefore, they come to 
lose heavily on a falling market, especially when there 
is such complete paralysis of trade as happened during 
the past summer, they are liable to become seriously em- 

Were it not for the accumulation of stocks and the 
extraordinary increase in the cost of mining and smelt- 
ing which have resulted from the so-called good times 
there need be no distress in the trade, for the present price 
is higher than that ruling in 1004, when the average for 
electrolytic copper was 1 2.823 cents. But during the preva- 
lence of the high price of copper, every item that entered 
into the cost of the metal, increased to such a figure 
that it may safely be assumed that the cost of mining and 
smelting copper ore rose on the average three cents 
per pound over that prevailing before the period of exal- 
tation. Wages, timber, fuel, and mining supplies in- 
creased in price. The railroads were unable promptly to 
handle such freight as they accepted, and the excessive 
local demand for Western fuel, or the convenient excuse 
of car shortage, obliged the smelters of the Southwest to 
import Eastern coke at very heavy cost. Had it been 
transported promptly and received when a high price 
was realized for the copper, its receipt would have been 
acceptable; but arriving still at this late date, it aggra- 
vates the embarrassment. Nevertheless, the values of 
what the companies have to consume are adjusting them- 
selves to the lower price of what they have to sell, and 
when the process of re-adjustment is completed, which 
should not occupy a long time, and the trade has re- 
covered its balance of mind, so acutely disturbed by 20 
cent copper, it will be found that noone has been seriously 
hurt, except those who speculated recklessly in stocks or 
in worthless mines. 

The Standard group of mines at Bodie, California, has 
produced in 25 years $14,500,000. This output has l>een 
mined from a system of more than 100 veins, distributed 
through a zone about 2000 ft. in width; they varied in 
thickness from 0.5 in. of 'specimen rock ' to 30 ft. of 
clay and (juartz. The Bodie district occupies an island 
of Tertiary hornblende-andesite, surrounded by a com- 
plex of igneous rocks and breccias. The veins represent 
at least three distinct periods of formation. The oldest 
series, the Fortuna, is cut up into short segments, being 
dislocated by each of the succeeding ones. Its ore is 
characterized by hard, flinty, at times bluish, quartz. 
It has the largest percentage of silver of any of the sys- 
tem. The veins of the Incline series showed a relatively 
small proportion of coarse gold, and stood low in silver 
|>ercentage. They have been classed as gash-veins, and 
their marked characteristic is the fading-out of value at 
alx>ut the 500-ft. horizon. The Burgess series has small, 
nearly vertical veins, with a slightly banded structure. 
The value was chiefly in exceedingly coarse gold. Their 
ore-shoots were included between east and west planes 
about (UMI ft. apart, as against 3000 ft. for the Incline and 
1000 ft. for the Fortuna series. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

Psychology of Mining Booms. 

Written for the Mixing and Scientific Press 
By J. H. CUKLE. 

My personal knowledge of mining goes back to the 
year 1891, but for the purpose of this argument it may be 
taken as beginning with the Transvaal boom of 1895. 
After that period of excessive mining speculation, there 
occurred the outbursts of Cripple Creek in 1895; New 
Zealand in 1896; Klondyke in 1898; British Columbia in 
1898; Rhodesia in 1899; West Australia in 1899; West 
Africa in 1902; Egypt in 1904; Buenos Ayres in 1905; 
Siberia in 1906; Nevada in 1906; and Cobalt in 1906. 
There have been, during this period, many outbursts on 
a smaller scale, similar in character to these bigger 
occurrences, but these well known booms are enough 
for illustration. 

These thirteen mining booms, following upon discov- 
eries of more or less value, took without exception one 
definite course. After an initial period of scepticism 
results from one or two mines in the new district led to 
great financial excitement, and to wide advertisement. 
Outside promoters entered the field, and capital poured 
in; for one good mine twenty worthless ventures were 
floated; the shares, good and bad, rose to absurd prices; 
and the facts became obscured in an atmosphere of lying 
and brainless optimism. Then, sooner or later, came 
the crash. This was always thorough, and in each case 
dragged down thousands of more or less foolish and de- 
luded people. 

There is a law in these things. I have made the state- 
ment, not hard to verify, that these thirteen mining 
booms took a definite course. 1 shall go further and 
affirm that ad mining booms take this course; for 
although there may be minor differences in their incep- 
tion, all are based on slender material, in all are the same 
forces at work, and all result in eventual disaster. This 
law, which defines so surely the course of a boom, has 
many other manifestations. We may hope that a scien- 
tific generalization of its actions may one day be added to 
the world's knowledge. For our specific application, the 
dynamic forces at work may crudely be set forth as 

On the one side, making for moderation, we have the 
experience of very many booms, with their invariable 
over-valuation and certain disaster. We have also the 
sure knowledge that ore deposits are treacherous things 
on which to base hopes. On the other side we have the 
incurable fatuousness of human nature. This of itself is 
a force of the first magnitude, and it is supported by the 
company promoters, by the weight of capital, and by a 
large section of the press. 

At the beginning of a mining boom these rival forces 
take the field. But how unequal they are! The struggle 
is a matter of form only. The law is at work, and there 
can be but one end. But what an immoral law, Nature! 
Truth, moderation, fair dealing between man and man, 
are doomed with certainty to go to the wall, for perhaps 
a period of years, while lies and foolish imaginings 

Then for the mining boom in the abstract. Let us now 
take note how these things affect themselves. As miners, 
pure and simple, we don't want booms, for their after- 
math brings disillusionment to the public, and conse- 
quent discredit to the mining profession. But are we, 
I wonder, prepared to say that this discredit is not 
merited, or do we, or do we not, as a profession, connive 
at the evils which flourish previous to, and during, a 
boom ? 

It is, of course, evident that the mining profession as a 
whole does not connive at these things, and stands for 

what is decent and legitimate. But the influence of the 
profession as a whole is a vague sort of force. It does 
not compare with the influence of those units in the pro- 
fession who appear on the stage during the course of any 
given boom. It speaks with insufficient weight and 
prestige, and often, in order to placate the capitalists, 
speaks under its breath. About twice a year, 
as a consequence, the company promoter and his 
friends take the floor in a struggle for supremacy, 
and as often as this happens the mining profession gets 
struck across the head heavily with a club for trying in 
too feeble a way to speak up for what it knows to be the 
truth. If we were efficient there would be no booms, for 
we should control public opinion, and mines would be 
valued rationally. But seeing that the opposite state of 
affairs obtains, that is, continuous over-valuation of 
mines, verging frequently into booms, it is evident that 
there must be much inefficiency in our ranks. 

Let us analyze this. A few technical men are habitu- 
ally dishonest; a larger number, afraid for their billets, 
look on while their directors manipulate things. A still 
greater number bear no influence at all, for good 
or ill. Their views as to the values of mines — about 
which booms wax and wane — are as indefinite as their 
characters. These are the kind of men that bring mining 
into disrepute and make booms possible. Their influ- 
ence more than outweighs that of the rank and file of 
straightforward competent men who direct the mining 
operations of the world. The able men of the period, 
made wise by experience, view the recurring booms rather 
cynically than otherwise. They gamble, probably, but 
knowing as by instinct which are the good mines, buy into 
these and take out good profits before the boom reaches its 
height. They see one after another of their less gifted fel- 
lows making fools of themselves; one in writing an unduly 
optimistic report; another in allowing himself to be made 
the whipping boy for his director's trickery; and a third 
in plunging into scrip just as the crash comes. These 
astute individuals look on. They understand the forces at 
work, with their inevitable results, and play their cards 

In the presence of a mining boom we are as helpless as 
the medical profession in presence of an epidemic. The 
one is as surely a disease as the other, and should be 
stamped out at its inception. Neither, indeed, should 
be allowed to germinate. This line of reasoning 
is, I feel sure, correct. I know there are those who 
argue that booms have their uses; that they encour- 
age the flow of capital into mining, and that by 
allowing the able to score at the expense of the fools 
they carry out nature's laws of the survival of the Attest. 
Well, there is a good deal in this. The love of gambling 
cannot be eradicated by official decree of the mining 
profession, and if people don't gamble in mines they 
will in other things. I gamble myself, now and then, 
but I am still prepared to argue that the profession 
is better without these periods of excitement, founded 
as they are on lying and unwarranted optimism, 
and I believe that the final weight of opinion will 
endorse this view. If we could present a united 
front of strong able personalties against the powers of 
darkness — represented in this case by human fatuousness, 
backed by the promoter and his myrmidons— there would 
be no more booms, for they could not generate in such 
an atmosphere. Taking things as they are, we realize 
that the profession carries its due share of undesirables, 
that we cannot get rid of them, and therefore that these 
evils will continue to exist as in the past. The boom will 
come, with its attendant evils, and the official voice of 
the profession, raised in warning, will be as ever, calmly 
ignored by the world. But it is worth while to protest. 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

What there is to do rests with the individual. Let 
him, in the crisis, be guided by facts, and facts only. 
He must not lose his head. With slight reflection he 
will realize that the boom will be followed by certain 
disaster, and that the good name of mining will suffer. 
He must do what he can do to preserve this good name. 
No flabby reports, meaning anything or nothing, must 
be written; no elastic estimates of ore in reserve must be 
made; there must be no cringing to boards of directors 
over matters of right and wrong; and nothing must be 
conceded where a delicate sense of honor calls for the 

Railroad Rates in Mexico. — The Federal Railroad 
Commission has recommended to the Department of Com- 
munications increases of 10, 20, and 30% on the three 
respective classes of ores as established and asked for by 
the railroads. Ores are to be divided into three classes, 
as follows: Up to P25 value per ton the increase in 

Production of Precious Metals. 

By the courtesy of Mr. Frank A. Leach, Director of 
the Mint, we are enabled to publish his preliminary esti- 
mate of the production of the precious metals in the 
United States in 1907, and a comparison with 1906. 
These figures are based on the exact receipts of the vari- 
ous mints and assay-offices for 11 months, and refinery 
and smelter statements for from 9 to 11 months. 

The table herewith shows a reduction in the gold yield 
of the United States for 1907, the estimated total produc- 
tion this year being $89,617,007 as against $94,373,800 for 

There is but little difference in the total production of 
silver, the apparent yield in 1907 being 56,925,911 fine 
ounces as against 56,517,900 for the year 1906. 

The gold recovered from the copper ores of California 
in 1907 will amount to about $2,188,000, an increase of 









Alaska _ 










New Mexico 

North Caroll.ia 

1 >regon 

Porto Rico 

Philippine Islands. 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 







Other States.. 


* 25.238 

2.539 618 


















1 1 ,827 








2 715,564 




r! f7T.7IH 



12 118,000 








93,01 1 






91 5 







1 792 272 




4,805,29 4 


8. '.500 



















8 23.500 






j 88 




8, 126,620 

































The commercial value of fine silver In 1906 averaged about 68c. per ounce. 
The commercial value of tine silver In 1807 averages alxiiis 66c per ounce. 
The production of One silver In 1906 amounted to 58.517,900 ounces. 

freight rate will be 10%; ores from |>20 to !»50 per ton in 
value, 20% increase; and ores exceeding P50 per ton in 
value, 30% increase. It is entirely probable that the new 
rates as recommended by the Commission will lie adopted 
by the Government. However, owing to the crisis 
through which the mining industry in the country is 
passing, in the progress of which a number of mines are 
being closed down, owing to the depreciation in the price 
of metals, it has been deemed inexpedient to put the new 
increased rates into effect at once, and this point is now 
under consideration. The mining industry gets off better 
than it had reason to expect, as the increases to be rec- 
ommended are far lower, on the whole, than the railroads 
were demanding. As an example of what mining is to 
the railroads the last annual report of the Mexican Central 
shows that out of a total of 3,545,538 tons of freight han- 
dled up to June 30, 1907, 1,934,840 tons consisted of ores, 
metals, fuel, material, machinery, etc., carried to or from 
mining camps. The report of the National Lines showed 
that 48.61% of their freight traffic was due to the opera- 
tion of mines and smelti re. 

Copper ranks third among the products of California's 
mines. The order of value in California's principal 
mineral products is, gold, petroleum, copper, days and 
their products, cement rubble, and quicksilver. 

about $898,000 over hist year's product from that source. 
The yield of gold from the other sources of mining show a 
falling off of about $2,340,000, making the net loss, in 
round numbers, $1,500,000 in the gold yield of California. 

The shrinkage in Colorado is about the same as for the 
previous year. 

The large falling off in South Dakota is due to labor dis- 
turbances and the fire in the big Homestake mine. 

For the first half of the year the output from the mines 
of Utah, Idaho, Montana, and Arizona indicated in- 
creased yields for these; States, but the sudden drop in the 
selling price of those metals which gave gold as a by-pro- 
duct caused a gr«>at curtailment in the yields of these 
mines in the last part of the year by reason of the closing 
down of many of the big producing mines. 

The world's gold product for 1907 is estimated at *lo:j,- 
000,000, or a gain of about $4,500,000 over the preceding 
year. Africa will give a gain of about $17,000,000, 
which, with gains of $1,000,000 elsewhere, gives a total 
gain of $18,000,000. () n the other hand the losses will be 
about as follows: 

United States S4.7O0.OO0 

Australasia 5,000,000 

Other regions 1,100,000 

Making a total of S13.800.000 

thus reducing the gain to $ 1,500,000, and it is likely that 
the final figures may reduce this excess somewhat. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

The Great Gold Mines. 

Written for the Mining and Scientific Pkess 
By T. A. Rickaed. 

The most productive gold mine in the world in 1906 
was the Esperanza (at El Oro, Mexico) which yielded 
$7,708,883; it was also the most profitable gold mine, for 
the profit won in that year amounted to $4,644,279. The 
most productive gold mine in the world in 1907 was the 
Goldfield Consolidated (at Goldfield, Nevada) from 
which $6,296,476 was extracted, but it was far from 
being the most profitable mine during that year. The 
most profitable gold mine in 1907 was the Robinson (at 
Johannesburg, in the Transvaal) the earnings being 
estimated at $4,300,000. The greatest gold mine in the 
world today, having regard to the present rate of pro- 
duction, the profit earned, and the magnitude of its ore 
reserves, is the Robinson. These statements summarize 
a careful review of the performances of great gold mines 
in widely scattered regions. 

In preparing a list of the great gold mines, it was 
intended to mention all those that yield $1,000,000 per 

and $1.80 per ton, and 9 got under $1.25 per ton. In 
the next month ( September) the 19 leading mines varied 
in their earning capacity from a profit of $2.22 per ton 
to a maximum of $8.79 per ton. 

Among the mines of the Rand, the Robinson and the 
Simmer & Jack are in a class by themselves. Each of 
these two mines is yielding over $500,000 per month and 
the two properties contribute about $12,500,000 per 
annum or 3% of the entire output of the world's pro- 
duction. The Robinson is now earning at the rate of 
$4,500,000 profit per annum and the Simmer <fe Jack a 
little over $2,500,000 per annum. In October the Robin- 
son made a profit of $376,390. During the year ending 
June 30, 1907, the 320 stamps of the Simmer & Jack 
crushed 717,524 tons of ore, yielding $5,595,537, of 
which $2,863,308 was profit. The average duty was 6J 
tons per stamp per day. The dividends amounted to 
£300,000. The yield per ton was $7.80; the cost, $4.51; 
and the -profit, $3.29 per ton. Of the ore hoisted 16.83 /o 
was sorted out. It is calculated that the ore already 
developed amounts to 1,694,000 tons, that is, a supply 
sufficient for a little more than two years, and the aver- 




Per annum. 


Per ton. 









2 770,926 
1 2,752,287 















































Rose Deep 





* Seven months only. 

The records given in this table are for the year ending December 31, 1906. Fine gold is taken at $20.67 per oz. and the 
pound sterling as equivalent to $4.85. In October, 1907, the Robinson brought costs down to 14s. 9d. or $3.56 per ton, 
and made a profit of £77,6% or $376,389, on an output of 25,298 oz. fine gold. In August the Robinson transferred £50,<>00 
from the gold reserve to current output, making a maximum month's production of $735,760, of which $682,175 was profit. 

annum, but this would have furnished a statement lack- 
ing in variety, for of the 80 mines fulfilling such a con- 
dition, no less than 53 are in the Transvaal. This fact 
emphasizes the dominant position of South Africa among 
the regions producing gold. But it is scarcely more than 
was to have been expected, for Africa produces 30 % of 
the total production of the world, and the single district 
of the Rand yields more than either the United States or 
Australia, the two countries ranking next in production. 
Out of the 53 South African mines yielding over 
$1,000,000 per annum, I quote statistics for the 19 most 
productive. Each of these 19 mines now contributes 
10,000 ounces of gold per month, that is, about $2,500,000 
per annum. All the ore is crushed in stamp-mills, rang- 
ing in size from 100 to 360 heads. In many cases tube- 
mills are used for re-grinding, with the further result 
that the rate of crushing is increased. The average duty 
is 5.67 tou3, with a maximum of 8.8 tons per stamp per 
day. From the 66 productive mines on the Rand in 
August, 1907, for example, the total profit in that one 
month aggregated $4,400,000. The profit yielded by 63 
of these amounted to $4,258,411, which was the result of 
treating 1,317,799 tons of ore. The average yield was 
$8, the profit was slightly over $3, and the working cost 
slightly under $5 per ton. One-half the companies were 
working ore yielding a profit of less than $2.50 per ton. 
Of the 32 leading companies, 15 earned a profit of 
between $1.80 and $2.50 per ton, 8 won between $1.25 

age content of these reserves is 7.7 dwt. per ton. The 
undeveloped reserves, that is, the tonnage of ore esti- 
mated to exist within the boundaries of the property, 
amount to 11,000,000 tons. 

In the year ending December 31, 1906, the Robinson 
yielded 435,474 tons, of which 74,103 tons was sorted out. 
The ore sorted out represented 17 fo and it assayed 1.005 
dwt. per ton. The assay value of the ore milled was 
14.26 dwt. and the actual yield 13.288 dwt., or 93 # of 
the contents. The 210 stamps ran for 336 days, the duty 
averaging 5.13 tons per head. Three tube-mills were 
added to the plant. On December 31, 1906, this com- 
pany was employing 462 white men, 146 Indian coolies, 
and 2461 Kaffirs. While the ore developed in this mine 
at the end of 1906 was estimated at 2,180,700 tons of an 
average assay value of 14.22 dwt, the ground covered by 
the property is calculated to contain sufficient ore to last 
12 years, that is, it contains between 4,500,000 and 
5,000,000 tons of ore equal in richness to that now being 

An example of the eventual exhaustion even of the 
best of mines is afforded by the Bonanza, which up to 
the end of 1906 had yielded $13,257,528. Being a prop- 
erty of small area it serves to emphasize the fact that the 
individual mines of the Rand have no apex rights and 
therefore cannot follow the dip of the lode under adja- 
cent ground. The possibilities of deeper exploration are 
cut off sharply and there is no hope of postponing the 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


end of productiveness as in most mines operated under 
the American law. Another example is that of the 
Jumpers Gold Mining Co., whose mine is to be exhausted 
by December, 1908, by which time the 112,000 tons in 
reserve on July 81, 1907, will have been extracted. The 
lode so profitably worked by the Jumpers will be fol- 
lowed downward by the Jumpers Deep, into whose terri- 
tory it dips. 

The regularity of production characteristic of the 
South African mines is to be credited not wholly to the 
comparative uniformity of the ore and the ability of the 
manager to overcome variations in the gold content of 
the material coming from different stopes; it is due, in 
large part, to the practice of holding a reserve of bullion, 
which is used to sweeten the output when, by reason of 
any untoward event, it fluctuates below the normal. 
This reserve ranges from 1000 to 5000 oz., with even 
larger amounts in the case of the biggest mines; thus, 
in September the Robinson carried a reserve of 16,109 
oz.; the Robinson Central Deep, 10,996 oz.; and the 
Crown Deep, 10,621 ounces. 

After the Rand the most productive district is Kal- 
goorlie (in Western Australia), which in 1906 yielded 
$20,430,000 and in 1907 about $18,000,000. Out of the 
$9,661,500 dividends paid by West Australian gold 
mines in 1906, no less than $7,651,050 came from ten 
mines at Kalgoorlie. These are contiguous to each other 
in a small tract of schistose diorite so thickly traversed by 

£300,000. In 1903 the working costs were $6.78 per ton; 
in 1904 they were reduced to $6.48; in 1905, $6.04; and 
in 1906 they were brought down to $5.28 per ton — so 
that ore carrying 5 or 6 dwt. can be worked at a profit. 
The crushing capacity of the mill has been increased 
from 5i tons per stamp in 1904 to a duty of 7J tons in 
1906. The Great Fingall Consolidated is an example of 
the proverbial tenacity of English shareholders, for the 
first mine upon which the company was organized hav- 
ing proved a failure, the directors acquired the Day 
Dawn mine, near Cue, and from it the company has paid 
$7,375,000 in dividends. Now that it shows signs of 
exhaustion, the directors are looking for a new property 
and they have been considering the acquisition of the 
old Burra Burra copper mine in South Australia. 
Similarly, the Ivanhoe company has sent engineers to 
Mexico and the negotiations for the purchase of a prop- 
erty there only broke down by reason of the high price 
asked. The most amusing instance of this kind was that 
of a company that was formed to work a mine in New 
Zealand and then shifted the scene of its operations to a 
mine in India, and when this became impoverished it 
acquired property in Madagascar. The mines die, but 
the company goes on. This method has the merit of 
conserving experience. 

At one time, in 1899, Kalgoorlie boasted the most pro- 
ductive gold mine in the world, for in May of that year 
the Lake View Consols yielded 33,160 oz., worth about 


Mink and State. 

1'roductlon for the year. 

Torn*. Gross yield. 


Per ton. 




Mt. Morgan, (Queensland 334,963 

ll'.lkl V~~— . '1 ■ I >.U U.M 

Walhl, New Zealand 

Great lloulder. West Australia 
fit. Boulder Perseverance, " 

Oroya-Hrownhlll, " 

Golden Horseshoe, " 

Ivanhoe, *' 

Kalgurll, • " 

Associated, " 

Great Fingall, " 
Sons of ( ; walla. 


M, 53 1, 994 

SI. 883.726 

























•From which •315.788 was charged oil to mine development and depreciation of plant. 

The outputs for this list are for the calendar year 1908, except In the cases of the Kalgurll mine, which Is for the 12 months ending on June 
SO, 1907, and the Mt. Morgan, whose fiscal year terminated on May 31, 1907. 

rich orebodies that it is known as the Golden Mile. Kal- 
goorlie was discovered in 1893 and reached its most pro- 
ductive stage in 1903, when this district (called officially 
East Coolgardie) yielded gold worth $21,970,101, out of 
the $40,427,558 credited to the whole of Western Aus- 
tralia. Since then closer attention to economy and im- 
provements in the metallurgical treatment have lessened 
the working costs, so as largely to balance the decline in 
the tenor of the ore. Although lower grade in depth, 
the ore has proved persistent in several of the big mines. 
The deepest stopes are in the Great Boulder at 2050 ft. 
At the end of 1906 this mine had reserves of ore amount- 
ing to 548,490 tons, estimated to contain 501,376 oz. of 
gold, worth $10,000,000. The Oroya-Brownhill and 
Golden Horseshoe each produced close to $3,000,000 in 
1906. The Golden Horseshoe had four years reserves 
assured, the 993,000 tons blocked out being estimated to 
contain $14,000,000 in gold. The deepest workings were 
at 1600 ft. The Oroya-Brownhill, up to the end of 1906, 
had produced $20,776,000 from the two mines now con- 
solidated under the comjxnind name; the present com- 
pany having extracted $18,890,850. The maximum 
depth is 1500 ft. In 1906 this mine yielded £680,818 and 
made a gross profit of £501,932, from which £46,841 was 
deducted on account of depreciation and £26,560 for 
shaft-sinking and development. The cash in hand, after 
paying dividends amounting to 80 # on the capital, was 

$660,000, and in the 12 months it gave 199,230 oz., or 
$3,897,479. Shortly afterward it became the centre of a 
disgraceful fiasco, followed by bear raids and exposures 
affecting neighboring mines, until Kalgoorlie became a 
name of ill repute. Since then systematic management 
and the best engineering skill have done much to restore 
tin- local industry to a healthy condition. As with men, 
so with mines, good behavior is apt to come after the 
vigor of youth is past. 

The gold-mining district ranking third is Cripple 
Creek, in Colorado, which in 1906 produced $14,250,000 
and in 1907 about $13,000,000. At the present time Cripple 
Creek can claim no mine of the first magnitude and a Iar^e 
part of the production comes from small properties 
operated under lease. But this district, famous for its 
telluride ores, its labor troubles, and its stock boom can 
boast at least two mines that at one time commanded 
general attention. These two are the Portland and Inde- 
pendence, which are contiguous and on the same system 
of veins, traversing andesite breccia where it is crossed 
by numerous dikes of phonolite. The Independence was 
discovered by W. S. Stratton on July 4, 1891. Since its 
discovery in 1891 it has produced fully $17,000,000. To 
the English company to which it was transferred in 
April, 1899, it has yielded a profit of over $5,250,(100, 
and to the lessees during the past three years it has given 
a further profit, not included in the above total. Divi- 


Mininu and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

dends declared by the Stratton's Independence company 
aggregate $5,028,568. To Stratton himself the mine 
yielded a profit of $2,500,000 before he sold it. For the 
year ending June 30, 1906, the output was 75,260 tons, 
yielding $1,245,121, out of which the company got a 
profit of $340,965. In the year ending June 30, 1900, 

This mine also has been the scene of queer doings; early 
in its development it became controlled by a group of 
illiterate men and the vagaries of one of the most igno- 
rant of them have involved the mine in a series of law- 
suits and recriminations. Despite bad management, it 
has proved a great bonanza. To the end of 1906 the 

Witwatersrand Deep Mine. A Typical View of the Rand. 

this mine yielded gold to the value of $3,500,000, of 
which $2,000,000 was profit. After 16 years of produc- 
tiveness, after having been the basis of an extraordinary 
flotation, the subject of a fiasco that caused the loss of 
money to many, and the excuse for a big lawsuit that 

Portland had yielded $25,034,411 from 775,110 tons of 
ore, yielding $7,147,080 in dividends. The biggest pro- 
duction was in 1903, when the mine yielded $2,608,993 
from 90,244 tons. During 1906 the output was 92,265 
tons, worth $1,817,256, from which a profit of $512,106 

*^^< '•--. 
^3%* -- 

Cross Section through main Incline shaft West. 
Scale: 265 feet to the Inch. 


Cross-Section of the Greatest Gold Mine in the World. (After Hatch & Chalmers.) 

was intended to drag an aniseed bag across the trail of 
financial misdoing, this splendid mine is now worked 
out; there remains a big dump of low-grade stuff, but 
the Independence has had its day— a day checkered by 
some romance and a good deal of spoofery. Next to it 
ia the Portland, which was discovered in the same year. 

was made. This mine has seen its best days, although 
not without some resources. 

After Cripple Creek comes the Kolar district, in the 
State of Mysore, India. A group of nine mines yields 
$11,000,000 per annum. In 1905 the maximum output 
was attained, namely, 627,700 ounces, worth $11,639,928. 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


The ground on which the mines are situated is part of a 
concession granted by the Mysore government in 1881. 
At the present time the Mysore is the most productive 
of this group, yielding 17,000 oz. per month. In 1906 
this mine produced 185,900 tons of ore, yielding 205,918 
oz., worth $3,925,652, giving a profit of $2,231,068. The 
reserves are stated at 747,000 tons, or a supply sufficient 
for four years. The deepest workings are at 3500 ft. on 
the pitch of the ore-shoot, which is in schist. The system 
of working this mine is remarkable from the fact that 
the working shafts have been sunk on the pitch of the 
shoot, not on the dip of the vein. The pitch is about 30° 
from the horizontal. The bottom workings look healthy. 
The dividends to the end of 1906 amounted to $23,402,300 
on an original capital of $1,479,250 or £305,000. In 1906 
the Champion Reef was nearly the equal of the Mysore, 
but it has declined notably since then, so that at present 
it yields only 10,000 oz. per month. In the year ending 
September 30, 1906, the Champion Reef mine produced 
203,174 tons, yielding 177,641 oz., worth $3,291,724. 
From this a profit of $1,685,903 was made. Of the other 
important mines, the Ooregum and the Nundydroog 
yield from 5000 to 6000 oz. monthly. On the whole, the 
Kolar goldfleld has repeatedly surpassed reasonable ex- 
pectations and the recent developments in depth encour- 
age the expectation of many years of steady, though 
slowly declining, productiveness. 

The district ranking fifth is EI Oro, in the State of 
Mexico, and about 90 miles northwest from the city of 
Mexico. Here there are three big mines and one of the 
very first magnitude. The Esperanza and El Oro are on 
the same lode, the San Rafael vein, while the Dos Estrel- 
las is on a parallel system of veins traversing the same 
ridge of schist, which is covered with a cap (600 ft. thick) of 
andesite. The Esperanza was worked by an American 
company before it was transferred to a London corpora- 
tion in 1903. For a while it proved a disappointment, 
but the discovery of a wonderful bonanza, at the end of 
1904, prepared the way for a tremendous output. The 
discovery of an entirely new rich vein was made by 
diamond-drilling. At one time the Esperanza was much 
the most productive gold mine in the world. During the 
month of November, 1906, the output was 10,164 tons, 
yielding $748,535, or even better than the Lake View Con- 
sols when at the top notch. The profit for that month 
was $473,946. The Esperanza mine continued in bonanza 
during 1906, the output for the calendar year being 
207,183 metric tons or 228,419 short tons, having a gross 
value of $7,708,883, from which a profit of $4,641,279 was 
earned. In 1905 the output was 204,299 tons, containing 
$5,101,135, yielding a profit of $2,923,212. Up to the end 
of 1906 this mine has yielded (to the various companies 
that have owned it) no less than 88,347,918 pesos (about 
$20,000,000) from an output of 874,992 metric tons. Of 
the output for 1906, 141,286 metric tons were milled and 
62,897 tons were shipped to the smelters. The cash on 
hand and unrealized ore were estimated at $2,221,817. 
The reserves of ore in the mine were calculated at 141,663 
metric tons, expected to yield a profit of $1,481,307. It 
is obvious that the record for 1907 will fall far short of 
the two past years and that this mine must lose its 
premier position. At the present time the Es|>eranza is 
pnducing at the rate of $2,750,000 per annum, of which 
$1, 250.0(H) is profit, so it is still one of the big fellows, 
although without any assurance of a maintenance of this 
rate of production for even a year longer. The workings 
are only 800 ft. deep, while the adjacent mine of El Oro 
(to which the district owes its name) is 1100 ft. deep. 
During the 8} years of the present company's existence, 
the Esperanza has produced 511,121 metric tons, yielding 
$14,407,958, of which $7,631,737 has been profit. 

The El Oro was worked by the Mexicans before it was 
purchased by J. B. Haggin, by whom it was sold to the 
present English company in 1898. During the year end- 
ing June 30, 1907, this mine produced 260,304 tons, yield- 
ing $2,243,468, of which $1,902,185 was gold and the re- 
mainder silver. The total working costs averaged $5.01 
per ton, and the percentage recovered in the mill was 
86.63. It is estimated that the reserves of ore amount 
to 532,523 tons, containing an average of $8.44 per ton 
in gold, besides 3 oz. silver. Dividends for the year 
totaled £126,000. 

The DosEstrellas mine is controlled by J. G. Foumier 
and his friends, who operate under a Mexican organiza- 
tion. The production for the year ending December 31, 
1906, was $2,230,360 in gold and $743,797 in silver, mak- 
ing a total of $2,974,157, with a net profit of $970,800. 
In the report these amounts are given in Mexican cur- 
rency and I have divided them by two to convert them 
to American units. The reserves of ore are stated to be 
4,000,000 tons. 

Of the three mines above reviewed, the El Oro is ex- 
hibiting a surprising improvement on the lowest level, 
suggesting that a sulphide zone of profitable exploitation 
may succeed (after an interval of almost barren ground) 
the upper zone of rich oxidized ore, and the Dos Estrel- 
las, being now equipped with a new cyanide plant, is 
expected to maintain a large production for many years. 
Another mine — the Mexico — which adjoins the Espe- 
ranza, and is on the same lode-channel as the Esperanza 
and El Oro mines, promises to win a position in the first 
rank of mining enterprises, but as milling operations 
only started in 1907, there is no large output to record yet. 


Electric Smeltixo of Copper. — The use of 
electrothermal processes for smelting copper ores has l>een 
proposed in recent years, and in a few cases experiment- 
ally tested. The whole question depends on the recogni- 
tion and appreciation of a few fundamental facts. By far 
the great bulk of all copper ores are sulphide ores, and 
in many cases the sulphur and iron present are sufficient 
heat-producers to allow of the smelting of the ore simply 
by the heat of their oxidation, if the operation is skill- 
fully conducted. Such is the basic principle of pyritic 
smelting, and whenever it can l>e applied it is very eco- 
nomical to do so, and electric processes have no chance of 
an application. Other ores of copj>er contain so small an 
amount of the metal that the result of the smelting down 
of the w hole to a fluid mass by any method of fusion 
would not repay the cost of the operation. Some such 
ores can l>e treated by aqueous and other methods not in- 
volving fusion, with a margin of profit to pay for the 
operation. The only field for electrothermic processes 
appears to l>e in the smelting down of ores carrying too 
little sulphur to lie pyritically smelted, and which require, 
as usually treated, the use of carbonaceous fuel to assist 
the fusion. Wherever such fuel is expensive and electric 
power may be obtained at a low price, an electrothermic 
process might be theoretically possible and profitable. 
Such conditions may easily occur in the vicinity of copper 
mines. Situated frequently among the mountains, remote 
from railways and cheap fuel, they frequently are near 
large water-powers that would furnish cheap electric 
power. Some may be even 90 situated that concentration 
of a lean sulphide ore to matte by use of fuel or by me- 
chanical concentration would l>e unprofitable, and yet a 
concentration or simple melting to matte by electrically- 
generated heat be profitable. There are no electrother- 
mal processes yet in commercial operation on copj>er ores, 
yet they have been tested experimentally with promising 
results. — J. \V. Richards. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

Method of Collecting Statistics. 

By Waldemar Lishgren. 

*The statistics of gold and silver collected from the 
mines by the Geological Survey are obtained from the 
following four items: (1) Gold and silver in placer bul- 
lion produced during calendar year. (2) Gold and 
silver in mill bullion produced in mill of company dur- 
ing calendar year. (3) Gold and silver in base bullion, 
matte, etc. (by assay-value), produced in smelter of com- 
pany during calendar year. (4) Gold and silver in 
crude ore and concentrates (by assay-value) shipped to 
custom works in calendar year. 

The first item needs no explanation. The second and 
third items cover the cases of mining companies which 
have their own reduction works; they report the gold and 
silver bullion produced during the year, or the gold and 
silver contained in their metallurgical products sold to 
refineries, as there are very few smelting works owned 
by mining companies which also refine their bullion. 

The greatest difficulties are found in the fourth item, 
comprising ores and concentrates shipped to custom 
works — generally smelters, more rarely mills — as a 
considerable interval of time, often thirty days or more, 
elapses before the ore reaches the works and often 
much more before it is reduced and refined. It is 
mixed with other ores and loses its identity, and 
the assay-value is the only guide the miner has to 
the quantity of metal produced. In these cases the 
miner is requested by the Geological Survey to give the 
tonnage and assay-value of ores and concentrates shipped 
up to the end of the year. 

It should be emphasized that the table of mine pro- 
duction does not give the contents of the ore mined dur- 
ing the year. Only the ore that is treated or sold is re- 
corded. Neither does this report give the assay-value of 
the total tonnage; for if this were the case the heavy 
losses in concentration would be disregarded, and the re- 
sults would be very much larger and wholly misleading. 
As far as possible the report aims to give the metals recov- 
ered from the tonnage sold or treated during the year. In 
items 2 and 3 this is substantially correct, except for the 
very small refining losses. In item 4 the amount given is 
theoretically larger than the actual recovery of refined 
metals by the combined smelting and refining losses. 
Practically, however, this is counterbalanced by several 
factors: (1) Small quantities of gold and silver are re- 
covered from many ores, but not paid for by the smelt- 
ing companies or recorded in the settlements. As a rule, 
payments are not made on less than 2 ounces of silver or 
0.05 ounces of gold per ton. (2) Settlements are made 
on the basis of 95 per cent of New York price for silver 
and of 819 to $20 per ounce of gold. Small producers, 
who often report in terms of dollars alone, are very likely 
to give a correspondingly smaller value than the ore 
actually contains. The same class of producers occasion- 
ally also misunderstand the questions and report net in- 
stead of gross proceeds. The gold is sometimes also 
given in value only, which is then always smaller than 
the actual value of the metal in the ore by from $0.67 to 
$1.67 per ounce. (3) There is always a certain small 
percentage of the product which can not be obtained from 
the miners. This includes the output of scattered indi- 
vidual placer workers, often aliens. There are further 
cases where owners of small mines decline to answer or 
where the property is not continuously operated and the 
owner cannot be found. There is, lastly, the ore ab- 
stracted by ore thieves, which takes away a notable frac- 
tion of the production of mines containing rich ore. 
Through assay offices this gold finds its way to the mints. 

vanc b e t <"hap e te/ r0ra ' M ' neralReS<>urces of the Unlted States.' A <J- 


liy G. Yale. 
Statistician to the United States (ieoloijical Hurvey. 

♦California produced in 1906, according to returns from 
the mines, 906,182.36 fine ounces of gold, valued at 
$18,732,452, a decrease from 1905 of $166,093. In silver 
the production was 1,220,641 fine ounces, equivalent to 
$817,830, an increase for the year of $167,821. The most 
marked increase was in the copper, the gain in which for 
1906 was over 12,000,000 1b. in quantity and $2,939,388 
in value as compared with the output of 1905. The lead 
shows a slight falling off, and zinc appears for the first 
time in the statistical tables of California. 

The total tonnage of ore for the year is 2,556,053, 
which is 140,550 tons less than in the previous year, 
although there was an increase of 8914 tons in concen- 
trates. Of silicious ores, 2,235,912 tons were treated, the 
average value being $8.36. Of copper ores 91,575 tons, 

[We venture to add a postscript to Mr. Yale's article. 
The annual gold yield of the State continues to be about 
$18,500,000, with some show of an increase due entirely 
to the operation of the gold dredges. The figures given 
in the official statistics for the year 1906, are not likely 
to be materially changed for the past year, though some 
increase in the gold output may be looked for owing to 
greater yield of the dredges near Marysville and Folaom, 
as well as some increase from those at Oroville. The 
largest dredge in the State is working successfully near 
Folsom and is handling an immense quantity of profit- 
able gravel. The several large machines of the Yuba 
Consolidated Co. above Marysville are doing wonderfully 
well, and the company is now producing more gold 
yearly than any other in the State, either quartz or 
gravel. These enlarged operations must necessarily 
exercise a marked influence on the gold output of Cali- 
fornia. Indeed, otherwise there would be a falling off in 
yield. The Utica, Lightner, Angels, and other produc- 
tive mines in Calaveras county were closed several 
months during 1907 owing to labor troubles, and there is 
virtually over $500,000 loss in that locality. Some other 
quartz mines have not been so productive during the 
year as usual. At the same time the three largest quartz 
gold producers, the Kennedy of Amador county and the 
North Star and Empire mines of Nevada county, have 
been doing better than usual. Less gold will be shown 
from Shasta county than in 1906, as in the latter part of 
1907 the copper smelting operations were restricted by 
reason of the low price of that metal. Less fluxing ores, 
carrying gold and silver, were therefore used. 

No increase is to be looked for from the drift mines or 
from the hydraulic and placer operations. As stated, 
therefore, if more gold is found to have been produced 
than in the previous year, it is due to dredging opera- 
tions. The silver output will probably be found to be 
somewhat less than in 1906owing to conditions in Shasta 
county, which is usually the largest silver producer. 
Next to gold, oil is the most important of California 
mineral products. It is expected that when the final 
figures of 1907 are complete, it will be found that the oil 
increased in amount some six or seven million l^arrels. 
In the latter part of the year the price was almost double 
that of the earlier months, so the oil men have doubtless 
done well in 1907. As to copper, a lessened output is 
expected naturally from the fact that so many important 
mines closed their plants during the last two' months of 
the year.— Editor.] 

yeaVfii>6 aCt ' Mlneral ^sources of the United States,' calendar 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 



I •<■.. 






Hold 911.217 cm. I £18,898,645 

Silver 1.076,171 ok. : ■10,009 

Copper 18,W7,M4 1r.. ! S.604.816 

J*Jd. M7,7»lb. , 21,013 


906,182 oz. 

1.220,611 i.z. 

28.726.118 lb. 

338.718 lb. 


Total ' £22,174,413 







averaging 92.22, and of lead ores 1681 tons, averaging 
97.03, were produced. 

There were 27 counties in California reporting gold 
product from deep mines and 24 reporting output from 
placers of different kinds. The quartz gold amounted to 
911,866,627, and that from the placers 97,375,925. Most 
of the deep (or quartz) gold came from silicious ores — 
911, 036,<> 18, but 9318,489 was recovered in the treatment 
of copper ores, 91020 from the lead ores, and 91000 from 
the zinc ores. Calaveras had the largest tonnage of ore, 
namely, 688,901 tons; and Amador produced the most 





















The drift mines of the State yielded 8209,423 less and 
the surface placers $207,978 less in 1906 than in 1905, a 
total of 9417,401 less. But the hydraulic mines yielded 
979,032 more than in the previous year and the dredges 
91,822,218 more, so that the total increase from placers 
is 91,483,849, this increase coming mainly, as shown, 
from dredging. 

of the total gold output of the State the deep mines 
yield 64.8$. Of the total placer mining output the 





J. JO 

Map of Horthtrn California. 

concentrate— 11,281 tons, yielding 9860,214, which came 
from 577,599 tons of crude ore. In the counties along the 
Mother Lode, that is Amador, Calaveras, Kl Dorado, 
Mariposa, and Tuolumne, there were 181 productive 
deep mines and 63 placers reporting In 1908. Three of 
these wire copper mines, two of which also produced 
gold and silver. There were in these five counties 
1,687,761 tons of ore produced, yielding a total of *<;, 188,- 
:t27 or an average of 94.22 jkt ton. The placers of these 
counties yielded 8816,808; and the copper output was 

The quartz mining counties of the State generally did 
not produce as much gold in 1906 as in the previous year, 
while tho*e counties in which placer mining predomi- 
nates show an increase. In 1906 the quartz gold 
amounted to 913,006,469 and in 1906 to 911,866,627, the 
reduction in output of gold from this source being 91,649,- 
912. The placer gold in 1905 was 96,8»2,076 and in 1906 
it was 97,375,925, an Increase of 81,4*:'., *19 for the year. 
Am to gold from placer mines, the total amount for the 
year is 97,375,925. of this gold, the dredges produced 
86,098,860. The 2 Hi hydraulic mines yielded 61,064,172; 
the 104 drift mines, 9605,h|7; and the 260 surface placer- 
yielded 9617,577. 

The Importance of dredging operations in California is 
shown in the following table: 

dredges yield 69.1$; the hydraulic mini's 14.8$; the 
surface placers 8.3$; and the drift mines 8.2$. This 
shows that the dredging operations now far exceed in 
yield that of the hydraulic, drift, and .surface placers 
combined. The dredges produced 92,820,798 more gold 
than all the other kinds of placer mining combined. The 
dredges produced 27.2^ of the total gold output of Cali- 

Hutte county is now for the first time the largest pro- 
ducer of gold in the State, the amount being 93,016,747. 
Nevada county, for many years the lender, produced 
?_',il">s, |20. Thus the stamps of Nevada county surrender 
to the dredge-buckets of Butte county in supremacy of 
gold output for the year 1906. The largest output from 
hydraulic mines is from Trinity county, with 9361,102; 
from surface placers, Placer county, 9130,222; and from 
drift mining, Placer county, 8201,076, 

A- to silver, the total output of the state for 1900 was 
9*17, h.'KI, which is 9107, K21 more than in the previous 
year. Of this 9606,705 was derived from copper mines, 
6262,151 from silicious ores, 928,082 from placer mines, 
910,702 from lead ores, and 920,100 from lead-zinc ores. 
The Increase is derived from the copper and zinc ores. 
The counties of Del Norte, Fresno, Inyo, Madera, Mari- 
posa, Monterey, Nevada, Plumas, San Bernardino, San 
Diego, Sierra, Trinity, Tulare, and Tuolume, show a 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

combined decrease of $71,196 for the year, the largest 
deficit being in Inyo county. Those counties showing an 
increase of silver are Amador, Butte, Calaveras, El 
Dorado, Humboldt, Kern, Mono, Orange, Placer, River- 
side, Sacramento, Shasta, Siskiyou and Stanislaus, Ven- 
tura, and Yuba, the total increase being in these counties, 
$339,017. The largest increase is in Shasta county 
($271,083), which is due to increased output of copper 

The mines of California in 1906 yielded 28,726,448 lb. 
copper valued at $5,522,712, an increase in pounds of 
12,028,904, and in value of $2,917,896. The increase in 
Shasta was $2,648,506; in Calaveras, $384,293; in San 
Bernardino, $91,001; and in Amador, $109; total increase 
in these counties, $3,123,909. Counties showing a de- 
crease in output of copper wereP^l Dorado, $24,960; 
Fresno, $136,6411; Inyo, $22,851; Mariposa, $1956; Orange 
and Placer, $18,691; Plumas, $166; and San Diego, 
$749; total, $206,013. The expansion of operations in 
Shasta is wholly responsible for this marked increase in 
copper product. 

In lead there was a decrease of $9186 for the year; 
and an increase of $5700 in Orange and Placer counties, 
and $1750 in San Bernardino. The total decrease was 

For the first time zinc was produced in California, the 
value of the output having been $12,5i6. 

It is to be noted that while the gold output of Cali- 
fornia declined in value in the small sum of $166,093, and 
the lead $1736, the silver increased $167,821, the copper 
$2,917,896, and the zinc $12,566, a total of $3,098,283. 
This makes the total output of California in all these 
metals $25,104,867 for the year 1906, which is an increase 
over the previous year (with platinum omitted in both 
years) of $2,930,454. For this increase in value, it will 
be noted, copper is mainly responsible. 


Amador, which is on the Mother Lode, shows a reduc- 
tion of $158,035 for the year. The falling off in gold out- 
put was $159,785, but there was a small increase in silver 
and copper. The following statement shows the output 
for the past two years: 

year. Gold. 

1905 £2,420,161 

1906 2,260,376 

Twelve deep mines report product, and some of these 
are being worked at great depth. The vertical shaft of 
the Kennedy is 3100 ft. deep; the Argonaut is 2700 ft. on 
the incline; and the shafts of the Central and South Eu- 
reka mines are 2500 ft. on the incline. The milling 
capacity of the county is 420 stamps. The principal pro- 
ducing mines are the Bunker Hill and Keystone at Ama- 
dor City; Fremont Consolidated (Cover) at Drytown; 
Argonaut, Kennedy, Oneida, and Zeila at Jackson; and 
Central and South Eureka at Sutter Creek. The Oneida 
at Jackson has been given up and will no longer be 
worked. The Wildman and Mahoney mines at Sutter 
Creek have made no yield of late, not having been 
worked. The 579,569 tons of ore milled yielded $2,230,- 
620 in gold and $14,401 in silver. The concentrate from 
this ore yielded $814,024 gold and $6190 silver from 
11,281 tons. 

Butte shows an increase of $435,861 gold and $4,265 
silver. The total yield of the county was $3,016,747 gold 
and $10,853 silver. Butte is now the leading gold pro- 
ducing county of the State. This is entirely due to the 
operation of the dredges at Oroville. The quartz mining 
industry of the county is now of small importance, only 
682 tons of ore having been worked in 1906, with a total 
yield of $6721. These quartz mines are at Berry Creek 










and Lumpkin, and are all small ones. Placers of different 
kinds are being worked at Bangor, Berdan, Berry Creek, 
Brush Creek, Cherokee, Clipper Mills, Enterprise, Forties- 
town, Inskip, Lumpkin, Orloff, Megalia, Nimshew, Oro- 
ville, Pentz, West Branch, and Yankee Hill. There are 
56 producing placers, including 5 hydraulic mines 12 
drift mines, 24 surface placers, and 15 dredging compa- 
nies. The hydraulic mines in this county yielded $37,220 
gold, drift mines $102,908, surface placers $101,207, and 
dredges $2,768,782. 

The following table shows the output of gold from 
dredging operations at Oroville in the past few years, and 
the annual increase: 

Year. Yield. Increase. 

1903 ' $1,329,998 

^4 1632.507 S302#>9 

1905 2,261,887 629380 

ly06 2,768,782 508,896 

Total 87,i93,174 11,438,784 

The number of dredges is increasing at Oroville, but 
other parts of the State are also showing profitable dredg- 
ing areas. Most of the dredges are now landlocked, that 
is, none of the tailing material is allowed to escape into 
the rivers, but is impounded or enclosed with walls of 
cobbles and rock thrown up by the stackers. 

Calaveras shows a falling off of $136,251 in its gold 
output for the year, but the copper has increased by 
$384,293, and the silver by $10,261, a total increase of 
$258,303, as the following table shows: 

Year. Gold. Silver. Copper. Total. 

190 5 $1,780,485 863,838 8572,022 82,416^45 

1906"....'..'' 1,644,234 74,099 966,315 2,674,648 

The copper output is rapidly increasing. Over two- 
thirds of the copper came from Campo Seco and the bal- 
ance from Copperopolis. Nearly 45,000 tons of ore were 
smelted in 1906. This copper ore yielded $59,294 in gold, 
and $65,138 in silver. These mines have their own 
smelting plants at the properties. The silicious ore from 
the quartz mines amounted for the year to 538,566 tons, 
yielding $887,918 gold, and $4971 silver. There were 32 
deep quartz mines producing this ore. The increase in 
tonnage in the county for the year was 35,235 tons, in- 
cluding copper ore. Of concentrate there was 10,039 tons, 
yielding $473,295. Calaveras had the largest tonnage 
of any county in the State in 1906, the amount being 
583.207 tons of ore. 

The principal producing quartz mines are the Angels 
Quartz, Lightner, and Utica at Angels; theGwinatUwin- 
mine; the Melones at Melones; and the Sheep Ranch at 
Sheep Ranch. Most of the other quartz mines were com- 
paratively small producers. The copper properties are 
the Penn Chemical Works at Campo Seco and the Union 
Copper Co. at Copperopolis. There are 478 stamps oper- 
ating in the mills of the county. The placer yield of 
Calaveras was $2^7,017, the larger proportion of which 
was from dredging operations at Jenny Lind and Wal- 
lace. There is very little surface placering, but the 
hydraulic and drift mines are productive, there being 14 
placers in all, including two dredge enterprises. 

Nevada has been the leading gold-producing county 
of California for many years, but in 1906 its gold output 
was exceeded by that of Butte. It is still, however, the 
leading producer of gold from quartz mines. The pro- 
duction for the past two years was as follows: 

Year. Gold. Silver. Total. 

1905 83,076.9:17 824,842 -5.KU.839 

1906 2,658,420 24,219 2.682,639 

Fifty -six mines reported product in this county. 32 
quartz and 24 placers. Of the latter the 7 hydraulic 
mines yielded in gold $117,724; the 8 drift mines, $135,- 
182, and the 9 surface placers, $11,105, a total of 



$264,011 from gravel. The ores treated were all from 
gold mines and amounted to 276,602 tons, which is 48,- 
664 tons less than reported the previous year. From this 
ore were derived 4,912 tons of concentrate, which yielded 
$284,759. The total quartz gold, including this, was 
$2,394,409 and the total quartz silver $22,805. This 
shows that the average value of the ore milled in the 
county was $8.74 per ton. 

The most productive quartz mines in the State are 
in the Grass Valley district, in which are included both 
Grass Valley and Nevada City. The returns for the past 
two years from the quartz mines were as follows : 

— Graas Valley.-- —Nevada City.-, 

Year. Gold. Sliver. Gold. Sliver. 

1906 _ 12,041,447 $10,483 $440,236 $12,531 

ISO) 2.196.SM0 16.516 133,031 5,755 

Aside from the reduction in output of the gravel mines 
of the county, this table shows that the decrease in yield 
of gold for the year was largely in the mines around 
Nevada City. The two largest mines at that point were 
inactive during 1906 owing to litigation, but lately 
operations have been resumed. The most productive 
gold quartz mine in the county — and in the State — is the 
North Star at Grass Valley. Other productive mines at 
that place are the Brunswick, Bullion, Central, Empire, 
Sultana, Idaho-Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York- 
Grass Valley, and Spring Hill. At Nevada City the 
producers are the Glencoe A Freeman, Gold Flat, Home 
Gold, Murchie, and Pittsburg. 

At Graniteville are a few small producers, and others 
are at North Columbia, Bough and Ready, and Wash- 

The largest producers among the auriferous gravel 
mines are the Esperance drift mine at French Corral; 
Liberty Hill hydraulic at Lowel Hill; Blue Tent at 
Nevada City; North Bloom field and Union Blue at North 
Bloomfleld; Waukeshaw at Belief; Badger Hill or 
Cherokee, Kate Hayes, Eureka Lake, and Yuba Canal 
at North San Juan; and Omega at Washington. 

Shasta shows the remarkable increase of $.'1,031,995, 
due to the resumption of active operations <>f the Moun- 
tain Copper Co., and the enlarged output of the Mam- 
moth and other copper enterprises in the county. The 
record of the past two years is as follows: 

Yaar. Gold. 

1805 1708,758 

1906 „ 819,144 

The county is thus by far the largest producer in the 
State, considering the gold, silver, and copper combined. 
It illustrates the importance of copper mining as a pro- 
ductive industry. Of the 30 deep mines producing gold 
in the county, 17 are deep gold mines, '.» placers, and their 
combined output is $819,144, yet the value of the copper 
from the four mines of that metal exceeds the gold by 
$3,618,977, which figure, in itself, is larger than the en- 
tire mineral output of any other county in the State. 

The entire tonnage of the county was 327,482 tons, 
yielding a total of $5,591,748. Of this 22,897 tons of ore 
were milled, yielding $277,705 gold and $2195 silver. In 
this ore were 152 tons of concentrate, which yielded gold 
$12,874 and silver $217. The output from milling ores 
was $290,679 gold and $2112 silver, a total of $292,991. 
From 804,686 tons of smelting ores, the output was 
#618,706 gold, $482,009 silver, besides the copper. The 
copper ore amounted to 262,388 tons, yielding $ 1,338, 121 
in that metal, aside from the gold and silver. The quartz 
and smelting ores produced a grand total in gold, silver, 
and copper of $6,681,826. The (placers in the county only 
yielded $9860 gold and $02 silver, a total of $91122. 

It should Ik- understood that large quantities of 
-ilicious on-, carrying gold and silver, are used as (lux in 








4,338, 121 


the copper smelting furnaces. In fact, one reason for the 
prosperous condition of the gold quartz mining industry 
in Shasta is because so many miners are working proper- 
ties on which they do not have to erect reduction works, 
but sell the ore direct to the copper smelting companies, 
receiving returns in proportion to the assay-value. These 
smelting companies also obtain some ore from adjoining 
counties, and of late, have made purchases in southern 

The most productive copper mining enterprise in the 
county at present is the Mammoth Copper Mining Co., 
with smelters at Kennett. Other large copper producers 
are the Mountain Copper, with smelters at Keswick, in 
Shasta county, and Bulls Head Point, in Contra Costa 
county; the Great Western Co., with a smelter at Ingot; 
and the Bully Hill Co., with a smelter at Winthrop. The 
prominent producers of quartz gold are the National, 
the Original Quartz Hill, and the Utah A California at 
Buckeye; the Hazel (Gladstone), Brunswick, and Black 
Tom (Niagara) at French Gulch; the Midas at Knob; the 
Gambrinus and Mad Ox at Stella; and the Evening Star 
and the Reid at Whitehouse. Outside of the copper com- 
panies, the largest producer in the county is the Hazel 
Mining Co. at French Gulch. The increase in ton- 
nage in this county (113,446 tons) is the largest of any 
county in the State. 

Trinity shows a falling off in its gold product of 
$215,192 as compared with the year 1905, and there was 
also a small reduction in its silver output. This is a 
county where mining for auriferous gravels is the pre- 
dominating industry. ( If the gold output of $500,843, 
the sum <>f ? Il".,ii7'.» came from placer operations, while 
the quartz gold was only $147,164. The gravel mines, 
therefore, yielded $206,515 more gold than the quart/. 
properties. Then- are f>7 gravel mines reporting product, 
of these II are hydraulic mines, which yielded $361,102 
in gold; 2 drift mines, yielding $2000; and 21 surface 
placers, with an output of $50,577. As regards 
hydraulic mining, Trinity has the largest output 
of any county in the State. Its 41 mines of this 
character yielded over $100,000 more than the 100 
hydraulic minis of Siskiyou, which conies next in rank 
in this class of mining. In these two counties there are 
no restrictions uikiii hydraulic mining as then- are in the 
counties in the drainage basin of the Sacramento and 
San Joaquin rivers, where the tailings have to lie 
impounded. The most productive and largest hydraulic 
mine in the state is the La Grange, near Weaverville. 
Other large hydraulic mines are the Hupp at Weaver- 
ville; and the combined Chinese mines at the same place; 
the Bennett at Douglas City; the Sykes at Trinity Center; 
Chapman A Fisher at Junction City, and the Burger at 
the same place; the Butler (Old Unity) at Minersville, 
and combined Chinese mines at the same place. All 
these menti 1 made an output of over $10,000 in 1900. 

The yield of silver from these gravel mines was only 
$1731, and the yield of silver from the quartz mines of 
the county was $125(1. There are no large quartz min- 
ing operations in the county and the yield from this 
source appears to be falling off. The tonnage for the 
year 1906 was only 9261, a railing off of 31,207 tons for 
theyear. It was all ailicious ore; about 300 tons of con- 
centrate was worked. The principal quartz mines are 
the Five Pines at Trinity Center; the Brown Bear at 
Dead wood; the Globe at Dedrick; the Bullychoop near 
the Shasta line; the < Iro Grande at Carrville. Other 
smaller quart/, operations are conducted at these points 
and at Coleridge, Denny, Dorleska, Douglas City, and 
Lewiston. No copper is yet being produced in the 
county, but several mines of this metal arc In-ing opened 
or developed. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 


By Charles G. Yale. 

Statistician to the I'nlted States Geological Survey. 

*As the total value of the gold, silver, and associated 
metals produced in Nevada in the calendar year 1905 
amounted to $9,453,114, and in 1906 to $15,714,442, it 
will be seen that the State showed the very marked 
increase for the year of $6,261,328. Moreover, there was 
a decided gain in the value of every one of the metals, the 
most notable, as was to have been expected, in the gold, 
namely, $5,200,885. The silver increase was considerably 
over half a million dollars, and the copper about a 
quarter of a million dollars, and both lead and zinc show 
satisfactory advances. 

Although Nye county was much the largest producer 
in the State in 1905, and increased its output in 1906 by 
$685,620, yet it now takes second rank, giving the first 
place to Esmeralda, which has a total output for the year 
of $7,295,543. Of this $7,125,119 is gold, and of this 
total the amount of $7,026,154 came from Goldfleld alone, 
which also yielded $10,484 in silver. The increase in 
production of this camp over the previous year was 
$5,148,499. The increase at Tonopah, in Nye county, 
was $672,803. The only other county of the State with 
a record for the year of over a million dollars is Lincoln, 
which yielded $1,506,056. 

It may be proper to note that while the figures quoted 
show a very marked and satisfactory increase in bullion 
production, and indicates material progress in the condi- 
tion of the mineral industry of the State, it is doubtful 
if they will be acceptable to many engaged in mining 
stock transactions who have led the public to believe that 
millions of dollars are coming monthly from the mines 
in the newer camps. To those engaged in legitimate 
mining enterprises, however, who know the time re- 
quired to bring even the best of mines to the stage of 
development when steady and regular production may 
be expected, the showing is most satisfactory. The 
grade of ore yielded by certain of the mines of the State 
has been remarkably high, considering the quantities 
shipped, and as these shipments have been published 
was hoisted and sacked, again when 



when the 

actually shipped, and still again when returns 
received, exaggerated ideas as to the weekly and total 
output of certain prominent mines prevail generally. 
Nevada has doubtless attracted more attention from 
miners, prospectors, and investors during the past few 
years than any of the other mineral-producing States of 
the Union. That it has 'made good ' may be admitted; 
and it may also be taken for granted that everything 
indicates a still further and more marked increase in out- 
put as other mines are brought to a productive stage, and 
other camps are developed. 

Nevada has two decided advantages from a mining 
point of view. It really has numerous mines of merit, 
and what is about of equal importance it has plenty of 
capital ready to develop them. After a long period of 
depression in mining affairs, and a gradually decreasing 
yield, the discoveries in the southern portion of the State 
a few years ago, once more attracted general attention to 
the possibilities of the mineral region. These camps 
were very rapidly developed, permanent towns estab- 
lished, railroads built, and a large population settled in 
what was heretofore desert territory. A natural result 
of these changed conditions was the revival of older 
camps, and their rehabilitation. Many of the old centres 
of mining prosperous a quarter of a century ago, had 
l)een virtually abandoned and the mines closed. Lack of 

ASytr^'™ 8 M " l3ral KeSOUn ' eS ° f the U » Ued States -' 

capital, and of suitable means of ore reduction and traas- 
portation brought about this result. As the success of 
the newer camps became manifest, population increased 
and capital for investment became plentiful. Then men 
began to investigate properties in the older camps of the 
State where there were numerous partly developed mines 
lying idle. Nearly all of these older localities are now 
being exploited to a greater or less degree. Moreover, 
not only are silver and gold being sought, but it is found 
that Nevada is rich in copper, zinc, and other metals, 
and mines of this character are being sought for, devel- 
oped, and equipped. 

Of course, the newer localities where the mines proved 
rich, and afforded opportunities for prospecting, mining, 
and investment in a virgin tract of country, naturally 
won the most attention. And it is from those new 
camps that the bulk of the bullion production of the 
State is now being derived and whence the most material 
increase of the future is to be expected. 

In exemplification of this, it may be stated that over 
77 fo of the entire bullion output of the State in 1906 came 

ao* //s' t/e' //7 r 

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— — — — 






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\L I N< 















The Counties of Nevada. 

from the two camps of Goldfleld and Tonopah; and that 
Goldfleld alone produced nearly 45% of the total yield. 
This statement shows clearly the importance of the new 
camps, and it shows also why these two camps have had 
such an influence in bringing population and capital to the 
State. Much of the money derived from the new mines 
is being invested in developing properties at other points 
in Nevada, and outside capital is doing its shar also. 

While more or less leasing is still going on, the larger 
productive mines are now worked solely on owner's 
account, the leases having expired, and not having been 
renewed. In this connection it is proper to make some 
mention of the so-called 'high-grading' in the mines 
that carry the richest ore at Goldfleld. In the opinion of 
the officials of the most prominent mines, the ore stolen 
by the 'high-graders' amounted in 1906 to $1,250,000, of 



which about $250,000 was ultimately recovered. This 
leaves a million dollars worth of ore presumably still 
secreted and as yet unmarketed. Of course, this amount 
is not included in the statistical tables. 

Aside from Goldfleld and Tonopah most of the newer 
camps of the State were only small shippers in 1906, 
although much development was accomplished. Some 
mines that were in a position to ship ore were awaiting 
the completion of railway lines; while others were hold- 
ing their ore until in a position to mill it themselves. 
The San Pedro, Los Angeles 4 Salt Lake railroad is now- 
completed from Las Vegas, in Lincoln county, to Bull- 
frog, in Xye county, and will open up a large mint nil 
region. The Western Pacific line will also soon be com- 
pleted in the western part of Nevada and will put many 
properties in White Pine county on a shipping basis. 
The completion of the Nevada Northern railroad from 
the main line of the Southern Pacific to Ely has already 
proved of the greatest advantage to the many low-grade 
copper properties being developed in that vicinity. 

There is also some indication of the Nevada Central 
railroad, which runs from Battle Mountain to the old 
camp of Austin, being extended south through the lleese 
River district to the Round Mountain and Manhattan 
districts, in the northern portion of Nye county. The 
developments at Fairview and Wonder would also seem 
to warrant the construction of a branch railroad from 
Hazen, on the Southern Pacific, to these camps. The 
completion of the Tonoj»ah A Tidewater railroad will give 
a second outlet to the camps in southwestern Nye and 
Esmeralda counties. 

Although there were only 1 13 deep mints retorting 
product in the State in 1900, they yielded 496,307 tons of 
ore. The dry or silicious ores amounted to 468,672 tons 
(an increase of 12,268 tons), of an average value of $82.37 
per ton. The 5,184 tons of copper ore averaged *5.84 per 
ton in gold and silver; and the 18,940 tons of lead ore 
averaged f 13.61 per ton in gold and silver. There were 
also 8,611 tons of zinc-lead ore worked. Altogether the 
Increase in tonnage for tin year is 64,106. The amount 
of concentrate produced was 1,395 tons, worth $440,876. 
In addition there were 67,387 tons of old tailing worked, 
yielding 1170,995. These were nearly all from the 
Con i stock. 

In 1900 there were 155 producing mines in Nevada, 
1 43 fleep and 1 2 placers. Two of the latter are hydraulic 
and the others surface placers. Of the deep mines, 75 
have gold as the principal metal, 34 silver, 6 copper, 26 
lead, and 2 zinc-lead. There have also been received 
reports from 1,070 non-producing mines. Of these, Nye 
county has the most— 271, followed by Esmeralda with 
193, Lincoln with 171, and the other counties with 
smaller numbers. 

Furthermore, Eureka county produced 1,014,244 11>. of 
lead, worth $57,7 12, and Lincoln 918,830 lb., worth $62,088, 
the entire State yielding 3,828,617 ll>. of lead, worth #217,- 
649. In zinc the total output was 2,886,328 lb., worth 
$176,006, nearly all of which came from Lincoln county. 

As to the source of the gold produced, with the excep- 
tion of 2,556 oz. from placers, 127 oz. from copper ores, 
and 81,160 oz. from lead ores, it was all extracted from 
silicious ores. By far the largest part was derived from 
the mines at Ooidfield. As regards the silver, the placers 
yielded 1,296 oz.; copper ores gave 41,273 oz.; lead ores, 
275,469 oz.; and zinc-lead ores, 391 oz. This leaves 
6,462,1*2 oz. as having been extracted from silicious ores. 
Of the total amount of silver 6,739,862 oz. came from Nye 
county, mainly from the mines at Tonopah. 

The producers at Ooidfield in 1906 were the Combina- 
tion Fraction, Florence, Oold Bar, Ooidfield C. O. I)., 
Ooidfield Daisy Syndicate, Ooidfield Consolidated (Mo- 


Hold, oz. 

silver, oz 

Topper, lb.. 

Lead, lb 

Zinc, lb 




Quantity. Value. Quantity. Value. 

55 1,927 














IN 1906. 


Douglas .... 




Esmeralda 344,67" 



Humboldt ... 






White Pine. 






























( 6.664 





8,968 , 



Lb. Value. 



























Total 506,520 SI0.470.704 6,770,611 $4,536,310 1,625,985^313,813 

hawk, Jumbo, Combination), Ooidfield Oreat Bend, 
Jumbo Extension, and Uiamondfield Black Butte Con- 
solidated. By far the largest part of the output was from 
the various mines of the Ooidfield Consolidated Mines 
Co. In this district the output for the year was 69,628 
tons of ore, which, on being treated, yielded $7,036,638, 
of which $10,484 was silver and the rest gold. Much 
high-grade ore was shipped, but the average value of the 
total amount treated was (I IS |ht ton, of which $\ 17.83 
was gold and 17 cents silver. At the local mills 19,461 
tons of ore were worked, and to the smelters 40,167 tons 
were shipped. The milling capacity of the camp will Ik; 
much larger in 1907. It may be said generally that the 
camp is in a position largely to increase its output and 
will do so for some time to come. 

In Lincoln county, production is rejiorted from the dis- 
tricts of Crescent, Ferguson, Eagle Valley, Pioche, 
Yellow Pine, and Searchlight. The largest and most 
important producers in the county, and one of the largest 
producers of gold in the State, is the Bamberger Dela- 
mar Mining Co., in the Ferguson district. In output of 
gold only two properties exceed it, those of the Goldfleld 
Consolidated Mines and the Tonopah Mining Co. It 
handles, however, very much the largest tonnage of any 
property In the State, and the ore is crushed and cya- 
nided at its own plant. Aside from Ferguson, the most 
productive district in the county is Searchlight, which 
yielded $619,785 in gold and $7,734 in silver. The com- 
panies making this production were the Cyrus Noble, 
Brockman (Duplex mine), Quartette, Southern Nevada, 
and Searchlight companies. Of the 46,668 tons of ore 
worked In the district in 1906, the Quartette company 
produced 23,316. Four of these companies have Hl- 
stamp-mills, while the Quartette had a 20-stamp mill and 
20 stamps were added in 1907. The shaft on this mine is 
860 ft. deep, while the shafts of tin' others run from 25(1 
to 500 ft. In depth. 

The Clark railroad has given new life to the old dis- 
trict of I'ioche and to Yellow Pine. The only prominent 
producer in Pioche was the llristol Consolidated Copper 
Co., which shipped a large tonnage of ore carrying 
silver, copper, and lead. The principal producer in the 
Yellow Pine district was the Potosi Zinc-Lead Co., 
which is the largest producer of zinc in the State. 

The principal district in Nye county is Tonopah, which 
is second only to Onldfleld, in Esmeralda county. The 
producers at Tonopah in 1906 were the Jim llutler, Mac- 
N'amara, Montana Tonopah, Tonopah North Star, Tono 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

pah Belmont, Tonopah Extension, Tonopah Midway, 
Tonopah, and West End Consolidated companies. 

The amount of ore treated from this camp in 1900 was 
106,491 tons, yielding in gold $1,304,077 and in silver 
$3,817,012. This shows the average value to be $48.10, 
of which $35.85 is silver and $12.25 gold. All the ore 
from the camp in 1900 was shipped to smelters except 
that portion sent by the Tonopah Mining Co. to Chas. 
Butters & Co. at Virginia City for cyanide treatment. 
Over two-thirds of the silver output of the State came 
from Tonopah. The tonnage would have been greater 
had the companies been able to get sufficient cars, but the 
railroad was crowded beyond its capacity. 

Shipments of ore from Bullfrog were comparatively 
small in 1906. Those reporting production were the 
Montgomery Shoshone, Skookum Bullfrog, Gibraltar 
Consolidated, and Tramps Consolidated companies. The 


Ji vj 

t *»0~» ,. af .i 









-. -vain*. 

4\ \ \ 
co£AtyU> O 

N iKs KPa sin ^m^rkit v>\ O 



o&r°tt hoHj 



Map of Hie Hew Mining Districts of Nevada and California. 

Berlin mine in Union district had a smaller output than 
usual. The new district at Fairplay had many active 
mines, but the only shippers were the Griggs Attwood, 
Attwood, and Pactolus companies. 

The mines of the Comstock in Storey coun ty yielded 
only $327,766 in gold and $185,763 in silver from 15 
different mines. 

The production of Nevada in 1907 is estimated at 
$15,000,000 of gold and 6,000,000 oz. silver. 

Electrical Power in Arizona.— The successful or- 
ganization of the Arizona Power Co. of Prescott, Ari- 
zona, is announced by R. S. Masson, associated with P. S. 
Viele, of New York. Immediate construction of the first 
power-generating plant will begin on Fossil creek, where 
7500 hp. will be generated to supply the power and light- 
ing contracts already made with the United Verde mine 
and the Humboldt smelter. The transmission lines of this 
company will pass through the centre of that extensive 
mining territory between Jerome and the Bradshaw 
mountains, and enough power will eventually be trans- 
mitted to supply all the mines and mills in this region. 
The Electrical Operating & Construction Co. will super- 
intend the building of the different power plants. 


A. H. Brooks, chief of the United States Geological 
Survey's division of Alaskan mineral resources, has just 
returned from Alaska, and reports that various unfortu- 
nate conditions have led to such a curtailment of gold 
mining in Alaska during the last summer as to result ina 
material reduction in the gold output as compared with 
that of the previous year. Accurate statistics will not be 
available for several months, but the preliminary esti- 
mates indicate that the value of Alaska's entire gold 
production for 1907 will be between $17,000,000 and 
$18,000,000, as against more than $21,000,000 last year. 
This loss must be charged for the most part to the de- 
crease in the production of the placer mines. 

It is not to be supposed, however, that Alaska's placers 
have passed the zenith of their production. All the evi- 
dence points to the conclusion that a greater annual pro- 
duction than that of 1907 will yet be attained. The 
mining industry has therefore received only a temporary 
setback, but it is one from which it may not recover in 
less than a year or two. Mr. Brooks says: 

The curtailment of placer operations can be assigned 
to certain definite causes, of which the difficulty of ob- 
taining adequate labor is the most important The 
Fairbanks district is the one that suffered most from 
labor troubles. A strike was started there on April 
27, just when the gravel accumulated by the winter 
mining operations was ready to be sluiced by use of 
the water of the spring freshets. As a result many of 
the winter dumps were not finally washed out until fall. 
This not only prevented the mine operators from con- 
tinuing work, but also put many of the smaller operators 
into financial difficulties, because they had counted on 
the winter production to finance the work during the 
summer. Labor conditions in the camp gradually 
adjusted themselves during the summer, but throughout 
the open season there was lack of experienced miners. 
When the strike began about 1200 men, it is said, left 
Fairbanks, most of whom started for the newly dis- 
covered Innoko district. As a result very few new- 
enterprises were begun, and many of the established 
mines were not operated during the summer. Had 
there been laborers enough the Fairbanks district would, 
no doubt, have produced more gold in 1907 than it did 
in 1906. As a matter of fact its production was probably 
$3,000,000 less than it was in the previous summer. 

Among last summer's important developments were 
the noteworthy production of Esther creek, the opening 
up of considerable placer ground on Vault creek, and the 
discovery of prospects on Eldorado and Our creeks. 
These discoveries, together with those on Small wood 
creek, indicate that the Fairbanks district proper is 
more extensive than had been previously supposed. The 
finding of gold in an adjacent area, on the upper Chena 
river, is also significant, as this region appears to lie in 
the same general belt as the Fairbanks district. 

The railroad from Fairbanks has now been extended 
to the mouth of Cleary creek, and this road and the 
numerous wagon roads that have been built make all 
parts of the district accessible. The high charges on 
freight from Puget Sound ports and the uncertainties and 
delays in its delivery still greatly discourage all mining 
enterprises. These discouragements can be removed 
only by the establishment of railroad communication 
with some coastal poiut. 

Important developments were made in the Rampart 
district, notably in its southern part, on the tributaries of 
Baker creek, where two ditches were built and some suc- 
cessful hydraulic operations were carried on. Noteworthy, 
too, is the installation of three dredges in the Fortymile 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


district. Two of these were in operation for a part of the 

Some excitement was caused by the discovery of placer 
gold at several points on the lower Yukon. While no 
great values were found, yet these localities are so acces- 
sible that they give promise of being mined at relatively 
low cost. The two largest stampedes of the season took 
place to the Chandlar river and to the Innoko. In the 
first locality at least one producing creek was developed 
and some good prospects were found at other localities. 
Of the Innoko less definite information is available. 
More than a thousand people took part in this stampede, 
and many claims were staked, but little systematic pros- 
pecting was done. The region is rather difficult of access, 
being several hundred miles from the Yukon by the 
Innoko river route. Some gold has been found, but it is 
too soon to predict what the future of this camp will be. 

Seward Peninsula also had its labor troubles during 
the pastsummer. Though they were not so serious as those 
of Fairbanks, yet they considerably hampered mine op- 
erators, and as a consequence the production will prob- 
ably be less than it was last season. The old beach-lines 
continued to be the centre of mining activity, though 
much of their extent has now been mined out. The sec- 
ond beach-line has been traced east of Nome river to 
Cunningham and Hastings creeks. The third beach-line 
has also been traced to Hastings and has been found west 
of Snake river at Sunset creek. There can be no doubt 
that the discovery of these rich beach placers has retarded 
the development of more extensive but less valuable creek 
and tundra placers. These ancient sea l>eaches have 
proved to be so very rich that mine operators are disin- 
clined to spend their activities in preparing to work the 
lower grade deposits of other forms of placers. As a con- 
sequence, there has been but relatively little creek mining 
during the last two years in Seward Peninsula, especially 
in the vicinity of Nome. 

In the northeastern part of the |>cninsula two long 
ditches, one at Candle creek and one discharging on the 
Keewnlik, were completed. Considerable mining was 
done in this part of the peninsula, notably on Candle 
creek. The Taylor creek and some smaller ditches in the 
Kugruk district were also completed and were in part in 

The dredge on Solomon river has been in ojieration 
throughout the summer, as has also one near the mouth 
of Ophir creek. A smaller dredge has been operated on 
West creek, and a large dredge was constructed for min- 
ing on Bourbon creek near Nome. Gold dredging will 
undoubtedly l>ecome important in the |xninsula. Plans 
are under way for utilizing water power and reducing 
the cost of operating the dredges. 

Additional attention has been given to lode pros|>eeting 
during the past summer, especially in the Nome district. 
Copper, lead, bismuth, antimony, and gold ores have 
been found, but it la too soon to predict an im|x>rtant 
future for lode mining. 

In the Cook Inlet region the most notable devclo|>- 
inents were in the Yentna district, discovered in 1906. 
Here the operators are for the most |>art small holders, 
but in the aggregate considerable gold was produced. 
Work continued in the placers of the Sunrise district, but 
there were no noteworthy developments. Interest was 
aroused by the discovery of mineral-bearing lodes in 
Kenai Peninsula and in the islands and mainland to the 
southwest. Whether any of these art? of commercial im- 
portance remains for the future to decide. 

The mining of copper ore was continued at several 
localities in the Prince William Sound district, and con- 
siderable prospecting for copper was done. There 
was great activity in the Copper River region, especially 

in the Chitina copj>er belt. This region has been ren- 
dered more accessible by placing a steamboat on Copper 
river, above the rapids. The operations in this copper 
belt have been confined chiefly to making surveys for 
patents and to doing assessment work. It will be impos- 
sible to carry on any great amount of mining until the 
region is made more accessible by the railway. 

The railroad situation in this part of Alaska has been 
the focal point of public interest throughout the summer. 
Construction work has been actively pushed by two com- 
panies building from Katalla, the immediate objective 
point being the coal deposit lying about 25 miles inland. 
In midsummer construction was also begun on a railroad 
from Valdez. All three of these roads claim to be build- 
ing into the copper belt of the Chitina region. 

Little has been done in the Alaska coalfields except to 
make surveys with a view of obtaining title to coal lands. 
The Controller Bay field will be opened upas soon as rail- 
road transportation is established, and the same may be 
said of the Matanuska field. 

In southeastern Alaska labor conditions again have 
trammeled mining operations. The Treadwell mine was 
closed for about three weeks early in the summer because 
of a strike, and the small operators have been affected to 
a lesser degree. 

The copper mines of the Ketchikan district, which were 
being actively developed early in the summer, seriously 
felt the fall in the price of copper and some of them were 
forced to close. This was the case with the Hadley 
smelter and its subsidiary mining properties. Early in 
the summer five mines were shipping copper ore and a 
number of other projx?rties were being opened. 

Faraday's mind was too absorbed in wonderment 
and almost religious fervor, as the secrets of nature 
revealed themselves, for sordidness in any form to find 
lodgment. He wasted his energy neither in money- 
making nor in captiously defending his discoveries and 
great conceptions from sup|x>sed infringement by other 
scholars. He never forgot, despite his brilliant original 
work, that generally the great investigators only lay the 
keystone in the arch which many less gifted workers 
have txH'ii erecting stone by stone. He did not consider 
it any detraction from his honor that he was permitted 
only to crown the structure which others had helped to 
build from the foundation up. They are the greatest 
among the great who appreciate this limitation and 
recognize what they owe to others. Faraday knew that 
his discoveries gave him but imperfect glimpses of some 
of the laws and phenomena of nature, which we, through 
our ignorance and prejudice, are slow in understanding, 
but which would soon cease to Ix- secrets if we could only 
disabuse our minds of false conceptions, see facts as facts 
Instead of as arguments for our theories, and then work 
together with single-heartedness. — .lames Douglas. 

Gold in France. — Wells bored in Meurtheet Moselle 
have shown the presence of a notable quantity of gold 
and silver at a depth of about soil ft. Some samples 
brought up with the cores have yielded ti gm. of silver 
and 1 of gold per ton of mineral. These were taken from 
sandstones of Triassic age. From another boring, made 
by Mr. Francis Lour, during his interesting investiga- 
tions in the Muschelkalk, at 1800 ft., beds of calcareous 
sandstone were met with which proved superior in yield 
to the average Transvaal gold-bearing rocks — that is, 
gave more than 8 gm. of the precious metal ixt ton. 
Further, considering that the mineral during calcination 
loses about one-fourth of its weight, it can be asserted 
that some specimens were worth at least i'H per ton. The 
gold is thought to have originated through the evapora- 
tion to dryness of the ancient Triassic sea. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

Variations in Mining Costs. 

Written for the Mining and Scientific Press 
By J. R. Fin lay. 

In examining a mine in southern Idaho I found that 
expectations were being based on a mining cost of $5 per 
ton. Upon studying the question to the best of my 
ability, I concluded that the ore could not be mined for 
less than from $20 to $25 per ton. This enormous dis- 
crepancy of course influenced decisively the transaction 
contemplated and laid emphasis on the importance of 
correct knowledge on this point. There were no figures 
at hand showing the experience of former operators. 
The aggregate value of the ore blocked out was about 
$1,000,000. I think it will prove interesting to analyze 
the considerations which gave rise to such a wide differ- 
ence of opinion. One of the most vital features proved to 
be the question of the necessity and cost of development 

It was assumed on one hand that advantage could be 
taken of the ore already available, and it was thought 
without any great attention being paid to the subject 
that a cost of $5 per ton would be ample for mere stop- 
ing. It was thought that the property could be paid for 
out of the ore reserves and, that object being attained, 
the development could safely be left to take care of itself, 
since any further ore would represent clear profit. In 
certain contingencies this view of the matter might be all 
right. If the development had proceeded to a point 
where it demonstrated that no further ore should be 
looked for, of course the only problem to consider would 
be to extract the ore in reserve as cheaply as possible. 

This was not the case. The prospect of finding more 
ore was good and the profit to be made from the prop- 
erty depended on future discoveries. At the contem- 
plated cost of $5 per ton for mining the profits to be 
expected would no more than cover the price of the 
property. If when the ore was exhausted the property 
were nominally paid for, it would be rather a vain 
triumph. In that event two unpleasant necessities would 
have to be faced: 

(1) Shutting off production until more ore could be 

(2) Finding money for the development. 

Under such circumstances the paying for the mine 
from o e reserves would indeed only be nominal. The 
correct stand to take was that the property must be con- 
sidered as a permanent thing. Development must be 
provided for from the beginning. The mine could not 
be considered as profitable unless the ore already avail- 
able could not only pay for sloping, but for finding more 
ore and for a number of other things that cost money. 

The whole problem is a function of how the ore occurs 
in the ground and of the commercial conditions of the 
neighborhood in which it is situated. The occurrence of 
the ore was as follows: The veins were exceedingly 
persistent both in length and depth, but the ore-shoots 
would average only nine inches thick. The shoots more- 
over were short, of irregular outline, and were scattered 
along the vein for a length of about 2000 ft. As greater 
depth was attained, the vein itself must be reached by 
longer and longer adit-levels. On account of the vein 
consisting of a system of nearly parallel fissures, any one 
of which might be mineralized, it was necessary to cross- 
cut a zone and in many cases run parallel drifts on the 
same level. Moreover, for purposes of ventilation as 
well as for exploration, raises had to be put up at inter- 
vals. In fact, not less than 15,000 ft. of openings had 
been made during the history of the mine to find and 
open up about 25,000 tons of ore. Just what this devel- 
opment cost I do not know, but it would probably aver- 

age $12 per foot, or $180,000. Here we have a cost of, 
in round numbers, $7 per ton for finding the ore and 
getting it ready to stope. 

It is pretty evident from the above that even were the 
estimated stoping cost of $5 per ton found to be correct, 
our real mining cost would be $12 per ton, adding the 

But as a matter of fact a nine-inch seam cannot be 
stoped for $5 per ton in Idaho. It is to be remembered 
that the nine inches of ore must be kept carefully sepa- 
rated from the waste. When it is remembered that a 
stope can scarcely be worked that will not average at 
least 3j ft. wide, it is evident that about four times, by 
weight, as much material must be handled as is taken 
out as ore. Moreover, the necessity of keeping the ore 
strictly separated from the waste makes it necessary to 
perform two separate acts in breaking and removing the 
ore and waste. It is probable that if all the material in 
a 3J-ft. stope were removed, the cost would be about 
$3.50 per ton, but when only one quarter of this material 
is ore, the cost of the ore will be $14 per ton. In my 
judgment, therefore, the mining of this material would 
stand thus far as follows: 

Development t 7 per ton 

Stoping H " " 

Total «1 " " 

But even at this we have not in all probability arrived 
at the true mining cost. We have considered develop- 
ment and stoping costs as fully and properly worked out. 
I mean by this that we have not deceived ourselves by 
poor accounting, forgetting to add in the manager's 
salary or the office expenses. We have charged up every 
current expense against the operation. But what about 
expenses that are not current? I mean the amortization 
of the plant. 

In this connection I think we should not charge the 
purchase price of the property. That price might be 
entirely out of proportion to its merits. I am trying to 
arrive at the real operating cost, which, of course, in- 
cludes all expenditures made necessary in the process of 
working the mine. Machinery, offices, tramways, ware- 
houses must be provided, and the cost of all these things 
must be returned with interest. It is quite easy to for- 
get this fact in preparing a statement of stoping costs. 
It is forgotten, I believe, in 99 cases out of 100. In say- 
ing this I do not wish to convey the impression that so 
large a proportion of examining engineers overlook this 
point; but I do mean that as costs are generally dis- 
cussed and figured by mining men, no heed is paid to 
anything except the current expenses. 

The way to gain a correct idea of the usual confusion 
between part costs and real costs is to get the history of a 
number of mines for periods long enough to give a true 
average of results and obtain the whole cost by dividing 
the total expenses by the total tonnage. For instance, 
the reports cf the Bunker Hill & Sullivan, a very well 
managed lead mine, for 20 years, give the following: 
3,388,108 tons of ore were mined at an average operating 
cost of $2.60 per ton. Nevertheless, we find in the same re- 
ports that there were expended in the period, $3,400,000 
in addition to operating costs, or $1 per ton. Since 20 years 
seems an ample space in which to depreciate all, or prac- 
tically all, of the extraordinary expenses and the equip- 
ment of a mining property, it seems fair to me to charge 
up the total expenses in such a period to operating. Our 
real operating cost then has been $3.60 per ton instead of 
$2.60. Even admitting that $1,000,000 should still be 
held to capital account for future operations, the real cost 
should be $3.30 per ton. 

The extraordinary nature and extent of the misconcep- 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 




Alaska - Tread - 



Cripple Creek 



Camp Bird. 










8 = 

3 = 

a S 








Smelting _ I 6.20 

Concentrating - 6.20! > 

Cyanldlng I 5.20 | 

Tailing cyanide 



Cyanldlng _.. 




1891-1903 Hand-picked I 
■melting ore... i 




8.00 3.20 
20.00 8.00 

smelting ore.. 


e a 

■s ^ 
3 a 
a s 






| . 

375,496 17.20 4.40 55 

3!<»,604 T12.15 1.70 It 

775,100 14.45 3.00 20 

Js 5 3 a p 

k as 

0.245 1.146 10.135 1.28 


•Most or the development work 

Is In the orebody Itself. 
tSmeltlng concentrates — 2$ of 

crude ore. 
Very large vein. About 40* 

mined from open pit. 

ton s-i 20.62 25.82, Large vein with branches, same 

iJS 7?g 1.60 10.13 asElOro. Satements complete 

~ 0.30 8-08 and satisfactory. 

2.58 2.58 0.30 2.88 Metric tons and wet weights. 



10 CO so.oo 

Figures for one year only. Prob- 
ably too low for average. 

Many small veins. The term 
12.00 smelting Includes also chlorin- 
ating or cyanldlng. This Is done 
at custom works, and the cost 
includes the losses of gold. 

9.25 26.45 

•Includes amortization of chlor- 
Inatlon plant. 
7.00 19.25; tlncludes amortization cf mtn- 
8.10 22.65 Ing plant and property pur- 

Amalgamating \ 
190S-1907_ Concentrating • 
Smelting ) 



I «Of this 3 01 Is general expense. 
1.66 19 2.75 10.71 1.74 12.45 ' Single vein averaging about S ft. 



A naconda. 

Boston A Mon- 

Average of five 


Single years .... | |H°2 

Calu met * llecla. 




190 .-1907.. 



5,100 .990 

1, 56,786 








I I mi 




Bunker Hill A 1886-1907. 


Federal Mining A 1906-1907.. 

Smelting Co. Inclu- 

Idaho. slve. 

Southeast Mis- 



!,:< 11,000 



2,I2K, 112 

■ •■.•"K'fU 

Concentrating I „-„ n «,, „ . 

smelting i x ** °- 30 " 

Concentrating . I .. .„ . » nu-i 

Smelting / sl8 T oa3 

2.61 1 ? 
3.926 30 

•5.51 9.10 

•Concentrating done at smelter. 
In 1906 costs were: Ml. .ing S.67 

Smelting 2.90 

Itetliilng and marketing 1.21 

Total 7.78 

2.56 1.65 8.22 

1.00 3.06 2.903 
8 0.762 2.67 0.923 


Mining Increases constanlly 
Freight, rerjnlng, and reduction 
show a constant decrease. 

Concentrating > ,„, • OfO 3 11 oft". 

Smelting / *•" ' ux0 s " UK0 

Concentrating 1 
Smelting ... J 






Concentrating 1 
Smelting J 






Figures for this mine are of the 
most generalized kind. Very 
little can Im- learned fiora the 
reports except th<- cost of cop- 
per, which is 8.15c. per lb. The 
pounds per ton can l>e Inferred 
pretty accurately from state- 
ments In reports, and the cost 
of smelting and retlnlng may 
bo Inferred from the Wolverine 

Includes all expenses to date. 
This Is one of the best records 
to be found anywhere. 

It Isdlilicult to get the develop- 
ment cost of these mines with 
any accuracy. 

Concentrating.) ,, .- 

smelting / ""' 

•0.50 2.07 0.20 2.27 


1.4.1 0.20 15 



Concentrating 1 
Smelting | 





3.6 > 





Concentrating 1 

2. MO 






i oncentratlng 








•Of this 15c. is allowed for amor- 
tization of mill ami railroad. 

tof this 15c. Is allowed for amor- 
tisation of capital In develop- 
ment and plant. 

, . *A 1 lows Tor amortization of plant 
from ore mined and In reserve. 

•Approximate. Docs not Include 
deductions for losses. 

Large complex vein. 

•Charging up all expense of 
whatever nature Incurred dur- 
ing year. 

•A pproxlmate. 

No allowance Is made here for 
amortization of plants, but I 
believe all current expenses are 
Included. An Item of ¥300,000 Is 
charged for development. 

Development done by shaft sink- 
Exploration by diamond-drilling. 

tions of mining costs is illustrated in the most widely 
separated regions. Let us take the Cripple Creek district 
in Colorado. Messrs. Lindgren and Itansome in their 
('. S. Geological Survey report on that district state the 
gold output to the end of 1903 at $124,416,022. This 
came from about 8,500,000 tons of ore. When we come 
to examine the circumstances attending the extraction of 
this ore we find that it must have cost nearly if not quite 

$20 per ton. The figure is deducted as follows: 

ere had been done up to the end of 1JHK1, outside of 

" miles, or 2,:100,000 ft. of 



surface prospecting, about 160 . 

underground workings in the Cripple Creek district. 

'" ft. of shafts, which cost in » 

this total there was K0,000 it. oi miuut, which cum i an 
probability (with their equipment) not far from rTo per 
t. This item would l>e $6,000,001). In addition to 


this, there were 2,200,000 ft. i>f drifts, cross-cut-., and 

Mining and Scienti f ic Pr ess. January 4, idos. 

raises. These would easily cost on the average $10 per 
foot, or ^22,000,000. Here we have a total of $28,000,000, 
or, in round numbers, $8 per ton merely for finding and 
getting at the ore. To this we must add at least $8 per 
ton for stoping the ore, $1 for sorting, and $2 to $3 more 
for amortization of plants, general expense, litigation, to 
bring up the total to about $20 per ton. 

Freight and treatment on this ore would be about $10 
more and our total cost is brought up to $30. The re- 
maining $5 or $6 per ton was profit ; which figures at 
about $20,000,000 in dividends. I may have estimated 
the mining cost a dollar too high and the freight and 
treatment a dollar too low, but the errors are immate- 

At the present time undoubtedly better results, or 
lower costs, are being obtained at Cripple Creek. The 
mining costs probably do not exceed $13 per ton, but the 
ready explanation is that the former proportion of devel- 
opment work and construction work required to open up 
the mines is no longer done. This fact, together with the 
lower treatment rates, enables the mines to live on lower- 
grade ores. The profit obtained now is less than it for- 
merly was, in spite of the lower costs, and it is perfectly 
certain that scarcely any of the mines could be operated 
on their present ores if they had to face the problem as 
it was when they were first developed. 

To be sure a good deal of work has been done in the 
district that never paid at all. Still it can hardly be 
said that any large amount of work in the district was, 
in a mining sense, foolishly done. By far the greater 
portion of the 450 miles of openings was perfectly legiti- 
mate mining exploration. No one will deny that 
Cripple Creek has been, and is, a good district, which 
has added much to the gold of the country and has 
yielded large and well earned profits to its owners. Its 
12 first and most successful years fell largely in a period 
of general depression when supplies were cheap and 
labor abundant and good; yet it cost $8 per ton to block 
out the ores. Many a manager has vainly tried to mine 
his ore at $8 per ton for everything. Some have done it 
perhaps for a while either by shipping waste to the mill 
or by neglecting development. 

We turn to the reports of the Tennessee Copper Co. 
and find that the mining costs there have been only 
$1.43 per ton, as follows: 

Exploration and development 80.20 per ton 

Mining and sorting 0.80 " 

General expense 0.20 '• 

Amortization 0.23 " 

Total 81.4S 

This is the actual experience for the first five years of 
that mine. 

At first it seems rather absurd to say that Cripple 
Creek mining was all right as against this record. Per- 
haps the Cripple Creek mines were not so well managed, 
for I believe few mines have had as good management 
as the Tennessee Copper Co., but they were legitimate, 
successful enterprises managed with at least an average 
degree of intelligence and skill. For equivalent work, 
taking into consideration the difference in wages, the 
performance of Cripple Creek is as good as that of Ten- 
nessee. The point I wish to bring out is that the funda- 
mental differences in the conditions involves a difference 
of operating costs that are simply enormous and I believe 
that insufficient attention has been paid to the principles 
underlying these great differences. 

In many cases the valuation of a mine depends upon a 
solution of the question of mining costs. If you can 
mine an ore for $30 per ton and sell it for $60 per ton you 
are doing just as good business as when you mine an ore 
for $3 and sell it for $6; but you will not be doing as 
good a business as you thought you would if you counted 

on mining a $60 ore for $3 per ton. The source of 
the greatest cost of high-grade ores is undoubtedly 
development work. High development costs are 
more particularly characteristic of non-concentrati g 
mines. Concentrating ores usually occur in large 
bodies and, once found, can be developed at moderate 
cost. The stoping cost of a concentrate is apt to be 
higher than that of even the thinnest streak of hand- 
picked ore. In principle there is not much difference, 
but the concentrating mill often goes to greater extremes 
in selection than the miner does. 

It will prove interesting to get the life histories of a 
n-mber of mines. I have very few. It is difficult to 
find a series of reports that give the information required. 
In the accompanying table I give some information 
gleaned from a number of published reports. The figures 
are not pretended to be exact, but in all cases they may be 
vouched for as pretty close approximations. The accu- 
racy with which the true relations of cost are shown Ls 
proportioned to the length of the period covered. 

The salient conclusion to be taken from these statistics 
is that in the majority of cases the costs given by mining 
companies, or at least popularly attributed to them, are 
too low, often by 30 to 50 <fe . At least, this is the impres- 
sion they make on me. The explanation of this is simple 
and contains nothing to the discredit of the companies 
that issue the reports. We may say that there are two 
causes for under-estimating, the first being that as the 
"oldest inhabitant" remembers some cold winters in his 
childhood and not the ordinary ones, he ends by believ- 
ing that he lived in his youth in a more rigorous climate 
than the present, so the mine manager prefers to dwell 
upon the best showing that the mine has made and per- 
suades himself that others less favorable are extraor- 
dinary. The second cause is that the later reports of a 
mine's operations seldom take cognizance of the large 
costs for plant and development incurred in the early 
stasres. In other words, they forget that they are living 
partly on the surplus of former years. 

In properties where there is no capital except the stock 
issued, where the mine pays well, where settlements are 
made promptly for cash, and where there is little to do in 
the way of finance except to see that there is enough cash 
kept in the treasury to meet the next payroll, there is no 
excuse for, and seldom is, any confusion as to how the 
property really stands. Here the treasurer may always 
know, in spite of any finesse the manager may have in 
the way of cost-keeping, just what the real costs are by 
the simple process of dividing his expenditures by the 
tonnage. But where capital is borrowed on bond or 
note issues, where the output must be held through a 
long process and financed, where you must figure on 
sinking funds and redemption funds to cover the capital 
invested in extensive plants, the problem is not so sim- 
ple. In such cases the stockholder has the best reason 
for wanting to know what the real costs are; for if the 
cost of the year is to differ by 40^ from the cost for the 
decade, his calculations are apt to go much more than 
40 fo astray. 

Another point is worth noting. The wide differences 
in costs of various mines in themselves prove that to 
the examining engineer this subject is of great Import- 
ance. Is a partly developed property to be worked 
like the Treadwell or like the Portland ? If the Wolver- 
ine were worked on the same costs as the Calumet & 
Hecla its copper would have cost to date 16 cents per 
pound instead of 8. 4 cents. If the Calumet & Hecla were 
worked on the same basis per ton as the Wolverine, its 
copper would have cost about 4} cents instead of 8J. 
Where experience on a big scale points to such diver- 
gences, there is a good field for insight. 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

Relation Between the Assay-Value of Mill 
Products and Smelter Contracts. 

Written for the Mixing and Scientific Pbbss 
By Gelasio caetani. 

Do men running a mill always keep in inind the rela- 
tion that exists between the assay-value of their product 
and the smelter contract under which the concentrate is 
sold? I hardly helieve it, because smelter contracts are 
a wearisome kind of literature, hard to disentangle and 
painful to digest. The contracts are clearly worded, but 
the numerous discounts, penalties, and charges are at 
times so mysteriously complex, that it is hard to make 
out how much is taken out and how much left. Perhaps 
the smelters realize that a plain statement of the total 
discounts and charges would painfully impress the pro- 
ducer who has to sign the contract, and that it is far 
more humane to make him take his medicine by small 
spoonfuls than all at once. Any contract, however, can 
be expressed mathematically by a formula, and under 
such form be analyzed and discussed far more easily than 
a pageful of words. 

To illustrate this, let us take as an example a contract 
for lead-silver ore, which we shall suppose to be worded 
briefly, as follows: 

" The smelter is going to pay for 85jfc of the lead at 
86 jo of the New York quotation, if the New York quota- 
tion is $4 or less per 100 lb. lead, and if the New York 
quotation is above $4, the smelter is going to pay for 86^ 
of the lead at 85 # of $1 plus one-third of the difference 
between $4 and the New York quotation. 

"The smelter will also pay for 96 ;£ of the silver at 
95jfc of the New York quotation. 

"The freight and treatment charges will be $10 per 
ton of concentrate. If the concentrate assays below 45 ft 
lead, there will be an extra charge of 10 cents for each 
unit of lead below 45^. and the reverse; if the concen- 
trate assays above 45 '/c, there will be a bonus of 10 cents 
for each unit in excess." 

The contract is dual: (1) When the price of lead is 
below $4; (2) when 14 or more. We shall consider only 
the second case. 

Let us adopt the following symbols: 

1* = Assay of concentrate in percentage of lead. 
A= " " " " ounces of silver. 

N = New York quotation for lead, in dollars. 
Y= " " " " silver, in dollars. 

V = Total net value of concentrate, in dollars. 

The above contract can be expressed mathematically, 
as follows 

P •„ ... N - $4 \ 

3 ' 

(1) V = 0.85 (o.86 *l 

0.05 A 

0.95 Y - $10 - $0.10(45 P) 

Which formula can l>e reduced to : 
(2) V = P (0.451.15 + 0.0566 N) - 0.0025 AY - 14.5. 

This means that the smelter is going to pay $2.2567 
plus 0.283 N for each KM) lb. lead, 90.26JS of the silver, 
liesides charging $14.50 for freight and treatment. If 
the price of lead be $6, the smelter will be paying for 
only $.'5.67 per 100 lb., or for 78.4 % of the lead, besides 
charging $14.50 for freight and treatment. 

To analyze further the contract, let us make a supina- 
tion that generally holds good for any one lead-silver 
mine, namely, that the silver ratio of the mill products 
be constant, and let us assume that in our case the con- 
centrate contain- one ounce of silver for each unit lead. 

The formula (2) can then lie reduced to: 
(8) V = P (0.46136 + 0.0566 N \ 0.0025 Y) - 14.50, in 

1 1.5 

o. 16186 + 0.0566 N • 0.0025 Y 

which V = for P 

and for N = $5 and Y = $0.65, we have 
V = for P = ll.Off lead. 

This means, 

That any product assaying beloir ll.O'/c lead is shipped 
to the smelter with loss. 

We also see from formula (3) that 

for P = 0, V = -$14.50. 
This means, 

That any barren sand shipped to the smelter represents 
a loss of $14.50 per ton. 

Now let us take a mill product assaying Pi in lead, and 
split it by means of a concentrating machine into two 
products, a high-grade product assnying P- and a low- 

Graphic representation pf Contracts N?l an dN?2 

f / 








' ' *JS 






/ f& 

/ / 






9 * 



7 To *0 0$* 

. o**c*/*'w/« 

rbwaa mi »/*-o> 
St-Gmrxritmr *ta 

grade one assaying P'<. The tonnages of the products 
may be called T', T-\ and T», and the following relations 
are known to exist: 

(4) T> = T2 + T*. 

(5) T>Pi = Taps T»P8. 

Such a separation is made in practice, for example, 
when re-treating a dirty Wilfley concentrate on a finish- 
ing table. 

It is easily proved that: 

The smelter contract value 0/ the original concentrate is 
equal to the sum of the values of the two products sold 
under the same contract. 

In fact formula (3) can be expressed by V = PC - D, 
in which C and I) are constant, and if the above conclu- 
sion is correct we must have: 

VI = Y-' 4- V», or T» (P'C - D) = T-' (P-'C 1>) • T» 
(P»C - U). 

Substituting in this last formula T 1 by T- T» we 
obtain formula (6). 

The aforesaid is not true when a mining company is 
selling under two different contracts, or under a contract 
which is radically different for high-grade and low- 
grade concentrates. Beth contracts have in such a case 
to be expressed algebraically and the two formulas 
equalled to each other. The value of P obtained from 
the equation will give the dividing point between the 
two contracts. There will be profit to split a concentrate 
in two products in such a way that the grade of the one 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

is above and the grade of the other below the dividing 
value found for P. The profit will be proportional to the 
difference between the grades of the products and the 
dividing value of P. 

The three conclusions previously stated lead to the fol- 
lowing further conclusions: 

By eliminating from the concentrates any part of them 
assaying ll'/c lead we shall reduce the tonnage of the con- 
centrates without diminishing their total net value. 

This is important to be kept in mind where the con- 
centrate is hauled a long distance to the railroad. 
We can also say that: 

By eliminating from a concentrate any part of it assay- 
ing less than ll c /o lead we shall reduce the tonnage and 
increase the total net value of the remaining concentrate. 

I have known mines selling their concentrates under 
less favorable conditions than those of the contract I 
have taken as an example. By doing some figuring, 
more than one superintendent will be astonished to find 
out what a high-grade tailing he can profitably make. 
A low tailing is not by itself a proof of good milling, and 
in a general way we can say that the tailing can be 
higher when the market value of the metals is low. 

Low-grade concentrates will result in low-grade tail- 
ings, but there is a point at which there is a greater loss 
due to unprofitable material shipped to the smelter than 
to the lead escaping through the tail-race. On the other 
side it may be said that high-grade concentrates are 
liable to cause undue losses in the tailings. This is espe- 
cially true with fine slime. As an illustration, I may 
mention the slime that is treated on the vanners in the 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan mill in Idaho. 

The vanner-feed assays about 19 <fc lead and 9fo silver. 
When the market value of lead is high the feed could be 
shipped directly to the smelter (if the smelter would 
accept such low-grade products), with greater profit than 
can be actually recovered by a single vanner concentra- 
tion. By making a low-grade concentrate it is possible 
to obtain a shipping product without diminishing greatly 
the net profit per ton treated, but as soon as it is 
attempted to make a high-grade concentrate both the 
extraction and the profit decrease rapidly. 

If the market value of lead falls to a certain value 
almost the same profit can be made by shipping the feed, 
as by making a high-grade or a low-grade concentrate. 
But for lead at, say, $3.50, it pays decidedly to make a 
clean concentrate. 

I cannot follow here the multiple conclusions to be 
reached in milling by keeping in mind the relations that 
exist between the grade of the mill products and the 
smelter contracts. Conditions are different in each prac- 
tical case, but one fact will be generally found to be true, 
namely, that it always pays to concentrate in two or 
three stages. 

In the first stage of concentration the bulk of the ore 
handled is great, and the production of a high-grade con- 
centrate will surely result in a heavy loss. It is well at 
first to make a low-grade concentrate and to re-concen- 
trate with greater care, providing special means for 
re-treating the middling produced. The concentrates 
produced at this second stage have to be physically ana- 
lyzed, and if they are found to contain some high-grade 
sand that cannot be separated from its included mineral 
and cannot be shipped with profit, it is well to make a 
third separation and to let part of the lead run down the 
creek to the advantage of the present and future genera- 

Before closing the subject I may still say that any con- 
tract that can be expressed by a formula can be repre- 
sented graphically. The contract expressed by formula 

(3) is represented by a family of straight lines having the 
point V = — $14.50, P = in common. 

This is shown in the diagram (Fig. 1), Y being sup- 
posed to be constant and equal to $0.65, and N variable, 
as has lately been the case. On the same diagram is 
also represented a second contract in common use for 
lead-silver ores, and which can be expressed by: 

(6) V = 90 f* PN - 95 fo AY - $20. 

Assuming the contract to be applied to the ore taken as 
the subject of this discussion, we can simplify the 
formula (6) to: 

(7) V = P(0.6175 + 0.18 N) — 20. 

Both contracts have been plotted on the diagram for 
values of N equal to $3, $4, $5, and $6. 
We see from the diagram that: 

(a) In the second contract the value of a concentrate 
is more strongly affected by the variations of the market 
value of the lead, than it is in the second contract. 

(b) That for a certain value of N there is a value P° 
of P for which the value of a concentrate is the same 
under both contracts. All these points P° lay along the 
line marked ABC. 

(c) All concentrates assaying higher than P° are sold 
to better advantage under the second than under the first 
contract, and the reverse, all concentrates assaying less 
than P° must be sold under the first contract. 

The complete discussion of the diagram would lead us 
beyond the limits of this article, and I shall therefore not 
attempt to enter the subject more deeply. 

There are other factors, besides the smelter contracts, 
which have to be taken into consideration in milling. 
They can be expressed by three words: Cost of produc- 
tion. By keeping all these factors in mind, milling can 
be brought close to its maximum economic efficiency, and 
if ever this point is reached it is well to look around once 
more to see whether we are right after all. 

Tube-Mills on the Rand. 

There are between 50 and 60 tube-mills at work upon 
the Rand. Tube-mills have come to stay on the Rand, 
as has been the case wherever they have been judiciously 
introduced. The place of the tube-mill in gold-milling 
is assured, but still their use is in a very unsettled state. 
There are many different kinds of lining, each with its 
advocates; similarly other matters connected with tube- 
mills are mooted questions. Recently Kenneth L. Gra- 
ham ran a series of tests at the Geldenhuis Deep in which 
he used in one mill Danish pebbles, in the other pieces 
of common 'banket.' Both tube-mills were 22 ft. long 
by 5 ft. 6 in. diam., both were lined with silex blocks, 
and in both the conditions during the test were kept as 
nearly the same as was possible. The results of these 
experiments, extending over a period of a month, showed 
a distinct advantage in favor of the banket against the 
imported pebbles. Not only was there a saving in the 
cost of the banket compared to the Danish pebbles, but 
it appeared that the wear on the mill was less with the 
banket. Former less extended experiments on the Rand 
indicated that it was cheaper to use Danish pebbles. At 
Pachuca it has also been found that the use of the local 
supply of quartz is far cheaper than the use of imported 
pebbles. Hard 'nigger heads,' which occur in many 
quartz veins, are especially good for the grinders in tube- 
mills. This subject of using the ore itself as grinders in 
tube-mills is worthy of quite careful investigation else- 
where, especially as the saving at the Geldenhuis Deep 
was t: 13 for the month. 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


Precipitation of Copper From Cupriferous 

Written for the Mixing and Scientific IVess 
By Frank H. Pbobkht. 

Seven years ago I was privileged to investigate the 
several methods of extracting copper from lean ores by 
wet processes at Rio Tinto and Tharsis, in Spain. With- 
in the last year, while examining mines at Butte, 
Montana, my attention was called to the slipshod 
methods of winning some of the copper from the cuprif- 
erous mine waters and from Silver How creek. While at 
Butte I was struck with the very crude methods and 
appliances used and the low extraction obtained. It may 
be said that the copper waters cost the mining companies 

Then it will be my object to show how such steps in the 
process as are suitable may be applied at Butte. 

The huge masses of ore in the province of Huelva, 
Spain, that are treated by this 'natural cementation' pro- 
cess, consist essentially of massive iron pyrite contain- 
ing from a mere trace to A ft copper. The mineral as laid 
down in the heap for oxidation and subsequent leaching 
contains an average 'If copper. It is probable that 
this copper exists in the form of finely disseminated par- 
ticles of chalcopyrite scattered through a matrix of iron 
pyrite. It is really a cupriferous pyrite. The ore is 
crushed to pass through a 2t-in. ring, it is mixed with 
about 30 <fc of finer material, and is then laid down in 
heaps covering an extensive area, about 30 ft. deep. The 
method of laying down these heaps and insuring a free 

Precipitating Copptr it Rio Tinto. 

practically nothing and that the rough methods employed 
for the extraction of a percentage <>f the contained metal 
costs very little more, but if a slight modification of the 
plant and a little more attention to detail will insure a 
greater extraction at practically the same cost, after the 
installation of the plant, then I take it the subject is 
worthy of investigation. The question resolves itself 
into one of economics and it would probably not pay to 
remodel such precipitating plants as have already been 
erected, but since the waters of Silver Bow creek arc a 
never-failing source of revenue to the companies over 
whose claims they run, it is worth while to ascertain the 
conditions and plant likely to insure a high rate of ex- 
traction. There are probably many other camps in 
which quantities of copper-charged waters are running 
to waste and as the following remarks and suggestions 
apply in all cases where cupriferous water is to lie 
handled, a description of the practice may Ik- welcome. 
I shall first of all briefly describe the Rio Tinto practice 
from the time the liquors, as the copper-laden waters are 
called, leave the ore-heaps until they are returned to 
other heaps for further work. The process is continuous. 

circulation of air through them at Bio Tinto has from 
time to time been described in the technical press. As it 
has little or nothing to do with the subject under discus- 
sion it is not necessary again to describe it. The heaps 
are irrigated continuously with water and spent liquors. 
The washing of the heaps serves three purposes: 

1. To keep the temperature down. 

2. To form ferrous sulphate and free sulphuric acid, 
which react to produce ferric sulphate; the latter acts 
ujMin the cuprous and cupric sulphides to form copper 

.'!. To dissolve the sulphate of copper formed and to 
carry it away from the heaps. 

It is found that a crust of ferrous and copper sulphates 
sometimes forms an impervious layer on the top of the 
heap. When this happens an iron bar is inserted, the 
crust is broken up and turned over. The copper-charged 
waters running away from the heaps are now taken to 
the precipitating vats for treatment. 

The fundamental principle underlying precipitation of 
copper from waters by means of iron i^ expressed in 
chemical terminology (1.) CuS()| IV KeSO ( • Cu, but 


Mjninu and scientific Press. j an uar y 4, um . 

there are other reactions to be taken into consideration, as 

(2.) Fe 2 (S0 4 )a + Fe = 3FeS<3 4 . 

( 3.) H0SO4 + Fe = FeS0 4 + H 2 . 

( 4.) Fe 2 (S0 4 ) 3 + Cu = CuS0 4 + 2FeS0 4 . 
The copper liquor as it leaves the heaps contains much 
ferric iron, which would (as is shown by equation No. 2) 
cause an unnecessary consumption of scrap iron. The 
ferric salt is reduced to the lower oxide before it enters 
the elaborate plant by passing it through a small heap of 
'fines' of the raw ore, and the analysis of the effluent 
liquors shows that approximately 90 fo of the persalt is 
reduced to protosalt. The following table gives the anal- 
ysis (in grams per cubic metre) of the entering and leav- 
ing liquors of the precipitation plant at Rio Tinto at the 
time I was there: 

Entering. Leaving. Entering. Leaving. 

Copper 2,710 19 2,780 19 

Ferrousiron 13,908 17,202 14,030 17,931 

Ferric iron filO 732 

Free acid 4,874 4,129 4,991 4,349 

Total solids 70,872 69,662 71,980 72,834 

Specific gravity : 105.818 105.718 105.901 105.972 

Consumed iron 1.26 to 1 Cu. 1.26 to 1 Cu. 

The best results are obtained when the solution is 
slightly acid, as it tends to accelerate precipitation and 
prevents a falling out of basic salts of iron while precipi- 
tation is going on. 

The liquors are sampled every four hours at Rio Tinto 
at different points in their path through the vats, so that 
an absolute check is kept on the reaction. So perfect is 
the system that Mr. Hart, superintendent of the leaching 
plant at Tharsis, told me that the amount of copper, cal- 
culated from the solution, differed from the actual copper 
output from the vats during the period of 12 months by 
only 15 tons. 

The precipitation vats are really a series of canals in 
which the liquors give up their copper. They are 
arranged in sets, each set consisting of from 4 to 6 vats. 
Both at Rio Tinto and Tharsis the liquor traverses about 
3 kilometres before all the copper is precipitated. The 
vats are lined with timber !) by 3 in., the joints being 
caulked with ropes to prevent leakage, and the whole 
covered with tar, pitch, or asphalt. The walls dividing 
each set of vats are made of rough stone or masonry, 
lined in the same way. There is a gradual fall through 
the series from start to finish. At Tharsis the inclination 
is as follows: 

For the first 40* of the copper 1 In 200 

" " next 30* " " " 1 in 150 

" " " 20% " " " 1 in ioo 

" " remainder 1 in 50 

Here follow the details of the vats at Rio Tinto: 

Division 1 to 2. 7 vats each 98 m. long by 1.22 sq. m. in section. 

" 2 to 3. 2 " " 70 " " " 1.81 " " " 

" 3 to 4. 3 " " 44 " " " 1.30 " " " 

4 to 5. 3 " " 125 " " " 1.28 " " " 

In division 5 to 6 there is a parallel series about 65 
sq. m. section, with a total length of about 1600 in. of 
shallow vats. Divisions 1 to 6 receive from 380 to 450 
cu. m. of liquor per hour, assaying from 2600 to 3000 gm. 
copper per cubic metre. 

The presence of ferric sulphate or free acid in the 
liquors causes an unnecessary consumption of pig iron, 
hence, when the proportion of sulphuric acid to copper is 
higher, the liquors are made to flow faster by passing 
them to lower vats in the series where the gradient is 
steeper. Another reason is that the tendency for basic 
sulphates and other impurities to precipitate increases as 
the quantity of copper falls and the free acid rises. To 
take advantage of these mechanical and chemical 'details 
and obtain maximum extraction at minimum cost, the 
analysis of the liquors must be known from start to 

The precipitant at Rio Tinto and Tharsis is pig iron, 
the pigs being laid in the vats like chequer work, four 
pigs deep. The great objection to using pig iron is that 
when the surface becomes coated with copper, the action 
goes on slowly. The shell of copper protects the iron. 
The chequer-work arrangement of the pigs exposes a 
large surface of iron to the liquors, but far greater 
exposure obtains when scrap iron is used. 
Referring once again to the equation 

CuSO, + Fe = FeS0 4 + Cu, 
and interposing the atomic weights of the elements, 
we find that (in chemical exchange) 56 parte by weight 
of iron are equivalent to 63 parte by weight of copper. 
This is the theoretical exchange. In practice many 
other inter-actions occur, depending on the analysis of 
the liquor. 

The first reaction that occurs in the liquor running 
over metallic iron is the reduction of the ferric sulphate 
to the ferrous state. It is therefore advisable to preclude 
every chance of oxidation. The second reaction is the 
precipitation of the metallic copper, brought about by 
simple galvanic action. The iron becomes cased with 
copper and thus the iron and copper in the acid liquor 
constitute a galvanic couple with considerable difference of 
potential. It is due to electrolytic action that all metals 
electro-negative to iron are precipitated. 

While the liquor is fairly strong in copper, the copper 
is mostly precipitated in a coherent form, but in the later 
stages (as the liquor becomes impoverished) it is pre- 
cipitated in a powdery state and with it a larger precipi- 
tation of impurities. The consumption of pig iron to 
the precipitation of the copper varies inversely as the 
quantity of copper in the liquor. 

The temperature of the solution is also a factor in pre- 
cipitation. During the summer months precipitation 
goes on far more rapidly than in winter. A temperature 
of 100° F gives excellent results. 

The exceptionally good work performed at Rio Tinto 
and Tharsis is proved by the fact that only 1.4 unite of 
pig iron containing 92 ft iron are consumed per unit of 
copper obtained. Sixty per cent of the copper in the 
liquors is precipitated within the first 700 metres of the 
vats. Over 70 <fo of the precipitate contains more than 
94 fc copper. 

The following points have been established by this 
summary of Rio Tinto practice : 

1. The complete analysis of the solutions both before 
and after treatment is essential to prevent undue con- 
sumption of iron. 

2. Free acid is to be eliminated as much as possible. 

3. Mechanical contrivances will, in a measure, over- 
come these chemical difficulties. The inclination of vats 
and consequent velocity of current should be in inverse 
ratio to the amount of copper present; the less the copper 
and the greater the free acid and ferric iron, the greater 
the inclination necessary. 

4. As large a surface of iron should be exposed to the 
liquors as is possible. 

5. Aeration of the liquor by tumbling through the 
air is objectionable, since it is an oxidizing reaction and 
so increases the consumption of iron. 

6. In the course of the flow of the liquor through the 
vats there is a place where the cost of iron exceeds that of 
the value of the copper obtained. 

7. The warmer the liquors, within certain limits, the 
faster is the precipitation of the copper. 

At Butte, previous to the removal of the reduction 
works to Helena and Anaconda, the smelters and con- 
centrators of the producing mines were built along Silver 
Bow creek. Enormous masses of tailing and slag carry- 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


ing appreciable quantities of copper, both as oxide and 
sulphide, have been dumped here and allowed to accu- 
mulate until the original course of the stream has been 
obliterated. The copper-charged waters pumped from 
the mines all ultimately find their way into the creek. 

A reputable engineer, who has worked for years in the 
Butte district, claims that the flat through which Silver 
Bow creek runs will average nearly 2$ copper for a 
depth of several feet. There are thousands upon thou- 
sands of tons of this material offering a wide field for 
close figuring and careful study in the extraction of cop- 
per. If a few experiments will determine what arrange- 
ments give the best results, why not investigate it? The 
water of Silver Bow creek is very acid and contains 
(from its contamination with mine waters) salts of cop- 
per and iron. I question whether a complete analysis 
has ever been made of this water. This same engineer 
tells me that a few samples of the water tested 
showed from 0.02 to 0.074 fe copper. No determina- 
tion of the ferrous and ferric iron and free acid was 
made. I doubt not that it is an ideal solvent for the 
copper in the tailing provided it can get to it. I 
would suggest that periodically the surface of the 

ing the velocity of flow and arranging the scrap iron so 
that a larger surface area is exposed to a given quantity 
of liquor. As I have said before, little or no attention is 
given to the extraction obtained. By using more vats, 
and regulating the flow through them, I am convinced 
that much more remunerative results would be possible. 
Both the entering and effluent waters should be tested at 
least twice a day for free acid, ferrous and ferric iron, 
and copper sulphate. The ferric sulphate liquor returned 
from the precipitation vats will slowly dissolve more 
copper from the tailing and, being re-charged, is ready 
for re-precipitation. 

There is a great field for economic work along these 
lines. I do not advocate such elaborate schemes as are 
practised in Spain, but much can be learned by a small 
expenditure of money to increase the extraction and 
reduce the cost. 

P recipilition Plant at Butlt. 

tailing be turned over with a plough or that numerous 
small pits be dug from time to time in the flat — anything 
to insure greater contact action and more rapid percola- 
tion. A rough dam might advantageously be built 
across the lower end of the narrow channel; this would 
stay the underground flow and catch the richer liquors 
near bedrock. Anything that would cause more inti- 
mate contact with the interior of the pile of tailing is a 
move in the right direction. The idea of ponds on the 
tailing-bed is good, but I doubt very much whether, if 
actual tests were made, the percolation factor would be 

It is estimated that the Parrott precipitation plant 
alone cleans up about $25,000 |«er month, while extract- 
ing but a small percentage in the solution. The con- 
sumption of scrap iron is figured at four units of iron per 
unit of copper obtained. I noticed while visiting the 
several primitive plants in Butte that it is a common 
practice to elevate the solution to the top of a tower and 
allow it to tumble through a series of racks on which the 
scrap iron is placed. I cannot see the object of such a 
method of procedure unless it be that the fall of the 
water breaks the thin film of precipitated copper and 
exposes fresh surfaces of iron to the liquor. I think 
it would be better to use wider and deeper boxes, lessen- 

Healthy Competition. — While unquestionably dan- 
gers can be foreseen as arising out of these great indus- 
trial aggregations— not only of capital but of industrial 
energy — dangers technical, social, and political — there are 
also great possibilities of good. One of the benefits may 
justly be claimed to reside in the 
large funds that are thus rendered 
available for technical research, from 
which the public derives l>eneflt in- 
directly, even if the results are not 
published. But if we could banish 
secrecy; if every industrial establish- 
ment of any magnitude, which is in 
its own interest carrying on tech- 
nical research, should encourage its 
technical staff to confer freely with 
the members of every other technical 
staff, would not the sciences and arts 
progress far more rapidly than if one 
huge organization controlled a given 
Industry? All our principal metal- 
lurgical and chemical concerns have 
laboratories, and carry on investiga- 
tions and make experiments, gener- 
ally on a large working scale; and 
surely the advancement of technolog- 
ical science can be better attained in 
a number of such laboratories than if 
there were fewer or in only one. There is keener compe- 
tition of wits when many are working 'independently. 
The friction of honest rivalry is a force not to be despised. 
The stimulus of ambition is sure to lx? stronger in smaller 
than in large consolidated workshops. The air in such 
laboratories is freer and purer than when men are work- 
ing in the stifling atmosphere of secrecy. I believe that 
such a consolidation of mind and high impulses would 
carry us further and faster along the road of human 
progress than all the money that all the trusts could 
appropriate for the advancement of technical knowledge. 
—James Douglas. 

Baihhtt metal, as originally manufactured, con- 
tained tin, copper, and antimony. The composition now- 
sold under this name has lead as the basis, and a combi- 
nation of lead and antimony makes a g I anti-friction 

metal. Some brands of babbitt metal are simply the 
refuse from type-foundries or smelting works. In pour- 
ing, the metal should lx; just hot enough to char a dry 
pine stick, and a combination of asbestos-fibre and a 
heavy oil, made into a stiffly-plastic mass, makes a good 
material for the dams. It is not a good plan to use the 
steel shaft in casting the hearing, as the hot metal may 
spring it. A wooden mandrel is better. 


Mining and Scientific Press. January 4, um. 

The Smelter of tre Mammoth Copper Mining 
Company, at Kennett, California. 

Written for the Mining and Scientific Press 
By Donald F. Campbell. 

The site of the Mammoth Copper Mining Co.'s works 
near Kennett, on the Sacramento river, is naturally well 
adapted for the purpose, for the Mammoth mine, supply- 
ing sulphide ores, is within easy reach, abundant lime- 
stone occurs in the immediate vicinity, and quartz is 
available from the Quartz Hill and Old Diggings dis- 
tricts. The Mammoth smelter is owned by the United 
States Smelting, Refining & Mining Co.; the Mammoth 
Copper Mining Co. being the operating title of the local 
organization, for the parent company owns mines and 
smelters in Nevada, Utah, Kansas, Indiana, New Jersey, 
Mexico, and Peru. 

The development of this smelter is characteristic of the 
rapid growth of the copper mining industry in Shasta 
county. This enterprise was started about three years 
ago by the development of the mine, which is situated at 
a distance of 13,000 ft. from the smelter 
and at an elevation of 2,300 ft. above it. 
The ore is carried over an aerial tram- 
way built by the Riblet Tramway Co. 
The tramway discharges into bins from 
which the ore is loaded into the charge- 
cars. Limestone is hauled to the smelter 
from Holt & Gregg's quarry, an electric 
road connecting this quarry with the 
smelter. Silicious ore and coke are 
brought from the outside, the railroad 
cars running over the top of the receiving- 
bins and discharging into them. The 
profile between the mine and the smelter 
is difficult and the sticky character of the 
ore also renders the existing method of 
transport unreliable and insufficient to 
meet the demands of the enlarged smelt- 
ing works now being constructed. In con- 
sequence, the aerial system will soon be 
abandoned and a gravity incline used in 
conjunction with electric and steam rail- 
roads. The terminal machinery for the 
former will necessarily be massive, for the 
incline is 4,000 ft. long with a vertical drop of 1,700 ft. 
On this slope, which has a varying grade, two standard- 
gauge cars of nearly 20 tons capacity will be operated, 
the brake energy being partly absorbed by driving a 

The Mammoth mine, which supplies the sulphide ores, 
is one of a series of masses irregularly distributed in a 
succession of rhyolite flows of pre-Devonian age along the 
west side of the Sacramento river. No proof is estab- 
lished that these orebodies are confined to any distinct 
lava and the various flows have not been clearly differ- 
entiated. Ore deposition has occurred by the total 
replacement of blocks of rhyolite bounded by fissures and 
shear-zones. Within these blocks the orebodies fre- 
quently show but little trace of the original rock, al- 
though in some cases the quartz phenocrysts can be dis- 

At the Mammoth mine the ore is a massive pyrite 
containing from 3 to 12$ of copper and carrying a'uni- 
form quantity of precious metals to the value of $1.50 to 
$3 per ton, a factor which materially adds to the pros- 
perity of this enterprise during the vagaries of the copper 

Many of the orebodies of Shasta county assume 
enormous proportions and are remarkable for their 
uniformity of character and comparatively shallow depth. 

The Mammoth ranks among the large copper mines that 
have been developed in the United States during the last 
decade, and the orebodies of the district have added 
notably to the known copper resources of the world, 
being surpassed only by the enormous low-grade deposits 
of Bingham and Ely and, possibly, the rich lodes in 
course of development in the Katanga district of the 
Tanganyka Concessions in central Africa. The value of 
the ore blocked out at the Mammoth was recently 
reported to exceed $15,000,000, but this must now be 
modified in view of the lower prices for the metal. 

Diamond-drills have played an important part in the 
development of the mine and have met with success. 
They find application especially in blocking out orebodies 
when they are partially opened up, because the sulphides 
can be drilled more cheaply than the adjoining country 
rock. The latter is often highly silicifled and in 
such a case the cost of drilling is almost prohibitive. 
Vertical holes driven down through the gossan ascertain 
whether it covers valuable sulphide deposits, for many 
such outcrops occur, beneath which the oxidation has 



Principal Mines and. Smcttera 


Shaoca County. California. 

been so complete that nothing of value is left, while 
other masses, especially of low-grade ore, being pro- 
tected by a layer of rhyolite, have little or no outcrop. 
The cost of drilling in these rocks may vary from $1.75 
to $4 per foot, and where time is an important object, 
this method of prospecting, being nearly four times as 
fast as mining, is satisfactory. 

At the Mammoth smelter, from 300 to 350 tons of 
quartz is required per day; the company, finding the 
local supply of custom silicious ore altogether insufficient 
to meet this demand, has recently built a narrow-gauge 
road to the Quartz Hill mine, which has been leased for 
a long period. This deposit consists of a series of low- 
grade lenses of quartz carrying from $1 to $6 in gold, 
and about 93 <f c silica, the latter being purer than the 
majority of local ores. 

Regular shipments are also made from other adjacent 

As a result of numerous experiments and gradual 
development, the smelting of these ores is now economic- 
ally accomplished. At first, the ore was all roasted, then 
pyrite smelting was successfully applied and developed to 
the extreme, until the consumption of coke was reduced 
to a fraction of 1 fo. The economic limit was exceeded, 
and at the present the coke in the charge varies from 3 to 
4 per cent. 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 



Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

The plant is equipped throughout with the most mod- 
ern machinery and a splendid system of store-houses and 
workshops. One building, 414 by 42 ft., contains electric, 
boiler, machine, and blacksmith shops, and at the end is 
the round-house, for the switch engines and a repair- 
shop for the mine railroad, the entire building being 
served by a 5-ton traveling crane and a complete hard- 
ware-store in the upper story of the building. Motive 
power is supplied by the Northern California PowerCo.'s 
plants in the Sierra Nevada and about 3,000 hp. is used 
for blowing engines, compressors, and transportation. 

The present plant has three blast-furnaces, each 42 by 
180 in., with brick tops. The flow of matte is continuous 
from settlers, 6 ft. 9 in. outside diameter, into pan- 
conveyors which discharge into barrows. These barrows 
are wheeled on a platform to scales where the matte is 
weighed and then loaded into cars for shipment to the 
converter-plant in Utah. The cooling of the matte, while 
carried by the conveyor, is not sufficient to eliminate 
danger of putting the car on fire if loaded directly and 
for that reason the matte is dumped and cooled with a 
spray of water before being loaded into the cars. 

The slag discharges from the settler into a swivel-pot 
from which it overflows into the slag-pot. The swivel- 
pot collects some of the matte that is carried over by the 
slag. It is found, however, that the amount of matte 
thus collected is very small. The settling in the receivers 
appears complete in spite of their small size. The slag is 
then hauled by electric locomotives to the dump. The 
track and the dump are situated on a level 8 ft. below 
the tapping-floor. This arrangement is convenient, 
as there is no interference of the slag-trains with the 
smelting operations. 

The dust-flue is of brick, 200 ft. long and with an area 
of 156 sq. ft. It has hopper-bottoms through which the 
dust is drawn into cars running on tracks underneath. 
These cars are wheeled to an elevator and raised to a bin 
from which the dust is fed on a belt-conveyor discharging 
into the briquetting machinery. The stack is self-sustain- 
ing and of steel 12 ft. diam. and 150 ft. high above the 
base. Between the dust-flue and the stack there is a dust- 
chamber 60 ft. long and 456 sq. ft in area. 

The power-plant contains three Connersviile blowers 
of 1 24 cu. ft. capacity per revolution and having a speed 
of 132 r.p.m. These blowers are driven by three 200 hp. 
2,000-volt 3-phase induction-motors made by the West- 
inghouse company. Two of these motors run at constant 
speed and the third is a variable-speed motor. A 100-hp. 
motor-generator set furnishes direct current for the loco- 

Hitherto a 20 to 30 % matte has been the product of the 
smelter at Kennett, this being shipped to Utah to supply 
the demand for the iron that is mixed with the silicious 
ores of Bingham. Of the three blast-furnaces at present 
in service, one has a steel water-jacketed top which is 
giving excellent results. So satisfactory has this improve- 
ment been, in preventing heavy incrustation and conse- 
quent freezing, that it will 30on be adopted on all the 
furnaces. A light crust is constantly forming on the 
upper part of the furnace, but this soon falls off in scales; 
not only does it prevent the thick incrustation and sub- 
sequent freezing or low capacity that is usual with the 
brick tops, but this water-jacketed top also forms a scale 
of sufficient thickness to cause it to fall back into the fur- 
nace instead of being carried upward as flue-dust. This 
is an important development in blast-furnace construc- 

The smelter plant is being much enlarged and it is 
expected that all the additions will be completed in Janu- 
ary, 1908. Two blast-furnaces arc being added; these 
are 50 by 180 in. with water-jacketed tops and settlers of 

16 ft. diam. and an intermittent tap. The brick tops of 
the old furnaces will also be replaced with steel water- 
jacketed tops. 

A building is being added for two converter stands 
and eight shells 96 by 150 in. The converter-building 
will be supplied wih two Morgan electric overhead cranes 
of 50-ft. span and with a main hoist of 50-ton capacity 
and two auxiliary hoists of 15 tons each, equipped with 
G. E. 440-volt induction-motors. In the power-house 
there will be added four Connersviile blowers of the same 
size as the three original ones, but run by G. E. motors 
of 225 hp. A converter blowing engine of 10,000 cu. ft. 
capacity at 15 lb. per sq. in. will be driven by a 750-hp. 
2,080- volt G. E. motor. In the extension of the converter 
building will be placed a re-lining plant with two 
pneumatic tapping machines of Ingersoll-Rand pattern, 
each supported. by a hydraulic jib-crane of steel. 

A dust-chamber, 200 ft. long and 407 sq. ft. in section, 
provided with hopper-bottoms, will be built of brick sup- 
ported ou a steel framework aud concrete. A new self- 
supporting steel stack 18 ft. diam. and 200 ft high has 
just been completed, into which the blast-furnace gases 
will be carried, while the old stack will serve the con- 

Price of Diamonds. — This has been controlled for 
some years by a powerful combination of diamond mer- 
chants in London. Since the Boer war the value per 
carat has been steadily rising. The question of keeping 
up the price of diamonds, with a largely increased supply 
in prospect, is one that is frequently discussed, and lead- 
ing authorities are agreed that at least twice the present 
annual supply could be absorbed without affecting the 
price per carat. But it is considered that only the better 
class of stones will always lye in demand. The value per 
carat of the diamonds recovered from the principal pro- 
ducing mines, according to their latest reports, is: De 
Beers and Kimberley, $12.68; Wesselton, $8.86; Bullfon- 
tein, $8.38; Dutoitspan, $16.78; Jagersfontein, $13.86; 
and Premier, $5.64. Every diamond mine produces a 
certain amount of rubbish worth about $2.16 per carat; the 
percentage of these poor stones found determines the av- 
erage value of the yield. A't the Premier mine 75 fi of 
the total money value produced was represented by dia- 
monds worth $12.60 per carat, and the balance of 25^ was 
made up of diamonds worth $2.16 per carat Similar 
variations in value occur in the stones found in all dia- 
mond mines. As showing the gradual increase in the 
average price realized per carat during the last 20 years, 
the following figures, taken from the report of the New 
Jagersfontein mine, may be of interest: 1887, $6.80; 
1891, $8.92; 1895, $7.46; 1899, $8.28; 1903, $13; and 1905, 
$13.88. Since the issue of the report for 1905 the average 
price per carat has risen a further 5 per cent. 

Swelling ground is not confined to slates alone. 
Some igneous rocks swell upon exposure in mine work- 
ings. Experience has shown that the best way to keep 
drifts and other mine workings open in swelling ground 
is to timber heavily, spreading the legs of the sets widely 
at the bottom, and to ' lag open ' in order that the swell- 
ing ground may find an easy passage through the spaces 
between the lagging. This method also admits of cutting 
away and removing the encroaching ground, thus keep- 
ing the main members of the set in their proper position. 
It has been found that almost every attempt to closely 
lag ground of this character has resulted in bending and 
breaking the lagging and in forcing the legs of the set out 
of place — often breaking or crushing the timbers. Large 
timbers offer little additional resistance over small ones 
in swelling ground. 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


The Mineral Resources of Sonora. 

Written for the Miking asd Scientific Press 
HyF. J. H. Mekkill. 

Sonora covers an area of 77,000 square miles, all of 
which is highly mineralized. Deposits of gold, silver, 
and copper occur in remarkable abundance and, under 
modern management, many have developed great com- 
mercial importance, while hundreds remained unworked 
since their abandonment during the revolution against 
Spain from 1810 to 1821. 

In silver production, during the Spanish occupation, it 
was surpassed by some of the interior States, and none of 
its mines have equalled the great producers of the central 
plateau, but from the beginning it has been, as it still is, 
the chief producer of gold and is also first in production 
of copper. Long before the Spaniards came, in 1521, the 
natives had developed primitive methods in mining and 
metallurgy, which gave them large quantities of precious 
metal, and copper or bronze implements were in use; but 
to what extent they conducted underground work is not 

Sonora is pitted and honeycombed with abandoned 
shafts, open cuts, and underground workings which are 
BOW called autiguas, the term probably referring to all 
mining done before the revolt against Spain in 1810. In 
the clear atmosphere, on the treeless hills and mountains, 
the traveler sees everywhere the oi>enings of the old 
workings that record the mining industry of the early 
days. In this climate of small rainfall and slow erosion, 
the gradual decay of vein-stones and impregnated rocks, 
wherever e.\|x»sed, resulted iii rich surface accumulations 
of precious metal, especially near the exposures of gold 
bearing veins and, in knew detrital deposits or placers, 
the first miners reaped a rich and easy harvest. Later' 
under Spanish rule, the introduction of the <in-u»tre, the 
use or quicksilver and various technical devices, gave the 
miner control of a larger Held of action and new sources 
of profit. 

Practically no machinery, however, was used in min- 
ing, and the notched log or 'chicken ladder' with the 
rawhide bucket on the l»ck of the peon was the primi- 
tive sulntitute for modern hoisting and pumping machin- 
ery. So, also, the slow boring of shallow holes and the 
breaking down of the ore by the expansion of quicklime 
packed in the holes and moistened, made but a humble 
and inefficient substitute for the use of modern machine- 
drills and dynamite. 

As a result of these conditions, Work was limited in 
depth for lack of pumping machinery and in thorough- 
ness by imperfect methods of extraction. The urnutre 
could lie erected and worked without capital other than 
that needful to command the services of a cheap mule or 
burro and, since the slowness of the process was unim- 
portant, and little or no value was assigned to the labor 
Of man or beast, it was effective on free-milling gold ore, 

even of very low grade, but useless for tl jtracUon of 

gold from sulphides. ( )ne therefore usually finds that an 
antiffua mine has not lieen exhausted in depth unless the 
orebody was very shallow and that, in the old workings 
and below them, there often is rich ore unfit tor the arrut- 
(re but available for modern metallurgy. Further, there 
may !*• waste damps rich enough for treatment by mod- 
ern methods, and at one time substantia] returns were 
gained by a company which sent out a portable cyanide 
plant to treat the dumps of old arrtutre tailing. 

The Mexican native had, and still possesses, a keen 
Instinct for the valuable ores i„ his native district and 
baa probably left untouched do exposed deposit fit for 
treatment by his simple methods. 

The ancient mine-workings or antigwu of Sonora are 

of much interest, for many of them have become richly 
productive in the hands of people with capital and up-to- 
date methods. Wherever the ancient miners worked 
extensively it may be inferred that they found ore profit- 
able for treatment by their methods. That these old 
mines were rarely worked out is due to several reasons: 
First, the lack of means for handling water, since 
many antiguas show rich ore when un watered. 

Second, the fact that the old miners knew nothing of 
the geology of ore deposits and did not appreciate that an 
orebody might be expected to pinch out or to !>e cut off 
by faults, and that a new orebody or the continuation of 
the first might lie found by exploration. The old 
Mexican miner only followed the ore and knew nothing 
of systematic development. 

Third, the early miners only sought for ores which 
could be worked in the arrastre or reduced in their 
simple ailobe furnaces. Any gold ore, not free milling, 
or any silver ore from which the metals could not !*■ 
recovered by their simple treatment, was useless. 

Copper was of little interest to them and it is not 
known that any mine was actively worked for copper. 
The Aztecs, however, used some copper tools and a small 
quantity of this metal was used by the Spaniards for 
church bells. 

Antigua mines differ very much in appearance from 
mines of the present day because the following of the ore 
was the only purpose in view, and little if any country 
rock was taken out. The underground workings are 
therefore of very variable dimensions and extremely 
irregular in direction. Where the roof Deeded support, 
this was more often supplied by pillars than by timber- 
ing, and in later years gambusinos and others have 
robl)ed the pillars and allowed the ground to cave. The 
antiguat are therefore generally full of water or caved in. 
These remarks on antigua mines and mining neces- 
sarily apply to other parts of Mexico besides Sonora. 

The geology of the State has been outlined elsewhere.' 
A summary of the subject may be given by saying that 
the following formations have l>een recognized: Crystal- 
line terranes of gneiss and reddish granite are seen in 
Altar. The latter occurs also in Magdalena, and may or 
may not be equivalent to the granites of the southeastern 
districts. An extensive limestone formation, underlain 
by quartzite, occurs throughout the northern border of 
the State, apparently equivalent to that of Hisbee, Ari- 
zona, which ranges in age from Cambrian to Carbonifer- 
ous. In central Alamos there is a limestone containing 
Paleozoic fossils, but its relation to the northern limestone 
is not yet known. A series of upper Triassic beds, car- 
rying some coal, and graphite outcrops in Sahuaripa, 
I'res, Hermosiilo, and Guaymas. Cretaceous limestone 
and shales are exposed in I'res and eastward, and 
lastly a great volcanic series of lava, tuff, plugs, dikes, 
and sills of quartz-porphyry, rhyoiite, dacite, and ande- 
site api>ears in all the districts, and contains many of 
the orebodies. Some of the copper deposits, however, 
are in limestone. Intrusive granites and diorites also 
occur at many points, but are not known to carry 
much ore. 

Administratively, Sonora is divided into nine districts: 
Altar, Magdalena, Arizpe, Mocte/.mna, I'res, Hermo- 
siilo, Sahuaripa, Ouaymas, and Alamos. These are 
similar in Importance to our counties, but are better 
known to Americans as the bailiwicks of mineral agents 
with whom mining claims are filed for record, and 
of stamp agents through whom mining taxes are paid 
to the Secretaria de Hacienda in the City of Mexico. 
While the mines are legally grouped in districts, 

1 i'hr Knot i 

>>' Minimi Jniirmil, November?*, 1905. 

34 Mining and Scientific Press. January 4 , iws. 

geologically and topographically, they are grouped by 
the mountain masses and areas that carry the veins and 
orebodies. In general, mineralization is more conspicu- 
ous in the mountains than in the lowlands. This is 
partly due to the fact that the valleys, basins, and plains 
are more or less covered with debris from the mountains 
so that, in them, rock and vein outcrops are more com- 
monly buried, while the mountain slopes, bare of soil 
and vegetation, expose the outcrops so that they can be 
seen from afar. 

This condition is, however, also due to the fact that 
some of the basins and valleys have not been carved out 
of the mountains, but lie between volcanic peaks and 
ranges formed by the flow of lava through vents and 
fissures. From this it follows, that the geology of the 
valley or basin is often different from that of the adjacent 
mountains, and it frequently bears a different type of 

From the necessary dependance of the mining indus- 
try on transportation, the mines are commonly consid- 
ered in relation to the valleys, which are the thorough- 
fares of commerce. .The chief gateways of Sonora from 
the north are three: Nogales by the Sonora railway, 
Naco by the Cananea railway, and Douglas by the Naco- 
zari railway. 

The first of these lines occupies a chain of valleys and 
basins, from the National boundary to Ouaymas, and 
from this central depression extend tributary valleys and 
plains, which give access to the adjoining country east 
and west. Through the valley of the Cocospera at 
Imuris runs a stage-line to Cananea. Through the Mag- 
dalena valley from Santa Ana run stage routes to various 
parts of Altar. 

From Hermosillo northeastward, highways radiate 
through the San Miguel and Sonora River valleys, and 
over the plains and hills to the east and southeast are 
reached portions of the Moctezuma, Ures, and Hermo- 
sillo districts, as well as Sahuaripa. From Ortiz a high- 
way leads eastward to La Dura and other points beyond, 
while from Empalme the new Yaqui River railway 
starts out to open up the mines and coalfields along this 
well known stream. Alamos will also be reached in 
this way by January 1, 1908. 

From Cananea, which is soon to be connected with 
Nogales by railway, the Sonora River valley opens south- 
ward; this is an important thoroughfare, crossed by the 
Sonora railway at Hermosillo, with rich farming lands 
along the stream, and mines in the hills on either side. 

From Nacozari the valley of the Moctezuma flows 
southward to unite with the Yaqui, while over a short 
divide to the southeast the valley of the Bavispe leads, 
by its headwaters and tributaries, to the north and east 
and by the main stream south to the Yaqui. It may be 
noted here that none of the rivers of Sonora are naviga- 
ble, except the Yaqui in its lower portion. 

As mining is dependent on supplies of food for man 
and beast it is appropriate to say a word on agriculture. 
This industry is at present chiefly confined to the river 
bottoms, and their possibilities are very great. The 
ranches produce large quantities of wheat, beans, and 
corn, the staples of consumption, beans being the chief 
food of the Mexican laborer. Barley and alfalfa are 
extensively grown for hay, and a small amount of cotton 
is produced. Vegetable gardening is practiced on a 
small scale by Chinese, but no great varietv of fruit rais- 
ing has been attempted, though at Magdalena and Santa 
Ana are produced many peaches, quinces, and pome- 
granates, and oranges grow luxuriantly wherever 
planted, notably at Hermosillo and Ures. 

The unequal distribution of rainfall 'throughout the 
year necessitates irrigation in the dry season, which ex- 

tends with only occasional rains from October to June. 
The Mexican laborer has intuitive or inherited skill for 
such work, excavating acf-quicts or irrigating ditches, 
for long distances, without surveying instruments, and 
giving the necessary attention to the flow of water with 
efficient results and little apparent effort. On the river 
bottoms the expense is nominal, as a supply of water 
is near, while the irrigation of desert lands would in- 
volve questions of storage and cost, similar to those 
which arise in Arizona and California. 

In consequence of the slight rainfall and the high evapo- 
ration, there are few permanent streams. The rains, 
limited mostly to the summer season, fall with great vio- 
lence and cover the ground with water which does not at 
first form rills or brooks, but flows in sheet floods to lower 
levels. The accumulation of this flow gathers in arroyos 
or stream gulleys which, extending for miles as tempo- 
rary conduits, ultimately discharge into some river which 
carries the drainage to the gulf. There are four such 
drainage systems in Sonora; the Magdalena, the Sonora, 
the Yaqui, and the Mayo. 

Copper, gold, and silver are the chief metals of So- 
nora. Lead is of limited occurrence in association with 
silver and gold. Iron is known in Alamos, but the de- 
posits are not yet developed. Antimony is mined in 
western Altar. Coal is of somewhat wide occurrence 
in the region of the Yaqui river, but is not yet mined for 
shipment. Graphite of good quality has been mined in 
Hermosillo, near Willard. Deposit of carbonate of soda 
and borax are also known in western Altar. 

The following list of some of the better known mines 
of the State will give a general idea of its mining indus- 
try. Many of these have been visited by the writer and 
the data regarding others have been taken from sources 
believed to be accurate. No one, however, can enumer- 
ate the myriads of abandoned untiguas which, in the 
past, have yielded a rich harvest to the early miner, and 
which, in many cases, only need capital and intelligent 
development to make them again richly productive: 

In this list the mines are discussed by districts accord- 
ing to the official classification. 


This district, which lies west of the Sonora railway, is 
the largest division of Sonora, and yieids chiefly gold and 
copper. Its western part is a coastal plain of low altitude 
with stumps of eroded mountains projecting above the 
general surface. It is rich in gold-bearing veiDS and 
especially in placers, "most of these being local accumu- 
lations of detrital material from the decay of veinstone 
and impregnated rock. The district was known for the 
great extent and richness of these deposits long before the 
Spanish occupation and, in its numerous gold-bearing 
veins some rich mines were developed, a few being still 
in operation. Altar is the most arid region of Sonora, 
and mining is greatly hampered by the scarcity of surface 
water; yet that obstacle is frequently overcome by 
pumping from wells or rivers. In the early working oi 
the placers, millions of dollars were taken out with- 
out the aid of water, by the baiea, or wooden gold pan, 
the natives being very expert iu the use of this imple- 
ment. The introduction of the dry washer from Hun- 
gary in 1851, has greatly facilitated the extraction of 
placer gold. These machines, of which various kinds 
have been devised, combine air-blast and agitation, the 
air from a bellows or rotary blower passing through the 
cloth bottom of an inclined table crossed by wooden 
riffles, down which the auriferous earth is made to travel 
by constant agitation. The blast carries away the dust 
and the gold is caught by the riffles. Dry methods can, 
of course, be pursued only in the dry season, when the 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


A New Map of Sonora. 

The Railroad From Guaymas to Navajo Should be Shown Completed. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

dirt is free from moisture, artificial drying being as yet 
not in use. 

This district is richly mineralized, except, possibly, in 
a belt about 50 miles wide along the coast from Libertad 
southward. Within this area few mineral deposits have 
yet been found. It is, however, a desert without surface 
water, and this important article must be carried by the 
traveler, both for himself and for his horses or mules. It 
is possible that, when more wells have been established, 
and mere existence becomes less of a problem for the 
prospector, many good orebodies may be found in this 
coastal plain. 

Altar, the capital of the district, with a population of 
1,400, is about 50 miles west from Santa Ana. Nine 
miles farther west is La Cuchilla, where the Rey del Oro 
Mining Co. had a gold property with three Huntington 
mills. Near La Cienega, about 60 miles southwest of Santa 
Ana, are extensive placers. Over thousands of acres the 
ground is honeycombed with shafts and drifts where the 
pay-dirt was reached and brought to the surface for the 
separation of the gold by dry panning. This region was, 
however, worked over again by dry washers from 1884 
to 1894, 10,000 people being employed. Part of the gold 
of this region is in a gravel, cemented with some degree 
of firmness and requiring mechanical treatment by 
stamps or otherwise to release the precious metal. Some- 
times, however, this cement gravel can be broken up by 
wetting and exposing to the sun and air. About seven 
miles northeast of La Cienega are the placers of La 
Yaqui, El Tiro, El Cajon, Cerro Colorado, Los Llanos, 
San Francisco, and La Sierrita, which have been 
worked intermittently for a long period. 

In quartz mining also the region has been noted. The 
Tiro vein has been traced a long distance. At El Tiro, the 
north extremity, the Reina de Oro Mining Co. has sunk 
several shafts and is operating a 20-stamp mill. At 
El Cajon de Amarillas the Yerkes Gold Mining & Mill- 
ing Co. has bodies of gold ore ready for stoping and 
a new 20-stamp mill. Cerro Colorado, between La 
Cienega and El Tiro has been worked for years, follow- 
ing rich streaks and stringers of gold ore, which was at 
first reduced in a small stamp-mill near La Cienega and 
later on by Huntington mills at the mine. 

About 35 miles northwest of Magdalena is Tubutama, 
where the Juarez Mining Co. is developing a copper 
property. This company also owns the Juarez gold 
mine 30 miles northwest of Caborca. This is an antigua 
which was long worked as a placer by Papago Indians, 
who have found some large nuggets in the vicinity. In 1902 
one was sold weighing 38.8 oz. The merchants of Sonora 
purchase placer gold from the Indians at about 1*26 per 
ounce. Its fineness usually ranges from 860 to 900. 

A vein on the property was developed and worked in 
1891 by a San Francisco company, which erected a 20- 
stamp mill with pan amalgamation. This process was 
not adapted to the work and a cyanide plant will be 
installed by the new management. 

Thirty-six miles northwest of Caborca beyond the 
Juarez is the Palomas placer field. At La Calera, nine 
miles west of Caborca, the Arizona-Mexican Copper Co. 
of Phoenix is developing El Gran Proveedora de Cobre, a 
copper property on which development to the depth of 
500 ft. has revealed extensive orebodies. Another cop- 
per mining company, the Ohio-Mexican, has also been 
operating near here with a 60-ton smelter. 

On the Gulf coast near San Jorge Bay and at Quitovac, 
the Sierra Pinta Mining Co. has in operation two gold 
properties connected with the reduction works at San 
Jorge Ray by 13 miles of narrow-gauge railway. East of 
Sierra Pinta, at El Plomo and San Francisco, are impor- 
tant gold properties and some copper prospects are being 

developed. The Sombretillo is near the Arizona line. 
Near Cobota also are some copper prospects of good 
promise. An important area of new mines is in the 
vicinity of the Ranch of Las Animas, near the southeast- 
ern corner of the district and about 15 miles west of the 
railroad. Many promising prospects are being developed 

This region was the chief source of the great supply of 
gold which during the Spanish occupation poured across the 
Sierra Madre to the viceregal court at the City of Mexico 
and thence to the royal treasury of Spain. Before that 
time, it supplied much of the gold that the Aztecs accu- 
mulated and which was wrung from them by the con- 

In the southeast corner of Altar, on and near the ranches 
known as Las Animas and Las Rastras, is a group of 
mineral veins yielding lead, silver, gold, and copper. 
No large mines have yet been developed but active work 
is being prosecuted in a number of camps. Prominent 
among these are Las Animas, La Compafiia, La Vale- 
dora, EI Aguila de Oro, and Republica del Sur. 


East of Altar is the Magdalena district, containing a 
number of historic mines of the Spanish occupation. One 
of the most interesting of these is the Planchas de Plata, 
about 12 miles southwest of Nogales. The ore here is a 
quartz-porphyry conglomerate carrying horn silver. 

About six miles north of Planchas are the Promontorio 
mines, owned by parties at Nogales. The ores are sul- 
phides of lead and copper carrying gold and silver. 
Twenty-seven miles southeast of Nogales is the new 
Santa Cruz Copper camp, with veins of chalcopyrite, on 
which W. C. Greene and others have recently denounced 
a large number of claims. 

West of Cibuta on the Sonora railway are the 
Guacomea mountains, in which some mining has been 
done. About 12 miles east of Quijano station and 30 
miles southeast of Nogales in the Pinitos mountains, is 
the property of the former Hays Mining, Milling & Lum- 
ber Co., now in the hands of the Columbia Consolidated 
Mining Co., consisting of 50,000 acres of timber-land 
with veins of copper, gold, and silver. On the eastern 
slope of these mountains is the Buenaventura Mining Co. 
East of the Pinitos Mts., in the Cocospera valley, are the 
ruins of an old Mission church of that name, with ves- 
tiges of a large settlement and slag-dumps, which show 
that the place was once the site of large operations. On 
either side, in the Sierra de Pinitos or in the Sierra Azul 
to the east, are old mines whence came the ores reduced 
at the smelters. The Sierra Azul Mining Co. has devel- 
oped a good orebody in one of these. At the mouth of 
the Cocospera river, where, by its junction with the 
Alisos river, it gives rise to the Magdalena, is Imuris, a 
small village built on a high terrace. Four miles west 
is the property of the Superior Bonanza Mining Co. of 
Calumet, Mich. This property has been partially de- 
veloped and shows promising bodies of oxide and sili- 
cate ores carrying gold, silver, lead, and copper, as well 
as the mineral wulfenite, which is rare in this district. 

Some six miles north of Imuris, on the mountain 
known as Cerro Blanco, is the gold mining property of 
the same name, long ago partially developed and recently 
under examination by British capital which will prob- 
ably take it up for further development. From Imuris 
the Sonora railway follows the Magdalena valley past 
the city of that name, 50 miles from Nogales. With 
3,500 inhabitants, it is the capital of the district and 
the centre of an active trade with rapidly developing 
mining regions and a rich agricultural district along the 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

Thirty miles southeast of Magdalena the Dolores and 
Santo Domingo rivers unite to form the San Miguel. 
Above the junction, in the Santo Domingo canyon, is the 
placer goldfield bearing the name of the river, and farther 
up the stream is a similar deposit at La Brisca. Both of 
these are held by the Greene Consolidated Gold Co. They 
were formed by the erosion of gold-bearing veins in the 
ranges surrounding the river valley, known as the 
Caliche, Sierra Azul, and Santa Rosalia mountains, form- 
ing a natural basin drained by the river. In this region 
are also several antigua*, in particular the Cerro Prieto, 
Caliche, Rey del Oro, Klondyke, and Tucabe. The Cerro 
Prieto property is extensive, with a large body of low- 
grade gold ore, opened by a series of adits connected 
by winzes through which the ore is brought down from 
the upper levels to the lowest, and thence transported 
to the mill. The latter is large, and the first unit 
of 120 stamps has lately been installed. The mine 
and mill are operated by electric power from a new 
plant at Magdalena. Water for the mine is pumped 
three miles from the Santo Domingo river. This prop- 
erty is operated by the Black Mountain Mining Co., of 

Seven miles northeast of Cerro Prieto is the Providen- 
cia gold property. Beyond this is the Caliche, a low- 
grade gold proposition bonded to the (ireene Consolidated 
(told Go. Beyond the Santo Domingo river eastward, 12 
to 15 miles from Cerro Prieto, are the Tucabe and Klon- 
dyke mines. The Tucabe operates a 15-stamp mill. 
Near the Klondyke is the Rey del Oro, an antigua with 
extensive workings. 

On the San Miguel river, at the junction of the two 
streams which unite to form it, is Cucurj>e, the site of an 
older settlement of some importance during the Spanish 
occupation. Ten miles west or Cucur|x- is La Higuera, 
an old camp with ruins of many urmrtre*. The property 
is operated by the Brady-Levin Co., of Nogales. South- 
ward along the San Miguel valley there are mineral 
veins in the mountains on either side and westward to- 
ward the railway are the Santa Barlmra, Soledad, Otate, 
and other camps with many antigua*. 

About 15 miles west of Llano, on the edge of the 
Altar district, is the mountain country of the Ras- 
tras Ranch with many mineral veins. Near Llano 
station is the San Franciseo mine, a gold property 
with a 10-stamp mill and a cyanide plant for treat- 
ing the tailing, which was in operation for many 
years but is at present idle. I,as Rieles is another prop- 
erty in the neighborhood. West of Llano three mile- U 
a dry placer. The Libertad is a new gold mine operated 
by the Llano Gold Co. three miles northwest of Llano, 
while 10 miles southeast is the Caracahui range, in which 
are the Llano Copper Co. and the Sonora Copper Co., 
both actively engaged in development work. About 30 
miles southeast of Llano is the Soledad mine, an antigua 
owned by W. C. Greene. 


The Arizpe district adjoins Magdalena on the east and 
is drained by the Sonora river. About 60 miles south- 
west of Bisbee is the copper (amp of Cananea, where the 
Greene Consolidated Copper Co. in seven years has devel- 
oped one of the greatest copper pro|«Tties in the world. 
Tbe production of the district in 1906 was 18,408,640 lb. 
refined copper. Cananea supj>orts a population of 23,000 
and is the largest camp in Sonora. Ten years ago there 
were not 500 people in the region. Besides the Greene 
company a number of others have sprang Up around it, 
there being in existence at present the Democrats Mining 
Co., of Cincinnati, the Indiana-Sonora, controlled by 
Phelps, Dodge A Co., the < lananea-Duluth, and the < fcna- 

nea Central, which has recently been united with the 
Greene Consolidated. 

Arizpe, the capital of the district, is on the Sonora 
river, about 75 miles south of the national boundary, and 
was a place of much prominence during the Spanish rule. 
It is now a town of 1,400 inhabitants, though once said 
to have contained 35,000, and shows the ruins of dwel- 
lings, churches, and other buildings, covering a large 
area. Vestiges of old furnaces and slag-dumps bear wit- 
ness to former metallurgical operations. This city was in 
1804 the seat of government of the Intendencia de Sonora, 
which included the provinces of Sonora and Sinaloa. 
About 1823 the seat of government was transferred fur- 
ther down the Sonora river to Ures, once also a city of 
wealth and commercial prosperity. Here, in turn, the 
changes in commercial conditions made it advisable to 
transfer the State capital to a more accessible point and it 
is now at Hermosillo. North from Arizpe and west from 
Bacoachi is the Picacho gold mine. In the vicinity of 
Bacoachi are extensive placers, and northward, in the 
Ajo mountains, are several new copper prospects, notably 
that of the Cananea Kastern Mining Co., about 20 miles east 
of Cananea. Fifteen miles west of Arizpe are the Santa 
Rosalia gold mines of ancient fame. Ten years ago these 
were re-o|>ened by a California company, which after- 
wards sold to (ieorge Mitchell. The property is now 

Fifteen miles southeast of Arizpe, near Bavicanora, is 
the famous Las Chiapas silver mine and near it the Car- 
men mine, which has recently l>een reopened. Farther 
down the river, near Banamichi, Is the Santa Klenamine, 
once operated by General Pcsqueira. Later it passed into 
the hands of an English company, but it is now idle. 
Eight miles In-low Banamichi is Huepac, where a Mil- 
waukee company is o|K*rating a small reduction plant. 
There are myriads of old mines and new prospects in the 
Arizpe district, but few companies are as yet oj>erating 


East of the Arizpe district is that of Moctezuraa, which 
is bounded on the east by Chihuahua. At Naeozari is a 
great copper property connects I by a branch line with 
the El Paso A Southwestern Railway at Douglas, 80 miles 
distant It is under the control of Phelps, Dodge & Co., 
who operate the Copper Queen at Bisbee, the Indiana- 
Sonora group at Cananea, and the mines at (ilol>e and 
Morenci. The concentrate from Naeozari is shipped to 
the smelter at Douglas. 

In the Huacal region, east of Naeozari, are many 
famous antigua mines, such a* the Huacal, Dona Maria, 
Churunibabi, and many more. Northeast of Naeozari, 
60 miles beyond the Bavispe river, is the Pilares de Teras 
region where art; the Cincode Mayo and Boy mines. Not 
far away is El Tigre, a recent discovery, rich in gold and 
silver. Two or three miles farther, and nearer Pilares de 
Teras, are the San Juan mines. In the southern part of 
the district, at Lampazos, there Is a silver property with 
a long record of rich production. The ore is treated by 
lixiviation. In the vicinity are many antigua*. Copper 
mines of some promise are found at Transvaal and I'ro- 


The I'res district is one of the richest in the state and 
the list of its mines begins at the north, in the valley of 
the San Miguel river where the latter leave- the Mag- 
dalena district. Eastward from the town of Tuaj>e are 
the extensive copper properties of the Bichfield Mining 
Co., upon which development work has been actively 
conducted. There are other old mines and prospects in 
this vicinity. Westward toward the railway is the 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

Querobabi region in which are a number of promising 
gold properties. Farther down the San Miguel valley, 
west of Opodepe and east -of Poza station, is the San 
Ricardo, a gold mine with a record of rich production 
going back to ancient days. Twelve years ago it was 
operated by an American company, which erected a 
20-stamp mill and shipped gold bullion. Detected in 
smuggling gold out of the country, the property was 
confiscated by the Mexican Government. The mill fell 
into ruin and later the claims were taken up again and 
sold to a Canton (Ohio) company, which has begun 
development and erected a mill. 

Several miles west of San Ricardo is the Mina El Oro, 
operating a Huntington mill and shipping bullion. The 
Santa Gertrudis is another good property near-by. In 
the same vicinity is the Amarillas, a silver property 
with a good record. Six miles south of the Amarillas is 
the Socorro, which also has a good record of production. 
In the same region are the Nopalera, Tortuga, and others. 
Prom San Ricardo and El Oro on the north to Nopalera 
and Socorro on the south, an area about 6 miles by 16, 
the country is cut by numerous veins that show gold and 
silver in the croppings. A few leagues farther down the 
river from Opodepe is Rayon, the centre of another 
important mineral belt in which is the copper property 
of the Palo Alto Mining Co. Below Rayon is the San 
Francisco gold mine. Southwest from Rayon about 
seven miles is the Copete district, where the Copete 
Mining Co. has large holdings and a smelting plant of 
250 tons capacity. Adjoining the Copete is the Sultana 
property of the Giroux Consolidated Mining Co., one of 
the important mines of Sonora. A shaft is down 1,050 
ft. in rich oxidized ore carrying copper, lead, gold, and 
silver. Within three years, large shipments of rich ore 
have been made to the smelter at El Paso. South of the 
Sultana is the El Colorado property of C. S. Mills and 
associates which is said to contain large bodies of low- 
grade gold ore. North of the Sultana and Copete prop- 
erties is that of the Belen Mining Co. with headquarters 
in Chicago. This Copete district is characterized by 
strong evidences of extensive mineralization and there is 
every reason to expect the development of some exten- 
sive orebodies. The camp is supplied with water by a 
pumping station at Rayon. 

In the valley of the Sonora river, about 25 miles 
southeast of Copete and 12 miles southwest of Ures, 
is the Gavilan region, prominent in ancient days. Here 
the Ures Consolidated and the Vega Mining companies 
are operating, the former with a 10-stamp mill. A few 
miles farther up the river the Coches Mining Co. is 
developing a gold property. 

The city f Ures, the seat of government in this dis- 
trict, is 56 miles from Hermosillo and has about 2,000 
people. To the southeast, toward the Matape river, are 
the Chipiona and Colorado-Ures camps, a few miles 
northwest of the town of Matape. Ten or twelve miles 
south are the Marquesa and Quincy mines. Fifty miles 
southeast of Ures near the edge of the district is the 
Llano-Colorado region, famous for its placer diggings 
more than a century ago. A few miles west are the 
Realito mines where extensive old workings and the 
traces oi many arrastres tell of active mining in former 
days. From the Los Angeles mine silver ores have 
recently been shipped. 

Twenty miles northeast (if Matape and about 60 miles 
from Minas Prieta* is Suaqui de Batuc, near the con- 
fluence of the Moctezuma and Yaqui rivers. The former 
comes from near the Arizona line, nearly 200 miles 
north, and the Yaqui or Aros flows from Chihuahua on 
the east, turning at its junction with the Moctezuma and 
flowing south. Along both rivers are rich mineral 

regions. Southeast of Suaqui de Batuc in the Sahuaripa 
district, are the Santo Nino mines once owned by the 
Yaqui Copper Co. In the vicinity of Suaqui de Batuc 
are also Todos Santos, El Cajon, Zaragoza, Estrella, and 
other properties, several in course of development. Near 
Batuc, about two leagues above Suaqui, is the Lista 
Blanca mountain, where a network of silver veins rami- 
fies to considerable depth and has been worked almost 
continuously for two centuries. There are also deposits 
of copper and quicksilver in the same mountain. The 
Tonichi copper property, owned by the Trimetallic Min- 
ing Co., is about 10 miles east of the Yaqui river, and 
contains a vein of copper ore with gold and silver. 


South of the Ures district is that of Hermosillo, in 
which is the important mining camp of Minas Prietas, 
about 35 miles southeast of the city of Hermosillo and 12 
miles from the Sonora railway at Torres, with which 
it is connected by a narrow-gauge line. Two large 
properties are operated here, the Creston-Colorada and 
the Grand Central, and until the development of Cananea 
this was the largest camp in Sonora. The region was one 
of untiguas, some of the mines, including the Colorada, 
having been worked more than a century and a half ago 
by Jesuit missionaries. Depredations by Indians are 
said to have compelled their abandonment. About the 
beginning of the nineteenth century the Prietasand other 
properties were worked with good results by miners who 
had been attracted by reports of former success. After a 
second abandonment, on account of water, they were idle 
for many years. About 1860 several of the old mines, 
including the Creston and Prietas, were re-located by 
Ricardo Johnston, a man prominent in the mining history 
of Sonora. The two properties mentioned were pumped 
out and worked with profit for a number of years. The 
Prietas was then sold to an American company, which 
built a 40-stamp mill and operated successfully until oper- 
ations were stopped by a fire in the shaft. In 1886 these 
holdings and others were taken over by the Creston-Col- 
orada company, of Cleveland, Ohio. Subsequently the 
control of this corporation passed to a syndicate headed by 
John \Y. ( iates. This company owns the Prietas, Fortuna, 
Creston, Colorada, Don Ignacio, and other properties ex- 
tending a mile or more along the wider vein. The Cres- 
ton, Fortuna, and Prietas are at Minas Prietas and the 
Colorada and Don Ignacio at La Colorada, a part of 
the same municipality about a mile away. Here is the 
mill of 30 stamps, six Huntington mills, nine amalga- 
mating pans, and 16 Frue vanners, with a daily capacity 
of 200 tons. The tailing is treated by cyaniding. The 
mill is connected by a wire-rope tramway with the hoist 
at the Creston shaft 1,100 ft. deep, through which is 
raised the ore from the Fortuna and Creston mines. About 
1890 rich orebodies were developed in the Grand Central, 
Amarillas, and other proi>erties on a vein parallel to that 
in which all former successful operations had been con- 
ducted and another great enterprise was launched. In a 
part of the camp known as La Primavera, adjacent to 
La Colorada, are the Grand Central and Amarillas mines, 
owned by the Grand Central Co. and leased to the Charles 
Butters Co. The ore from these mines goes through the 
stamps and Huntington mills, and from the latter to the 
large cyanide plant, which employs the Butters electro- 
lytic process of precipitation and has a daily capacity of 
400 tons. The ore is said to run from S5 to $7 per ton. 

In the spring of 1907 the Butters Co. took over the con- 
trol of the Creston-Colorada properties, so that the whole 
camp is now under one management. Water for the 
mines and mills is supplied from the Matape river, 20 
miles away, by a pumping plant at San Jose de Pimas. 

January L 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


There are other properties in the Prietas district that 
promise well and may, with development, become pro- 
ductive. Between Prietas and Hermosillo are the Dewey, 
Mina Grande, and several other mines. Twelve miles 
north of Minas Prietas is the Zubiate district, where are 
several silver mines with good records cf production in 
former days. North of Zubiate and east of Hermosillo 
are the Tortuga, Constitution and Italia, Last Chance, 
Santa Rosa, and Las Cruces. About 12 miles west of 
Torres are the mines of the Tarrasca Mining Co. This is 
another antigua camp. Five miles east, at Aguage, are 
vestiges of old arrtutre* and many tailing piles, showing 
that much ore was treated there in the old days. 

From Minas Prietas eastward, roads lead to all points 
along the Ya<iui river, about 100 miles away. Beyond 
this, in the Sahuaripa and Alamos districts, lies one of 
the most important mineral regions of Sonora, which in 
old days was one of the best in New Spain. West of the 
river, also, in the Hennosillo and I" res districts, are ex- 
tensive mining regions with historic records. Among 

100-ton smelter. Near the Gulf coast in the Bacoachi 
region are other copper deposits now under development. 


East of Ures and Hermosillo and south of Moctezuma, 
the Sahuaripa district was one of the great centres of 
metal production in early Spanish days. It contains 
the Trinidad, La Bufa, Muiatos, Cieneguita, Tayopa, Os- 
timuris, Tejada, and many other noted mines, which, 
according to the Spanish records, yielded a large output 
of metal during nearly two centuries. 

A day's ride east of Tonichi lies the region of La Bufa 
and Trinidad. Within 20 miles are over 100 antigua* 
that have, in early days, l>een large producers and prom- 
ise good returns with the intelligent use of capital. . 

The work of the Bufa Mining, Milling* Smelting Co. 
illustrates the possibilities. Seven or eight years ago a 
few practical miners from Minas Prietas and La Dura 
took up the antigua known as La Bufa. They sunk a 
new shaft and at a depth of 300 ft. reached the orebodies 

Grinding Ore in a Chilean Mill, in Mexico. 

these are the camps at San Javier. \m Barranca, Los 
Bronces, San Antonio de la Huerta, Las Goteras, Cerro 
Colorado, San Juan Grande, and Soyopa. At San Javier 
the Gold Coin Mining Co. has a 30-ton copper smelter. 
This company also own- the Santa Rosa, a well-known 
antigua. At the same place the Wyman Mining Co., 
operating the Animas mine, has erected a 50-ton concen- 
trating plant. The Verde Grande is a rop|ier property 
near San Javier. At Toledo, on the wot bank of the 
Yaqui river, the Yaqul Smelting A Refining Co., of To- 
ledo, Ohio, has established a custom smelter, having a 
100-ton lead stack and also a copper furnace. Near Sua- 
qui Grande, on theTecoripa river, the Chicago A Sonora 
(iold Placer Mining Co. a few years a^o installed a gold 
dredge and operated with some success. This placer Held 
is atxmt 30 miles long, extending along theTecoripa river 
from Suaqui Grande to its junction with the Yaqui at 
at Cumuripa. There is also a placer Held along the Ya- 
qui river, in which a dredge was operated by Milwaukee 
people. NorthweBt of Hermosillo about 10 miles are 
Mime copper properties, notably the Verde Grande, the 
Lluvia de Cobre, and Kl Mohin. The flr-t of these h:i- a 

formerly worked at higher levels, and, continuing to a 
depth of 600 ft, they opened a body of high-grade ore, 
which stood the cost of transportation 150 miles on muli- 
Irack to Torres and thence by mil to Kl Paso. The lower- 
grade ores were concentrated and also shipped. A 35-ton 
smelter was then erected anil matte made on the 

Alx)Ut 10 miles distant are the Trinidad mines, once 
famous as silver producers. The parties who opened La 
Bufa have purchased the Trinidad and are pushing de- 
velopment work with promising results. 

A day's ride northeast of Trinidad are the Muiatos 
gold mines owned by the Greene Gold-Silver < 'o. North 
of Trinidad are the properties of the Cieneguita Copper 
Co., including the Chipiona-Cieneguita, Ostimuris, and 
Tayopa. These are all antigua* with hi^h records of 
production in gold and silver. Two 10-ton iwerbera- 
tory furnaces are in operation. Near Trinidad are out- 
crops of a Triassie coalfield. 


Adjoining Saluiaripa on the south is Alamos, noted in 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

the history of New Spain for its production of silver. 
At the city of Alamos was a branch of the Public Treas- 
ury, and from it were sent out the eonductas of hundreds 
of mules laden with gold and silver ingots that traversed 
the Sierra Madre to the City of Mexico, whence the 
treasure was sent to Spain. West of Alamos city is the 
Quintera mine, once a rich producer, and the source of 
great wealth for the Almada family. The property still 
continues in operation under a French syndicate, and is 
worked to a depth of 1,500 ft. An extensive iron deposit 
occurs about 50 miles northwest of Alamos, near the 
village of Cedros. At Baucari and Trigo are gold quartz 
mines. At El Cerrito are placers, and at Baroyeca and 
Piedras Verdes are deposits of copper ore. 

In the extreme north of the district is La Dura, about 
80 miles from Ortiz on the Sonora railway. Here are 
extensive deposits of copper and silver. At Batamote, 
15 miles south of La Dura, the Ruby Gold & Copper Co. 
operates a copper mine, reducing the ores in a rever- 
beratory furnace. 


Southwest of Sahuaripa is the Guaymas district, 
through which passes the road from Ortiz to La Dura. 
There is considerable mining here and many rich deposits 
are known, but the Yaqui Indian trouble has retarded 
development. At San Marcial are extensive coal meas- 
ures of Triassic age. The field extends northward into 
the Hermosillo district, where parts of the deposit, 
altered by volcanic action, have been mined for graphite. 
In the Bacatete Mts., southeast of Guaymas, is the 
Bonancita region, with veins of auriferous quartz and 
numerous placers. At La Barranca, six miles from 
Toledo, is an extensive deposit of anthracite and natural 
coke, controlled by the Southern Pacific Railroad Com- 


Although its mineral wealth was known of old, Sonora 
was practically shut to the miner for nearly half a cen- 
tury after the close of the revolution against Spain. This 
was due to the depredations of the Apache Indians who, 
after the Mexican troops retired, ravished this South- 
western country. It has indeed been truly remarked 
that for a long time Sonora was under the Apache gov- 
ernment rather than that of Mexico. After the pur- 
chase by the United States in 1853, under the Gadsden 
treaty, of the territory south of the Gila, southern Ari- 
zona was somewhat protected by soldiers till the begin- 
ning of the Civil war when, on the withdrawal of these 
troops, the savages overran many of the white settle- 
ments. The region remained subject to their depreda- 
tions and largely closed to commerce till after the com- 
pletion of the Southern Pacific railway. This greatly 
facilitated the transportation of troops, and the capture 
of Geronimo soon followed in 1884. From that time 
dates the opening of Sonora to the modern miner. 

The production of copper in Arizona in 11)00 reached 
263,200,000 lb., that is, greater than that of Michi- 
gan, 83 ft of that of Montana, and 28 fc of the total 
product of the United States. The question arises, to 
what extent the supply may be increased from the region 
iust over the border of Arizona ? 

In Sonora this metal is so frequent in occurrence that 
we may expect a rapid expansion of production beyond 
the present large output of the great mines of Cananea 
and Nacozari, which in 1906 reached the imposing figure 
of 61,000,000 lb. Other smaller camps produced an 
aggregate of about 1,000,000 lb. more, thus making a 
total of about 324,000,000 lb. copper for Arizona and 
Sonora, against 315,000,000 lb. for Montana. 

The copper zone of Sonora is the southward continua- 

tion of that of Arizona, and extends over nearly the 
whole State. Deposits of this metal occur rather fre- 
quently in all the districts, except Guaymas. 

As in Arizona, so in Sonora, the principal copper ore- 
bodies are in limestone or associated with it, and, in turn, 
are in close relation to masses or dikes of eruptive rock, 
which contains copper or has stimulated the flow of a 
copper-l>earing medium. 

While the presence of green stains of malachite and 
dioptase on quartz veinstone has led, in many places, to 
the expenditure of much time and money in the attempt 
to make copper mines, it seems established after many 
trials that no one has yet succeeded in developing a sub- 
stantial copper mine on a quartz vein in Sonora. In some 
of the silver mines, tetrahedrite occurs in quartz and 
from this copper comes as a by-product with the silver, 
but the large copper producers are all, or near, lime- 
porphyry contacts. 

Quartz veins in Sonora, as elsewhere, are not always 
productive of the precious metals. Many large quartz 
veins are quite barren, although deposits of commercial 
importance are often found in the country beside the 
vein. Further, many of the largest and most productive 
orebodies contain very little quartz. Most of the large 
veins carry copper, lead, gold, and silver. There are few 
mines of silver free from copper. Gold occurs in nearly 
all the copper ores, so that the copper mines are usually 
producers of gold. A notable exception is the Pilares 
mine at Nacozari. Gold also occurs to some extent free in 
quartz veins. These are chiefly in Altar. Iron pyrite 
and the copper sulphides carrying gold yield, by their 
decomposition, oxides, silicates, and carbonates which 
give up their gold to amalgamation in the armstre. 

The zone of oxidation in Sonora is generally, except on 
the steep mountain slopes, quite deep, and so few of the 
mines have been worked far into the zone of unaltered 
sulphides that it is too early to undertake a general dis- 
cussion of the types of Sonora ore deposits. 

It may, however, be stated as a result of the writer's 
observations that the predominant type is the impreg- 
nated shear-zone. This is a zone of shattered rock of 
greater or less width where fracture or faulting. has oc- 
curred in a series of parallel fissures very close together. 
Through this fragmental material a metallizing solution 
has flowed, saturating the fragments to a variable extent 
with lead, silver, gold, copper, or other metal, but not 
carrying sufficient silica to form a district veinstone 
Sometimes, local deposits of quartz are formed in the 
shear-zone, and these, when exposed at the surface, re- 
semble true vein outcrops but do not continue far in 
length or depth, although there may be important bodies 
of ore beneath them. As might be expected, the metal- 
lizing solution appears to have usually taken a meander- 
ing course. 

The orebodies are the record of a flow that has often 
divided in passing the less porous rock-masses, so that 
'horses' are formed both along the vein and in its width. 
sometimes these ' horses ' are not entirely barren but 
carry low-grade ore. The formation of large 'horses' 
along the shear-zone gives the effect of shoots or chim- 
neys of ore that unite in depth. A peculiar condition, 
sometimes noticed, is the offsetting of the ore through 
the constriction of the zone of flow and its diversion in a 
lateral direction, to be succeeded after a distance by a 
widening again and the resumption of ore along the 
general course. The result of this is a deplacement 
similar to that which might result from the faulting of 
a fissure-vein. In the shear-zone, however, there is no 
marked fissure to guide the miner in determining 
geometrically the position of the displaced orebody. 
Exploration work alone will find it. 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press 


Progress in the Treatment of Gold Ore. 

By Alfred James. 

*It will not be possible for me to review the progress of 
gold ore treatment for this year in as detailed a manner 
U i- usual, owing to these notes being written while trav- 
eling some thousands of miles away from my base. 

Fine sliming and the treatment of slime is again the 
most interesting feature of the year's progress; even 
former exponents of coarse crushing are now converts to 
modern slime practice. From eastern Asia to West 
Australia and from South Africa to North America 
sliming methods are pre-eminent and have modified the 
other processes employed in the industry, such as crush- 
ing to tube-mills and the roasting of ores previously 
ground very finely. 

Less has been heard this year of pans. Experiments 
in the Transvaal appear to have resulted in favor of 
tube-mills, and many more of them have been installed. 
With heavy stamps the Luipaards Vlei appears to have 
been able to crush 8.5 tons per head per diem, but in 
Rhodesia I am advised that 10 tons per head is being 
obtained in more than one instance — crushing, however, 
to pans instead of tube-mills. 

For the Rhodesian practice differs from that of the 
Rand. With their much smaller installations, pans are 
found to be more suitable and efficient, as being chea|>er 
to install, forming more convenient units, and making 
less demand on power. In consequence, there are but 
few tube-mills operating in Rhodesia. The pans thus 
used are of the West Australian ty|>e. 

But tube-mills have unquestionably been much im- 
proved. Linings now lust longer and instead of having 
to stop a mill every three weeks or so for a week for a 
new lining, it is now possible to run for three to six 
months with a lining placed in position in from two to 
three days. Automatic linings such as those of the HI 
Oro, where pebbles are supposed to fix themselves in 
rebates cast in iron liners, do not yet appear to have 
proved themselves entirely satisfactory, and changes 
have recently been made in the shaj»e of the ro 
which have now their sides chamfered to each other. 
The use of quartz or other lode-matter to be crushed in 
place of imported pebbles has much increased, and this 
with the utilization of quarts and local chert or other 
hard rock in linings of the Barry or Brown type has 
materially reduced the cost of operating tube-mills. In 
Africa a mill is started with a charge <>f pebbles contain- 
ing say up to 10 Jt lode-matter, then in regular work it is 
found possible to reduce the daily feed of |<ebbles by hfc, 
adding rough lode stuff to balance until the daily feed 
contains only 10 Jf of pebbles, the whole of the balance 
being the product of the mine. 

It is in the treatment of the slime produced by tube- 
mills and other grinders that the progress of the year has 
been most manifest. The decantation ■ process, which 
originated in Africa and which has so long survived 
there, has now had its day. Designed to treat material 
of low value at that time not amenable to any other 
method, it has resulted in profits being realized from 
material that otherwise must have run to waste. But 
the huge and expensive plant and low extractions must 
now give place to more automatic methods involving 
cheaper equipment and higher saving, and already such 
cyanide experts as J. It. Williams, W. A. Caldecott, 
E. J. May, and H. s. Denny have been looking into 
processes employed elsewhere, notably the Butters, Burt, 
Ridgway, and Merrill filtering devices. 

In these notes of last year reference was made to the new 
Denny plants at the Meyer A Charlton and the New < ioch. 

•Hee editorial pnraicrnph. 

The Denny brothers severed their connection with these 
two mines shortly afterward, but in spite of their absence 
filter-pressing appears to be regarded as successful by the 
management, although much doubt has been expressed 
as to the wisdom of running cyanide solution through 
the mortar boxes. Mr. Geo. Albu has criticized this as 
making it difficult to obtain the assay-value of the 
mortar-box product, but I assume this point would not 
be regarded as serious if Mr. Albu were convinced he 
was obtaining a higher recovery of his gold. On the 
Rand, however, the Denny methods have not been fol- 
lowed. Rhodesia, on the contrary, having investigated 
the results, has had quite a small Dehne filter-pcess 
boom, plant after plant having been installed during the 
last year. 

But undoubtedly filter-pressing, even with Dehne 
presses, must give way before the suction filters, of which 
so much has been heard in the past year. Cheap and 
efficient, the daily tonnage handled by vacuum-filters is 
increasing by leaps and bounds. 

And of the various vacuum-filters on the market I 
must unhesitatingly refer first to the Ridgway. This 
differs from the filters of the basket type in being more 
rapid, working with thinner cakes, giving better wash- 
ing, and emptying itself in more cleanly fashion (auto- 
matically) than the basket-filters. Working as it does 
with the whole cycle of operation complete in 60 seconds 
on normal slime, it will be seen that difficulties, such as 
keeping material on cloths during transit of frames or 
during emptying and filling of vats, are entirely avoided, 
while the washing of so thin a layer J to J-in. thick is 
much more rapid and complete than the washing of a 
cake of double or treble the thickness. The Ridgway is 
thus able to work with a much smaller area of filter-cloth 
for any given capacity. 

During the year a 500-ton plant has t>een put into suc- 
cessful operation at the (ireat Boulder in West Australia, 
and I understand another plant of similar capacity hasal- 
ready been started. Plants of similar and smaller capac- 
ities' have been erected (or are in course of erection) 
In Mexico, India, South Africa, and Eastern Asia. The 
official figures of the West Australian Chamber of Mines 
show- Ridgway to be working under expensive local 
conditions (such as purchased power, dear labor and sup- 
plies) for under 8 cents per ton treated; In Africa the 
costs Bbould be little more than half this. 

The Butters-Cassel filters has l>oen installed widely in 
Mexico as well as in the Western States of America, not 
perhaps because it was the U-st vacuum type of filter— the 
recent published correspondence shows the pioneer Moore 
to lie at least the equal, and probably the superior— but 
because it was pushed by a man of repute and of great 
energy who was recommending the In-st thing he could 
get hold of. But in the recent correspondence in the 
technical papers it appeared to me that the only parties 
writing in favor of the Butters-Cassel filter were those 
who were, or had formerly been, associated with But- 
ters, whilst the Moore was recommended time and again 
by parties in no way associated with Moore, who had 
laid it down after investigation and who were apparently 
In no way connected— not even by paying royalties— to 
Moore or his associates. Certainly if the Moore process 
had been run with half the energy, experience, know- 
ledge, and skill of the Butters, I cannot imagine the lat- 
ter type of filter to !«• employed at all. 

For it is obvious that the hoisting of a basket <>f 
frames i- a much neater ami better and quicker ex ]*- 
dlent than the pumping in and out of pulp and solution 
or wash, each successive charge being mixed with the 
residi f the previous charge, whether of pulp or of solu- 
tion or of water, and it i- within the knowledge of men 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

experienced in slime filtration that the maintenance of a 
vacuum in a basket half immersed— or partially im- 
mersed for say four periods of ten minutes each during 
each cycle of operations— does not make for good results. 
The lower portion of the cake is being thickened by pulp 
deposit while the upper is cracking from the inrush of 
air, an unequal cake is formed, and the washing must be 
unequal, and there seems to be a great waste of water in 
discharging the cake after filtration. From the published 
correspondence it seems to be laid down without serious 
contradiction that the Moore is more accessible and 
open to inspection, and that it does more work for a 
plant of given cost or in a given time. 

Further modifications of the basket-filter have appeared 
in the form of enclosed filters worked by pressure or 
vacuum, such as the Blaisdell, Burt, and Kelly. This 
form of filter is scarcely new, and when tried some years 
ago proved itself unhandy, liable to freeze or choke, 
difficult to wash thoroughly, and difficult to discharge — 
in a word, it seems to be an attempt to work in the dark. 
Of course, modifications of the standard immovable en- 
closed type are made; one runs the frame into a cylinder 
or runs the cylinder away from the frame; this makes 
the operation more accessible but so far does not appear 
to be as successful as the pioneer basket type. 

Reverting, however, to filter presses, Merrill has at 
last got his big plant at work after three years' labor. It 
appears now to be working to nearly its full capacity — 
according to my recent information — and to be treating 
slime at a remarkably low cost. Advantage has been 
taken of every natural condition to make a successful 
working plant, and using static pressure to fill the 
presses and wash their charges, the Homestake costs are 
probably as low as any slime-treatment method yet put 
into practice. But my information is that with such a 
method the satisfactory treatment and hydraulic discharge 
of thick cakes in huge filter-presses is only possible with 
crystaline or granular slime and with a great waste of 
water. In a word, it appears that successful results may 
not be anticipated by the process on ordinary slime under 
ordinary economic conditions; the thorough washing of 
4-iu. cakes is feasible only with crystaline-granular or 
readily permeable slime. 

The successful handling of slime has also directed atten- 
tion to the solution of the gold contained therein. Last 
year I referred to the system of treatment based on feed- 
ing solution or wash-water at the bottom of a vat, the 
slime contents of which were in a state of gentle agitation, 
the idea being an overflow of clear solution containing 
the gold content of the charge. W. L. Holmes, of Mex- 
ico City (formerly in South Africa), brought this to my 
notice some years ago, but it did not appear to make 
headway. Bewick & Moreing were working it last year 
in West Australia, but evidently without commercial 
success, and this year Adair & Usher have been booming 
an apparently similar process in South Africa. Possibly 
some metallurgist at the Geldenhuis Deep, or elsewhere, 
may make something tangible out of the idea, but it looks 
as though the only result would be to call attention to the 
additional extraction obtained by the increased agitation 
of the pulp, and in this connection I have had reason to 
investigate the work of the Brown agitator. 

This apparatus, introduced into New Zealand at the 
Koniata Reefs, depends on the principle of the lessened 
specific gravity of a centre column into which air has 
been introduced at just such a pressure as will overcome 
the weight of the column of water at the point of intro- 
duction. There is no question of a jet of air circulating 
solution on the principle of the injector, but merely the 
physical lightening of the weight of a column by the dis- 
placement of a small proportion of the water by air. 

Brown uses long narrow vertical (cylindrical) vats, say 
40 ft. by 10 ft., or 55 ft. by 15 ft., with a centre column 
of 1 in. diam. per 1 ft. of vat diameter. Into this central 
tube or column the air is introduced, and agitation is so 
effective as to lift stones at a minimum horsepower per 
ton. The power taken appears to be about 2J hp. per 50 
tons of charge, which is the slime content of a 40 by 10-ft. 
vat. By this method the advantage of the accelerating 
action of air agitation is obtained at a small cost. 

The use of these vats has been offered to the Waihi — 
the manager of which speaks very highly of them — and 
Waihi Grand Junction in New Zealand, and a number 
have been installed in Mexico under the name of the 
' Bachuca Agitator.'* 

The progress of cyanide treatment for the silver-gold 
ores of Mexico has been one of the features of 1907. 
Chihuahua has been adopting cyanide with avidity, and 
Pachuca appears to be now coming into line. Of course, 
El Oro has done pioneer work, and Guanajuato has also 
been in the forefront. In almost every case the practice 
is similar. Tube-mill sliming and treatment of the 
slime at first by decantation, but now by filter. High 
extractions are claimed, but having regard to the nat- 
ural refractoriness of silver sulphide ores — in some 
instances as at Chinacates associated with pyrite, chalco- 
pyrite, galena, and blende — one is impressed by the 
necessity of having recourse to the most modern prac- 
tice, whether for getting the silver and gold into solution 
or for recovering the solution from the pulp for precipi- 
tation of the precious metal. 

There is but little new either in roasting or concentra- 
tion of gold ores this year. Merton and Edwards still 
hold the field for roasting, and the many flotation pro- 
cesses applied to the zinc-lead ores at Broken Hill, such 
as the Potter, Delprat, De Bavay, Cattermole, and 
Elmore, do not yet appear to be successfully running at 
any gold mines known to me, although it is thought that 
the mechanical and metallurgical skill at the back of the 
Elmore process will bring it to the forefront during the 
coming year. 

Potter's Sulphide Treatment. — Great satisfaction 
is expressed in Australia at the cessation of litigation in 
connection with the Potter process for the treatment of 
sulphide ores, the formal signing of the agreement be- 
tween the litigant companies taking place at Melbourne 
recently. The details show that the Proprietary Com- 
pany assigns to the Potter's Sulphide Ore Treatment 
Company, Limited, all the patents it holds in the name 
of F. M. Dickenson and G. D. Delprat, including those 
relating to the Delprat process. This is a formal convey- 
ance of the rights, so that in future the Proprietary com- 
pany will work under license from Potter's company. It 
will, however, pay no royalty, the consideration for the 
right to use the process untrammelled being £10,000. 
The Proprietary company will have full liberty to em- 
ploy the process on all mines that it may absolutely own, 
but not to license anyone else to utilize it, the power to 
do that being vested completely in the Potter's company. 
No opposition will be offered by the Proprietary com- 
pany to any amendment that the Potter's company may 
wish to make to its patents. Each side will pay its own 
costs in the litigation that has already taken place. This 
arrangement will prevent a further ex|>euditure of many 
thousands of pounds in legal proceedings. 

Experiments prove that the addition of graphite to 
oil results in a lower frictioual resistance of the surface 
lubricated than would be obtained by the use of oil alone. 

*See M isrxG and Scientific Prkss of November 30, 1907. 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


Mexico. Progress in 1907. 

Written for the Mixing and Scientific Press 
By C. A. lioHS. 

Two months ago everything seemed to be upon a solid 
basis in Mexico; and all pointed toward continued pros- 
perity in this Republic. Then all at once came the signs 
of financial trouble, money became tight, promising 
enterprises were set back, and working properties were 
closed, until only the best continued in operation, or a 
few large producers, which, by reason of their organiza- 
tion, mast be kept running to meet fixed expenses. 
Under conditions such as these to review the year's work 
in Mexico is like writing the history of a devastating 

The greatest collapse was at Cananea, in Sonora. The 
Cole-Ryan merger of the Cananea Central with the 
Greene Consolidated Copper Co., under the control of the 
former and with the name of the Greene-Cananea, was 
but little more than consummated at the beginning of 
1907. L. D. Ricketts was placed in charge, and almost 
immediately a practical rebuilding of the entire plant 
was planned. At the mines the caving system had 
already been introduced, so that alterations for further 
economy had to be made elsewhere. Plans were drawn 
and work started to replace the two 2400-ton concen- 
trating plants at the Cananea Central and the Greene 
Consolidated by one central plant with 10,000 capacity, 
wherein by gravity and every other means economy was 
sought, and several units were completed. At the smelt- 
ing plant new furnaces each of 450 tons capacity were 
being erected to take the place of the old, and six of the 
eight furnaces have been completed. Now practically all 
this work has been stopped and of the 4000 men formerly 
employed only a few hundred remain. Of the other work 
at Cananea, the Phelps-Dodge Co. has continued the 
development of the Sierra de Cobre mine, reaching a 
depth of 800 ft and finding a 70-ft. body of Ifc copper 
ore in the lower limestone; as well as taking over the 
Indiana -Sonora properties, on which development work 
was being pushed. Before the collapse, the I^ewisohns 
had purchased from Lindsay A Talbot the Cananea 
Nueva, comprising 1200 pertinencias north of the 
Greene-Cananea. Chas. M. Schwab had taken up the 
Cananea Western of 398 pertinencias nine miles west of 
Cananea and constructed a wagon-road to the property. 
Guggenheim A Thompson had purchased the Cananea A 
Bisbee; the Mitchells, the South Cananea; Cole, Lindsay, 
and Talbot, the Bonanza de Cobre; and Michigan capital, 
the Calumet A Sonora (which is not closed down as they 
have a good high-grade lead product ), so it may be seen 
that the leading copper interests in the I'nited States 
were acquiring holdings there as rapidly as possible. 
Eleven miles south-east of Cananea the Arizpe Develop- 
ment Co. was opening up its 6600 acres with three shafts 
and was contemplating the erection of an immense 
reduction plant. And 20 miles south of Cunanea the Fay 
Cananea Copper Co., with Duluth capital, was develop 
ing some 3000 acres. At Nacozari, the Moctezuma Cop- 
per Co., a subsidiary of Phelps, Dodge & Co., has closed 
down its smelter, but has erected a 2000-ton custom con- 
centrator, the product from which goes to Douglas, 
Arizona. In the Magdalena district 27 miles southeast 
from Nogales, the Black Mountain Mining Co., after sev- 
eral years of work on a low-grade proposition, has met 
with deserved success, and now is making good profits 
with the 120-stamp and cyanide mill. Into this region 
many of the discharged men from Cananea have 
migrated on pros|iecting tours. The Belen Copper Co., 
at Cumpas; the Anita Copper Mines Co., at Corcorit; and 
the Cieneguita Copper Co., in the Sahuaripa district 

north of Ures; all have their little smelting plants and 
are shipping high-grade matte. And at Fundicion, 150 
km. from Guaymas on the Alamos branch of the 
Cananea, Yaqui River A Pacific Railroad, the Pacific 
Smelting A Refining Co., controlled by the Douglas Cop- 
per Co., is just preparing to start up its 250-ton smelting 
plant, completed in November, for the treatment of its 
own ores and for custom business. Though the Yaquis 
continue to give trouble in the eastern part of Sonora, 
the railroads are beginning to form a network through 
that region and will soon drive them out, but the north- 
western portion of the State is practically without trans- 
portation and has scarcely been touched by the pros- 

At the beginning of 1907 Sinaloa, rich as it is in 
resources, both mineral and agricultural, had but 85 
miles of railroad, from the coast to its capital of Culiacan, 
and a short distance out from the port of Topolobampo, 
the western terminus of the Kansas City, Mexico A 
Orient This road, however, has pushed construction 
work along the Fuerte river, until the grade has reached 
almost to the Chihuahua line, near Guazapares, a dis- 
tance of 130 miles; and the Southern Pacific's Guaymas- 
Guadalajara line has crossed the Sonora-Sinaloa boundary 
and has built about 25 miles into the latter State toward 
San Bias, on the Fuerte river, the junction point with 
the Kansas City, Mexico A Orient. Furthermore, the 
survey of the Durango-Mazatlan line has been com- 
pleted, so it is quite likely another year will see this 
State with two lines crossing it from east to west and 
another its entire length north and south. This railroad 
building has made such a demand on the men and 
animals throughout Sinaloa that, with the exception of 
the silver mining at Cosala and at Copala and the gold 
mining at Realito and Boleo, no mining of real conse- 
quence has been done. But with better means of trans- 
portation, Sinaloa's future is assured. 

To the State of Chihuahua must be given credit for 
marked general progress. Nor is this surprising, for 
aside from being the largest State in the Mexican Re- 
public, it has had the added impetus of the Kansas City, 
Mexico 4 Orient building across its entire breadth from 
northeast to southwest, and the erection of a large smelt- 
ing plant at its capital, the city of Chihuahua. This 
plant has l>een practically completed during the year by 
the American Smelting A Refining Co., and would no 
doubt have, been blown in before this had it not been for 
the inability to get sufficient fuel and the lack of assurance 
from the Mexican Central Railroad that the supply could 
be maintained. The plant is of 800 tons capacity, in- 
tended principally for lead, and is thoroughly up-to-date 
in the economical handling of materials, with belt con- 
veyors to and from the sampling mill and over the ore- 
beds, movable platforms, electric charge-cars, automatic 
feed, and electric engines for handling the slag-pots. 
East of the city of Chihuahua, on the line of the new 
railroad, considerable development work has been done 
in the way of opening up copper and zinc properties near 
San Sostenes station and in the Coyame district. In the 
old camp of Santa Kulalia, there have been opened ii|> 
hundreds of thousands of tons of comparatively low- 
grade (10 to 15 oz.) lead carbonate and iron oxide ores, 
in the following pro]>erties : The American Smelting A 
Refining Co.'s mines, which are being equipped with 
electric hoists and whence an aerial tram is to extend to 
the company's smelting plant; the Chihuahua and the 
1'otosi (large zinc bodies also in this property), which are 
controlled by the Grant 15. Schley interests in New York, 
and have their own railroad from the mines to Chihua- 
hua ; the Santa Kulalia Exploration Co., of l>os Ange- 
les capitalists, where in 10 months development work on 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

its Buena Tierra claims over 250,000 tons have been 
blocked out; and the San Toy in which Chas. M. 
Schwab is heavily interested, and which has its tramway 
of 4 J miles to connect with its own spur from the Mexican 
Central railroad ; together with a number of other smaller 
producers. This camp alone, without further develop- 
ment work, could keep the Chihuahua smelter going for 
many years. To the west of the city, along the line of 
the Chihuahua & Pacific railroad, the development work 
has been more in high-grade properties, unless we except 
the Calera. This property, near Miflaca, the western ter- 
minus of the Chihuahua & Pacific railroad, is commonly 
called the largest zinc mine in the world, and has an im- 
mense sulphide body running about 10 fc lead and 30 <?„ 
zinc, with a garnet gangue, on which water concentra- 
tion proved to be of no avail. Dry concentration was 

to meet the others of the Rio Grande, Sierra Madre A 
Pacific coming south from El Paso, building wagon-roads 
(a permanent blessing to that part of the country), opening 
up the timber-lands of the Sierra Madre Land & Lumber 
Co., and developing the mines that have been acquired by 
the Greene Gold-Silver Co., though it is a question whether 
he has been successful in this, but it is to be hoped, never- 
theless, that his "promises to pay," which are due next 
June, may be taken up before that time and that he may 
soon again be actively at work, for his enthusiasm gives 
a certain impetus to such work that is greatly needed in 
this country. Of the other more important developments 
west of Chihuahua, the Rio de Plata Mining Co., 100 
miles beyond the railroad, in charge of D. M. Shanks, 
has in an incredibly short time completed its 25-stamp 
mill and is shipping a rich concentrate while storing the 

Map of Mexico, Showing the States. 

then tried and it is here that the Sutton-Steele pneumatic 
table has had its first successful demonstration on a large 
scale, and the manager, C. M. Pringle, is satisfied that 
it is the only method for handling the Calera ore. After 
crushing to 20-mesh the ore passes through an air suction 
classifier and onto the Sutton-Steele tables, which yields 
a remarkably clean concentrate, running over 65 <f lead, 
3 to 4 f e zinc, and 3 % iron, the middling is stored, and 
the tailing goes to the Wetherill magnetic separator, 
whence is obtained a product running from 40 to 45^ 
zinc. At present only three tables are in commission, 
but they will be added to, and Mr. Pringle states that 
each table when running properly has a capacity of 30 
tons per day. I have dwelt at length on this work be- 
cause it is as a milestone in the progress of mining and 
milling, as demonstrating a practical method for hand- 
ling these complex sulphide ores. 

West of Calera the Kansas City, Mexico & Orient rail- 
road has been pushing south and west to connect with 
its line from Topolobampo, while W. C. Greene (of Can- 
anea fame) has been most active, in extending his tracks 

tailing for cyanide treatment later; the Dolores, in the 
Guerrero district, is shipping concentrate and cyaniding 
the tailing ; the Waterson company, in the Ocampo dis- 
trict, has added cyanide to its amalgamation plant; the 
Republica, at Morris, two days beyond Ocampo, has 
made final payments on the property, has erected a 10- 
stamp mill, is shipping out concentrate and storing the 
tailing; the Pinos Altos mines have been again opened 
by Pittsburg capital (T. X. Barnsdall and associates); 
the Batopilas continues prosperous; the Palmarejo & 
Mexican is meeting with more success since cyanide has 
taken the place of amalgamation, and a power-plant on 
the river and an immense mill at the mine for the low- 
grade ores are under consideration. At the extreme 
western border of the State, near Guazapares, which is 
just at present more accessible by way of Topolobampo, 
the rich gold mines of the Lluvia de Oro and the Calaba- 
cillas are being provided with stamps and cyanide mills, 
while the former is being thoroughly equipped for elec- 
tric power from a 500-kw. steam turbine. In the Parral 
and Santa Barbara districts, the most noteworthy work 

January 4, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


for the year has been the erection of the 80-stamp mill 
(for cyaniding) and the installation of electrical equip- 
ment on the properties of the Veta Colorada Co., con- 
trolled by Martin J. Condon and associates of New York; 
the completion of the 200-ton mill (vanners and cyanide) 
of El Rayo Mining & Milling Co. controlled by \V~. B. 
Thompson, of New York; the successful termination of 
experiments on the ores of the Tecolotes y Anexas of the 
A. S. A R. Co., and the starting of two units of their 
immense mill, which had been idle for several years, but 
now since April has been handling 500 tons per day of 
the lead-zinc sulphides; the combination of the Clarinos, 
Los Remedios, and Reforma as the Hinds Consolidated 
Mining Co., with a good working capital; and the leas- 
ing of the famous Palmilla of Pedro Alvarado for 15 
years to J. A. Coram and associates of Boston. At the 
San Francisco del Oro, where great bodies of sulphides, 

into Guanacevi of the large English company on the 
Restauradora, the Mines Finance Co. (J. B. Farish) on 
the Garibaldi mines, and the Mexico Mining & Smelting 
Co. of Boston on the Nuevo Australia, Soto, and Por- 

In Zacatecas, the most important events are the com- 
pletion of the 500-ton lead smelting plant of the Mazapil 
Copper Co., at Saltillo, which will be a custom smelter 
as well, though not in the sense of a competitor to the 
Monterrey or San Luis Potosi plants; the acquisition of 
the concession of Walter C. Palmer by the R. A. Towue 
interests, and the completion of the survey for the rail- 
road between the Mexican Central station of Gutierrez to 
the towns of Sombrerete and Chalchihuites, a road that 
has been greatly needed, and by which the Towne inter- 
ests could have saved many thousands of dollars in work- 
ing their Sombrerete mines had they built the line 15 

On the Road to the Mines. 

running about 11% lead and 2:1% zinc, have lieen opened 
up, prej>arations are being made for experimental treat- 
ment by the Sutton-Steele dry tables and the Mineral 
Separation Co.'s oil-flotation process. At the camp of 
Naica, which has been so long an almost one-mine camp, 
the Lepanto and the Ramon Corona arc rapidly increas- 
ing their production and crowding the Naica for first 
place, which latter it is understood the Vogelsteins were 
seeking for p5,<MK),ooo. 

In Durango we have seen during the year a successful 
turn in the operations of the Velardefia smelting plant of 
the American Smelter's Securities Co., leased to the A. 
S. 4 R. Co.; the practical rebuilding of the Map! ml 
smelter of the Petioles Mining Co., and its active entry 
in the markets as a custom plant; the o|iening of an 
almost new camp at Topia, by the development work of 
the Macdonald brothers on La Perla lead mine, the erec- 
tion l>y them of a concentrating plant, and the expected 
railroad connection with Culiaean; the proving up of the 
immense gold quartz deposits at Indf> on the Guadalupe 
and the pro|K-rty of the hide Gold Mining Co., the con- 
solidation of the two uinler the name of the latter, and 
the completion of its loo-ton cyanide mill; and the entry 

years ago. Near the city of Zacatecas, the Knglish com- 
pany operating the F.l Bote mine has changed over from 
amalgamation to cyanide, an act that it is to be hoped 
may presage better milling, so that the coming year 
may s<s' the resumption of many old properties and the 
successful use of cyanide as at Guanajuato. 

In Guanajuato improvement and development con- 
tinue unabated; the weekly payroll has reached the nice 
sum of P80,000; the Guanajuato Power A Electric Co. 
has taken up more water rights to give additional power 
to the camp; the Sirena of the Guanajuato Consolidated, 
the llrst of the modern companies, has opened up an 
immense body of P36 ore below the tilth level, which 
seems to l>e improving with depth; the Pinguieo has 
also greatly added to its ore reserves; the (iuanajuato 
({eduction & Mines Co. has increased from 80 to 240 
stamps, and even for this mill it is estimated there are 
some 12 years' supply in the old dumps to say nothing of 
old fillings in the company's Valenciana, Cata, Mellado, 
and Kayas mines; and the San Cayetano has finally 
been purchased from the old Knglish company by ;i New 
York company, fireatly to the credit of this old camp 
may it be said that scarcely a failure has been made of 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 4, 1908. 

any property there that has had anything like a sufficient 
working capital. But of greatest importance to the 
future of the camp are the cutting of the Porflrio Diaz 
tunnel, which precludes the possibility of recurrence of 
the devastating floods of 19j3 and 1905; the long-needed 
entry of the Mexican Central Railroad into the city of 
Guanajuato, thus cutting off untold expenses and incon- 
veniences; and the beginning of construction work on 
the Guanajuato Belt Railroad, which will bring almost 
all the mines and mills of the camp in direct connection 
with the Mexican Central Railroad. 

Jalisco has seen the renewal of life and the remarkable 
success following the re-opening of the old mines in the 
Hostotipaquillo district, as well as in the development 
work on extensions of the old veins; the entry of 
strong American companies in the Mascota, Real El Alto, 
San Sebastian, and Los Reyes districts; the opening up 
of the copper properties around Autlan and Ayutla; the 
practical completion of the 250-ton cyanide plant of the 
Amparo Mining Co. near Etzatlan; and the hope of cheap 
power held out by the Electric Light & Power Co. of 
Guadalajara from its contemplated power line to the 
above mentioned camps of the State, excepting perhaps 
Ayutla and Autlan. 

The mines of El Oro, in the State of Mexico, have 
taken on a new lease of life with the finding early in June 
of a new orebody at 1000 ft. on the San Rafael vein in 
the El Oro. The workings had been getting poorer in 
depth and the future of the district was being despaired 
of until this discovery was made, for, being a sulphide 
body, it seems to indicate persistence of ore in depth. 
The completion of the power plant of the Sultepec Elec- 
tric Light & Power Co. has made possible the resumption 
of work at many of the properties at Temascaltepec and 
Zacualpam, where distance from the railroad and fuel 
had formerly made economical working an impossibility. 

In Hidalgo, also, electricity and cyanide are going hand 
in hand. At Pachuca, the birthplace of the patio pro- 
cess, the old process has had to give way to the new in 
the form of cyanide. The first experimental work on a 
large scale was done by the United States Mining, etc., 
Co. at its Real del Monte mines, and work is being pushed 
on two 250-ton plants. Learning of the success of the 
cyanide treatment for local ores, the owners of the Haci- 
enda de San Francisco, one of the oldest patio plants in 
Pachuca, after an idleness of about six years, early in the 
year of 1907 made the alterations necessary and opened 
up as the pioneer cyanide plant in the old historic camp 
of Pachuca, being soon followed by La Union, another of 
the old patio 'haciendas.' 

Oaxaca has been fortunate in the successful maintenance 
of the little lead smelting plant of Hammer & Williams, 
at Magdalena, which has been recently reorganized as 
the Magdalena Smelting Co. of New York, with a capital 
of P5,000,000 and J. H. Williams as general manager. 
The Oaxaca Smelting & Refining Co. has not been so for- 
tunate, meeting with financial difficulties before being 
able to blow in. It was forced into the hands of a re- 
ceiver, but it is believed the coming year will see it on a 
solid basis. 

The oilfields of San Luis Potosi have rapidly increased 
in importance, and an immense combination has been 
effected (by E. L. Loheney) of the principal fields of Ta- 
maulipas, Vera Cruz, and San Luis Potosi with the hold- 
ings of the Mexican Petroleum Co. in the latter State. 

The great bodies of zinc carbonate brought good times 
to Villaldama, Sabinas Hidalgo, and Vallecillos, in the 
State of Nuevo Leon during the first half of the year, but 
the decline in the price of this metal and the continued 
difficulties about the question of duties into the Tinted 
States has caused a marked falling off in the shipments. 

Coahuila has become almost synonymous with coal in 
the minds of the people of Mexico, by reason of the 
enormous beds of soft coal underlying great areas in this 
State; and the past year has seen several companies 
organized as competitors to the Mexican Coal & Coke Co. 
of Las Esperanzas, which so long held a practical monop- 
oly on Mexican coals. Chief of the new companies is the 
Sabinas Coal Co. at Rosita and Agujita, whence the 
combined product is over 3000 tons per day, with a 1000- 
ton washer both at Rosita and Agujita. This company 
has been strengthened in the last few months by a com- 
bination with the Mexican Mining & Industrial Corpora- 
tion, an English concern, which already had ground 
near-by and was producing close to 1000 tons per day. 
Another important move was the separation of the coal 
lands from the other holdings of the Monterrey Iron & 
Steel Co., and placing them in the hands of a sub-com- 
pany, to be known as the Northern Coal Co., with a 
capital of PI 0,000,000, of which P 1,000, 000 is to go at 
once into exploration and development work. Several 
other million peso companies are operating in these 
Coahuila fields. 

Throughout the year the greatest difficulty has been 
experienced throughout Mexico in obtaining cars for the 
movement of all classes of material, and this has been 
felt severely by the mining interests, for all the railroads 
report that 50 f c or over of their total freights have been 
ores or supplies to and from the mines and smelters. No 
wonder was it then that a cry went up over the whole Re- 
public when the railroads proposed a new tariff that would 
have meant an increase in the rates anywhere from 50 to 
over 100^, dependent upon the grade of the ore and the 
length of haul. The result of vigorous objection was 
that the Government Commission made a material reduc- 
tion in the proposed tariff, but has allowed a classifica- 
tion into those under P25 valuation, those between p25 
and p50, and those over P50, with an increase over the 
existing rates on the three classes of 10, 20, and 30^, re- 
spectively; though it is not intended that these shall go 
into effect until after there has been seme clearing in the 
general financial situation. The expected merger of the 
Mexican railroads under Federal control has likewise 
been delayed, because of the financial disturbances. 

The scarcity of labor has become intensified all over 
Mexico, and in many localities where there were men 
they could not be induced to work. Many attempts 
were made to improve matters by the importation of 
Japanese, but generally it proved a poor experiment, for 
the Japs were far worse than the Mexicans, and they 
not only did not know how to work but they did not care 
to work. Up to the time of the financial troubles thegrowth 
of Mexican industries was phenomenal. Notwithstanding 
a great reduction in the stamp law and other taxes, the 
Federal revenue and surplus for the year has been far 
greater than ever before in the country's history; the 
banks have shown an ever increasing reserve, and the 
coinage of the country, now limited to that from the 
mint at Mexico City, or by contract in the United States, 
is being constantly augmented by many millions in both 
gold and silver. Mexico has been checked, of course, by 
the depression that has affected all, but its movement is 
onward and upward; it cannot now be held back; its 
railroads, its mines, its water-power, its agriculture are 
all undergoing progressive development. 

Tiik four deepest mine shafts in the world are in the 
Lake Superior copper region within a mile of each other. 
These are the Red Jacket shaft of the Calumet & Hecla 
Co. and shafts No. 3, 4, and 5 of the Tamarack Co. The 
first is vertically 4920 ft. and the Tamarack No. 5 is a 
vertical shaft 5130 ft. deep. 

Whole No. 2477. "SHE,?" 1 

' Science has no enemy save the ignorant." 

Sini I* Copies. Tea Celts. 



Telephone Kearney 4777. Cable Address: Pertusola. 



Philip Abo all. J.R. Finlay. 

Leonard 8. Austin. F. Lynwood Garrison. 

Kkaxi is L. Bosoui. H. c. Hoover. 

K. Oilman Brown. Courtenay DeKalb. 

Donald F. Campbell. James F. Kemp. 

J. Parke Chajijixo. Charles 8. Palmer. 



United State* and Mexico, . 


Canada.. . 

All other countries In Postal Union One Guinea or » 

BPOAB RICKARD '. ^ '. '. ~. Business Manager. 

New York— 600 Fifth Avenue. Drnver-420 McPhee Building. 
Chicago— 104 Monadnock Block. Telephone: Harrison KM. 
London— Edward Walker, Salisbury House, K. C. 


Entered at the San Francitco Poitofftce m Srcoml-ilntt Matter. 


Editorial : Page. 

Notes 4 7 

A Tribute to Civilization ."!!!!!"""""" 48 

Assisting Graduates 49 

Smoke Suits 49 

General Mining News 51 

Special Correspondence 53 

Johannesburg, Transvaal Wallace, Idaho 

London Halt Lake. Utah 

Butte, Montana Denver. Colorado 

Concentrates gi 

Discussion : 

Depth at Goldfleld Arnold Becker 62 

Cyanidation of Ore Containing Both Coarse and 

Fine Gold Walter L. Reid, /•;. /'. Kennedy, 

E. A. II. Tay*, Edtrin C. Holden 62 

Cyanidation in Nevada Fdaar A. Collin* 63 

Cyanide Practice at Copala /-. .V. li. Bullock 63 

Capitalization of Hand Mines Thou. II. Lcggett 64 

Articles : 

Mineral Production of British Columbia in 1907 50 

Colorado Forte* Richard 66 

Nagybanya, Hungary Edward Skewet 66 

The Copper River District, Alaska W. M. Brewer 71 

Leasing the Federal Coal Lands //. Footer Bain 73 

The Outlook for Copper Vuha /.'. Apprlbaum 76 

Mining and Metallurgical Patents 7.5 

The Prospector 74 

Departments : 


Market Iteports 

Commercial Paragraphs 

Catalogues Received 




LONDON has felt the depression of 1907 acutely. 
According to The Bankers Magazine, the depre- 
ciation of stocks has been the worst in twenty years. In 
387 active securities quoted on the London Stock 
Exchange there has been a depreciation of $1,710,000,000, 
on a nominal capital of $17,125,000,000; that is, the fall 
is equal to 9 per cent. In 17 leading American securi- 
ties, bought and sold at London, the decline is measured 
by $775,000,000, or 32 per cent. These are impressive 

\VfITH THE ERECTION of the first steel column 
» ▼ on the pediments that mark the foundation of 
the new Palace Hotel, there comes the promise that this 
famous caravansary will soon become a feature of life in 
San Francisco. The skeleton of the big structure will 
contain 6300 tons of steel, besides 1000 tons of grillage 
and bases. The hotel will be ready for business in alwut 
two years. Meanwhile, we are glad to chronicle the 
re-opening of the St. Francis Hotel, which survived the 
earthquake only to be gutted by the conflagration of 
April 18, 1906. The interior of the renovated hotel is so 
like its former self as to suggest, to those within the 
building, that the earthquake-flre was but an ugly night- 
mare. Mining engineers, who are necessarily nomads, 
will Ik* glad to know that San Francisco now affords 
plenty of hotel accommodation and is once more the hos- 
pitable city of old renown. 

^TOON we shall have pissed through the orgy of 
*-' statistical misinformation that marks the begin- 
ning of every year. Scril»es that must show increases of 
production in their county or their State, amateur statis- 
ticians that are forced to prove the advancing strides of 
industry in their own habitat, can take a rest and con- 
fess their sins of exaggeration. To the innocent reader 
of the reviews of progress in mining regions it might 
seem as if a veritable shower of gold or a flood of silver 
were about to overwhelm us; each county seems to l>c 
able to do as much as a whole State, and each State 
seems capable of producing enough metallic wealth for 
the whole Nation. The result is bewildering and most 
unconvincing. We doubt if any town, district, or State 
gains in reputation or general estimation from the cor- 
rus<-ating Niagara of blatherumskite outpoured during 
the closing hours of the year. Exaggeration is futile, 
and it does not prevail. 

OV THE TRANSFER of the control of Tin Time* 
*-* to C. Arthur Pearson, the leading daily paper of 
the world passes out of the huuds of the Walter family, 
which has owned it for four generations. One would 
suppose that an event of such general interest and 
unusual significance would receive adequate notice, if 


Mining and Scientific Press. January 11)1908 . 

not intelligent comment, at the hands of our local con- 
temporaries. The Chronicle gave the telegraphic news 
without comment, the Call failed to notice the fact at all, 
and as for the Examiner, since we never read that paper 
we cannot say what sort of stuff it printed on the subject. 
Undoubtedly The Times has lost in public estimation by 
its exploitation of a book trade during recent years and, 
even if it has not deteriorated, the number of rivals has 
been increased; nevertheless this great exemplar of 
serious journalism holds a unique position and still exerts 
a worldwide influence. Mr. Pearson is a clever man and 
has modern notions of what a newspaper should be; it 
will be interesting to see if he can rise to the occasion. 

WE TAKE PLEASURE in publishing the article 
discussing the leasing of Federal coal lands. 
The author, Mr. H. Foster Bain, is director of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Illinois, and apart from his knowledge 
of local conditions, he has been trained at Johns Hopkins 
University and by service with the United States Geolog- 
ical Survey, two preparations for observing carefully and 
writing clearly. The movement to introduce the leasing 
system is a direct result of the abuse of power on the part 
of the existing coal companies and the demonstration of 
an oppressive monopoly in the anthracite trade. The 
truly American idea of fostering individual initiative 
and affording free play to the adventurous spirit of the 
man who develops natural resources has worked out not 
wholly for good, in so far as it has given free rein to the 
greed of capitalists and the unscrupulous methods of cor- 
porations having no recognition of any obligations to the 
community. By the excesses of such agencies we have 
become receptive to government paternalism, and the 
reader will find that Mr. Bain has stated the case fairly 
and squarely. 

npHE ARTICLE on Nagybanya, an old goldfleld in 
* Hungary, will prove interesting. It is written by 
Mr. Edward Skewes, at one time in practice at Cripple 
Creek and then general manager of the Great Boulder 
Main Reef mine in Western Australia. The Hungarian 
gold mines described by him produced 1,554,828 kronen 
or $310,000 worth of gold in 1906, and the official report 
estimates the value of the land, offices, and buildings that 
cannot be removed at 13,382,498 kronen or about $2,678,- 
000. From a mining standpoint this region in eastern 
Europe is one of the great has-beens of history. During 
the time of Trajan, who conquered Dacia and made it a 
province of Rome, in the first century, these goldfields 
were the most important in the Roman empire. As a 
part of Transylvania they continued to be productive and 
afforded matter for early geological studies. In the 
dumps of the old mines Roman coins have been found, 
the gold so pure as to be soft. It is likely that the silver- 
gold bullion of the mines was refined by the use of salt, 
with the formation of a silver chloride that is readily 
amalgamated. An attempt has been made to introduce 
modern machinery into Transylvania with a view to ex- 
ploiting the low-grade ores remaining in the old mines, 
but the results have proved that the cheap labor of the 

past could give better economic resultts han the mechan- 
ical devices of today. 

A Tribute to Civilization. 

RETROSPECTS of 1907, and of the financial disor- 
ganization that came so suddenly last October, 
have been general at the beginning of the new year. 
The sober thoughtfulness induced by a personal experi- 
ence of the late unpleasantness has led most of us to read 
the opinions and forecasts of individual financiers as 
published in the daily press of the larger cities. In the 
midst of the bewilderment that followed in the wake of 
the panic these authoritative statements are decidedly 
reassuring, for most of the big men talk hopefully; they 
emphasize the industrial power of America, the capacity 
for further progress, the courage and vigor of the people, 
and the wealth of natural resources. Undoubtedly this 
chastened optimism is well founded; the wealth of all 
classes, by reason of a series of fortunate years, is such 
as to enable them to meet a business reaction success- 
fully; the number of actual failures has been small, the 
crops now being marketed have been bountiful and are 
being sold at unusually high prices; speculative activity 
has been sobered, not killed; if 85,000,000 people will 
economize even but a little they can create an enormous 
fund of capital in a short time. After all, the primary 
trouble of 1907 was the exhaustion of capital; this was 
felt all over the world, the increasing production of gold 
being futile to correct it, for the business of the nations 
had outrun the resources available. Most students of 
finance agree that within the last few years the absorp- 
tion of capital into various forms of fixed investment has 
been the greatest ever known and until this capital be- 
comes reproductive it ceases to be serviceable for new 
enterprises. Moreover, in this country the extravagant 
diversion of capital into Wall Street speculations had 
reached a pitch never before attained, causing a vast 
amount of money to be tied up in unproductive gam- 
bling. On the top of this it was proved that the corpo-^ 
rate management of some of the largest industrial and 
financial enterprises was rotten and that one or two lead- 
ers had acquired a destructive power intensely disquiet- 
ing to the investing public. Until such men as Harri- 
man, Ryan, Gates, Morse, and Heinze can be eliminated 
from the management of industrial enterprises of na- 
tional importance there is no safety for shareholders, 
who but supply the facilities whereby these gamesters 
play their astounding games of chance and plunder. 

No more striking testimony to the advance of indus- 
trial civilization can be offered than the small number of 
insolvencies chronicled in the United States during the 
recent panic and throughout the year. In 1907 there 
were 11,669 failures, with liabilities aggregating $195,- 
479,214; besides 126 banks that failed for a total of 
$123,736,377 as against 10,682 commercial failures for 
$119,201,515 and 58 banks for $18,805,380, in 1906. The 
increase of insolvencies is extraordinarily small when 
we consider the volume of business transacted and the 
violence of the panic that convulsed the commercial 

January 11, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press, 


world in October and November. Of course, many weak 
concerns were bolstered up and many individuals were 
kept from bankruptcy by making a heavy sacrifice of 
their resources, and the result to many of them may 
have come perilously near to utter destruction-, but it 
stopped short of absolute failure, and that meant much, 
not to them only but to the general restoration of credit 
in the community. Nowadays, the transfer of money 
by cablegram, the flashing of quotations on stocks to every 
corner of the globe, and the facilities afforded by a mar- 
vellously developed system of posts and telegraphs, have 
widened the range of business transactions and spread 
the base of credit to such an extent that panics are no 
longer local. If one community is in trouble, another 
gets a fit of the nerves; no city and no country is inde- 
pendent financially of the doings of its neighbors, when 
even distance ceases to be a barrier to neighborly respon- 
sibility. Viewed in this light it is astonishing that the 
sudden and violent collapse to credit in the last quarter of 
1907 did not precipitate worse results. Despite revelations 
of plunder and exposures of corruption, men trust each 
other as they never did in any preceding period of his- 
tory. Civilization is not a failure and the Caucasian 
is not played out. 

Assisting Graduates. 

D KWICK, MOREING A CO. deserve the gratitude 
*-* of graduates from the mining schools, for this 
company has established a system by which it gives 
young fellows a chance to learn their profession. It is a 
sort of apprenticeship, modified to modern conditions. 
For several years now it has been the custom of this 
engineering firm to take a stipulated numl>er of men 
from the Hoyal School of Mines, London, on the recom- 
mendation of the council of that technical college, and 
grant them facilities for taking a two yean' course in 
mining and milling at the mines managed by the com- 
pany. These students are expected to do the regular 
work alongside of the regular employees and they receive 
the standard wages. For instance, if a graduate is 
received at one of the West Australian mines, he may 
spend one month with the sampling crew or the timber 
gang, drawing pay at $2.75 per shift; in the next month 
he may be assisting the surveyor at $20 |»er week, and 
in the month following he may Ix.- in the cyanide plant 
receiving about $3 per shift. At the end of two years of 
varied labor, such a young man has been both tested and 
developed; he is eligible for a place on the permanent 
staff and, as a matter of fact, a number of these gradu- 
ates have obtained responsible posts at the mines. 
Arrangements of a similar character have been made 
with the universities at Sydney, Melbourne, and Ade- 
laide, the capitals of three Australian States. It is not 
necessary to emphasize the advantage of this meth<xl of 
promoting engineering education. Nothing could be 
more practical or more kind. The young aspirant for a 
place in the profession is able to get a sound groundwork 
of practical knowledge, while paying his way, and even 
saving some money. We advise those that succeed in 

saving money in the days of their apprenticeship, to 
spend it in travel, which is an excellent supplement to 
local experience. In the meanwhile, this reference to the 
subject is meant not so much for the information of min- 
ing graduates as it is intended to serve as a suggestion 
to the successful managers of mines and smelters, point- 
ing out to them how they can help the young fellows and 
do honor to themselves. It is a more practical form of 
assistance than the gift of libraries or the donation of 

Smoke Suits. 

'TpHE true nature of the larger part of the agitation 
* against the smelters in Utah and Montana is now 
made manifest. In the Salt Lake valley and in that of 
Deer Lodge, the farmers have complained that the 
reduction works have emitted fumes highly destructive 
to their cattle and crops. They have harrassed the 
smelting companies with lawsuits and injunctions, pro- 
testing loudly that they were entitled to the pursuit of 
happiness and the cultivation of their farms, even if the 
mines were closed down for lack of a local ore market. 
The farmers have rights and they are entitled to assert 
them, but we have always insisted that much of the 
organized agitation against the smelters was maintained 
in the hope of blackmail, that it was anti-social in so far 
as it disregarded the wider interests of the community 
at large, and that it would end in outlawing an industry 
Just as much entitled to consideration as that of the 
man who cultivates the soil or breeds cattle. On 
the other hand, it must be allowed that the smelter 
people have not always shown a proper regard for the 
welfare of the community, and they have exhibited poor 
judgment in erecting smelters on sites likely to provoke 
a nuisance and invite litigation. However, the fact now 
is that the farmers in the Salt lake valley are willing to 
let the Utah Consolidated Copper Company proceed with 
Its smelting operations if but the sum of $12.5,000 is paid 
to them. This blackmail was originally $300,000; by 
bluffing and counter-bluffing it has been reduced con- 
siderably. The smelting company is willing to pay 
$liHi,oo(i, but not a cent more — so it is stated. The out- 
come will Ik- awaited with interest, but the main point 
is that the farmers are evidently public-spirited for 
revenue only, there is no principle at stake save that of 
highway robbery, no purpose save sublimated selfish- 
ness. In Montana also, there is a rumor that the Amal- 
gamated Copper Company, controlling the Washoe 
smelter, is to ward off the legal assaults of the embattled 
farmers of the Deer lyjdge valley by making a settle- 
ment, which contemplates nothing more or less than the 
purchase of all the farms at a big price, after the courts 
have passed judgment on the small amount of injury 
actually done to the land or the cattle on it. We shall 
1m- surprised if these developments in Utah and Montana 
do not cause a revulsion of feeling and lead to a refusal 
of support in future to proceedings from which all dis- 
guise has been stripped, showing them to be simply the 
blackmailing of a metallurgical industry essential to the 
development of our mineral resources. 


Mining and Scientific Press. January n, m% 


Lester VV. Strauss is still in Peru. 
Algernon del Mar is here for a few days. 
Thos. J. Barbour is now a resident at New York. 
Douglas Waterman goes to Chile on January 17. 
H. C. Hoover has returned to London from Burma. 
Colin Timmons is residing at Taxco, in Guerrero, Mexico. 
J. H. Means has been studying the sulphur deposits of 
Charles A. Chase has an office in the Equitable Bdg., 


George J. Bancroft is now editor of Mining Science 
at Denver. 

E. J. Carlyle is on his way from New York to Perm, 
in Russia. 

W. H. Landers has moved to 160 Sansome St., San 

F. \V. Smith has been examining mines near Zacatecas, 
in Mexico. 

Percy A. Babb has opened an office at Calle de Gante 12, 
Mexico City. 

Scott Turner has returned to San Francisco from Man- 
hattan, Nevada. 

Arthur R. Townsend has his office now at 52 Broad- 
way, New York. 

Ernest A. Haggott has an office now at 500 Hellman 
Bdg., Los Angeles. 

Thos. G. Davey has opened an office at 210 Finsbury 
Pavement House, London. 

Wager Bradford, on his return from South Africa, is 
at Westernville, New York. 

W. L. Cobb has opened an office in the Merchants Ex- 
change Bdg., San Francisco. 

W. F. Copeland, manager for the Cariboo Con. Mining 
Co., B. C, is here for the winter. 

C. W. Purington is now at London, but he expects to 
return to Eastern Siberia shortly. 

Oscar B. Perry has returned to New York after spend- 
ing the holidays in San Francisco. 

D'Arcy Weatherbe has resigned as manager for the 
Capillitas Copper Co. in Argentine. 

Philip R. Bradley has left San Francisco on his return 
to the Peters mine, in British Guina. 

Elvvyn W. Stbbbins, formerly in the Chronicle Bdg., is 
now in the Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 

Walter Neal is superintendent of the cyanide annex 
of the Dos Estrellas Co., at El Oro, Mexico. 

Atwater, Linton & Atwater have an office now at 52 
Broadway, New York, and at Magdalena, in Sonora, 

E. P. Jones, lately mechanical engineer with Bewick, 
Moreing & Co. in Australia, is now chief engineer to the 
Risdon Iron Works, in San Francisco. 

Donald B. Gillies, who was recently made president of 
the San Toy Mining Co., is spending a few weeks at the 
company's mines in Santa Eulalia district, near Chihua- 
hua, Mexico. 

Mineral Production of British Columbia in 1907. 

Gold, placer 36,000 oz. at S20.00 8700,000 

Gold, lode 199,770 oz. at 20.67 4,129,246 

Total gold 234,770 oz. S4,829,246 

Sliver 2,940,190oz. at 63c 1,852,320 

Copper 38,392,264 lb. at 20c 7,678,463 

Lead 48,309,660 lb. at 4.8c 2,318.864 

Total metalliferous $1B 678,883 

Coal 1,866,600 tons at 83.50 56,498,100 

Coke 227,000 tons at 6.00 1,362,000 

Total coal and coke s7 860,100 

Miscellaneous (building stone, cement, lime, bricks, 
tiles, etc.) 81,200,000 

Total non-metalliferous S 9 060 100 

Estimated total mineral production in 1907 £25,738,983 

Latest Market Reports. 


Antimony 12@16c Quicksilver (flask) *46.5 

Casting Copper 17%@18%c Spelter 6@ 6.75c 

Pig Lead 3.85® 4.80c!Tln , 33@34%c 


Cabled from London. 

Jan. 2. 
£. s. d. 

Camp Bird 14 

El Oro 1 1 3 

Ksperanza 1 9 

Dolores 1 

Oroville Dredging 13 

Stratton's Independence 3 3 

Tomboy 1 " 6 ex dlv. 1 7 6 

(By courtesy of W. P. Bonbright A Co., 24 Broad St., New York.) 

Jan. 9. 

£. s. d. 

13 3 

1 2 6 
1 7 6 
17 6 
3 3 

an. 3.. 


By wire from New York. 
/ Average dally prices In cents per pound. 
Electrolytic Copper Lead 

13% 3.58 

13% 3.63 

Sunaay. No market. 

13% 3.68 

1% 3.68 

13% 3.63 

13% 3.63 
















Closing Price*. 


Jan. 2. 

Alaska Mexican 

Alaska Tread well 

Bingham Central l /i 

Boston Copper 10% 

Cumberland Ely 6% 

El Kayo 1% 

Guanajuato Con 2% 

Glroux Con 2% 

Nevada Con 8% 

Niplsslng 6% 

Tennessee Copper 26 

Tonopah Ex 1.50 

Tonopah- Belmont 0.69 

Tonopah 4 

United AlaBka 3% 

United Copper 7% 

Utah Copper 20% 

(By courtesy of Hayden, Stone* Co., 25 Broad St., 

Jan. 9. 





New York.) 


San Francisco, Jan. 9. 

$ 33 Laguna 80 

70 Manhattan Con 23 

16 Midway 57 

73 Mlzpah Extension 10 

93 Mohawk 12 00 

Falrview Eagle 36 Montana Tonopah 1-77% 

Florence 4.02% Nevada Hills 2.70 

Gold Bar (Bullfrog) 37 Red Top 1.00 

Goldfleld Con 96 Sandstorm 28 

Goldfleld of Nevada 6.00 SUver Pick 30 



Columbia Mtn 

Combination Fraction.. 

Gold Kewauas 

Great Bend 

Jim Butler 


Jumbo Extension.. 

37 St. Ives 46 

19 Tonopah Extension 1.36 

40 Tonopah of Nevada 4.86 

Tramp Con 18 

60 Weat End 33 

(By courtesy of \V. C. Ralston, 368 Bush St.) 


Closing prices. 
Jan. 9. 

Adventure 2% 

Ahmeek 60 

Allouez 30 

Amalgamated 50% 

Arcadian 4% 

Atlantic 9% 

Balaklala 2% 

Bingham Con 4 

Boston Con 13% 

Butte Coalition 15% 

Calumet & Arizona 105% 

Calumet A Hecla 605 

Centennial 26% 

Con. Mercur 27 

Copper Range 69% 

Daly-West 7 T S 

Franklin 8% 

Granby 82 

Greene-Cananea, ctf 7% 

Isle Royale 19% 

Mass 3V 8 

Closing price*. 
Jan. 9. 

Michigan 10% 

Mohawk 51'; 

Nevada Con... 9% 

North Butte 45% 

Old Dominion.. 30% 

Osceola 87 

1 Parrot 10% 

Phoenix 60 

Qulncy 84% 

Raven 88 

Rhode Island 3' 4 

Santa Fe 2% 

Shannon 10% 

Superior A Pittsburg 11' 4 

Tamarack 67 

Trinity 16'., 

United Copper com 7% 

Utah Copper 22 s ,, 

Victoria 4% 

Winona 6% 

Wolverine 122 

January 11, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


General Mining News. 


A body of sulphide ore which is said to carry good values 
in copper and gold has been found by D. Nicol in develop- 
ing his mining location at Karta bay, in the Ketchikan 
district. This property was bonded once, but was exploited 
for speculative purposes, and Anally reverted to the original 

owner, who is vigorously prosecuting its development. 

At the Lon-de-Van galena mine, near George inlet, an adit 
has been commenced; it is to be 800 ft. long and cut the lode 

at a depth of 576 ft. It is reported that at the Niblaek 

mine there was found recently a body of the best ore known 
in the mine. At the Heid-Bach mine, in the Juneau dis- 
trict, a cross-cut on Dec. 18 was 30 ft. in the lode; the ore 
exposed is of better quality than that found on the surface. 

About 1200 men were employed at the Tread well mines 

in December; more miners were arriving on every boat. 

In the Council district of Seward Peninsula, the Home- 
stake Mining Co. has discontinued prospecting with a drill 
and has begun to sink a shaft. 



The Savage Gold & Copper Co. intends to begin shipping 
ore to the Copper Queen smelter at Douglas as soon as the 
necessary arrangements can be made. The ore carries cop- 
per and silver; it is largely silica, which can be used at the 
smelter as converter lining. A new road is being built to 
facilitate the hauling of machinery to the mine and ore to 

the depot. Development at the Bauer group of claims, 

six miles east of BLsbee, is said to be resulting satisfactorily; 

the deepest shaft is claimed to be entirely in good ore. 

The strike in Bisbee was declared oir by the Western Fed- 
eration of Miners at a special meeting held on Dec. 26. 

Dutfner Bros, have found some ore at the Nippers mine; it 
carries light value in copper and contains much manganese, 

iron, and calcite. Clarence May is sacking ore at his 

mine in Round valley; the value is chiefly in silver, but 
the ore carries from 2 to 24% copper. From six carloads of 
ore that have been shipped the net returns varied from 16.50 

to 136.50 per ton. At the Bisbee-Sonora Development 

Co. s mine, in the Chiricahua range, the entire breast of the 

adit is ore; it is expected to begin shipments soon. The 

Mountain View Development Co. is driving a cross-cut 
from a point 160 ft. down the shaft to get under a body of 
ore that was found 100 ft. higher; 10 tons of it yielded * 108 
per ton. A small force of men is working on the prop- 
erty of the Manhattan Development Co. At the Scanlon 

mine a fine body of ore was recently found. 


An adit has been begun at the Yellow Metal mine in 
Dost gulch, to cut at a depth of 100 ft. a vein which recently 
attracted attention on account of the discovery in its out- 
crop of a pay-streak H in. wide which assayed 17000 gold 

per ton. E. V. Kellner is the owner. Ore running from 

W000 to $10,000 gold per ton is reported to have been found 
in an old shaft on the Emmiline claim of the Radium 
Mines Co. This claim has yielded much silver ore in the 

past. The Old Dominion company is operating four 

furnaces, two of which are running entirely on slag from 
the dump. This slag contains 2}% copper. The company 
is dally hoisting from its mines 350 tons of concentrating 
ore and 250 tons of smelting ore. The output from its 
smelter is over 2,000,000 lb. copper per month: 70% of this 

is derived from its own ores. The three-compartment 

working shaft of the Arizona Commercial mine is now 
down 100 ft. Excellent progress in development is re- 
ported from the Fumarole mine in the Gila mountains. 

A carload of high-grade|)er ore has been 
shipped from the Gold Belt mine to the Shannon smelter. 
The company is also making up a carload of its high-grade 

gold ore. The Shannon Copper Cd. is preparing for the 

enlargement of its two old furnaces so that it may have a 

smelting capacity of 3,000,000 lb. copper per month. 

The Arizona Copper Co. has completed one of the best 
smelter runs in its history,; the product for December was 

3,000,000 lb. of bessemer copper. The mines of the New 

England & Clifton Copper Co. have been closed, as the 
company has been under too heavy expense to continue 

operations at present metal prices. At the Gibson mine 

t>etween 40 and 50 men are working; about 250 tons of sul- 
phide ore are shipped monthly from this mine to the Old 
Dominion smelter. 


Construction work on the new mill at the Monica mine 
is progressing satisfactorily. A wagon-road has been fin- 
ished to the mill and men are now grading for the cyanide 
plant. Operations in the mine have been suspended until 
the mill is finished. The Monica lode is opened by an adit 
at a depth of 1000 ft. There is enough ore on the dump to 

keep the mill in operation for several months. On the 

property of the Merchants Mining Co. there is said to be 
developed at the depth of 165 ft. a lode four feet wide, of 
which 18 in. is ore that carries 67% lead, 40 oz. silver, and 

Map of Arizona. 

$25 gold per ton. At the depth of :(00 ft. the lode is 26 ft. 
wide, but the ore is low-grade. 


A 40-hp. hoist has arrived at Yucca for the McCracken 
mine. The Palo Verde Mining Co. is now cleaning out the 
old drifts, re-timbering openings, and getting things in 
shape for extensive work. Accomodations have been pre- 
pared for a large force of miners: the camp promises to 
become one of the most important in the county within a 

year. J. L. Witney is manager. The report has reached 

Kingman that J. 1*. Richardson has made a wonderful 

strike of gold ore in the I'nion Pass district. J. 1). Spargo 

will keep a force of men at work during the winter at the 
Brown mine at Stockton Hill which he has leased from the 

C O D Mines Co. The Gold Road mine has been closed 

pending the settlement of difficulties between the French 
and American shareholders. It is reported that an im- 
portant discovery of ore has been made at the German- 
American mine near Vivian. The proi>erty has a 10-stamp 
mill but it has not been operated from lack of water; it is 
now expected that water for the mill will be secured from 

the Victor Gold Mining Co.'s pumping plant. The 

Chloride Gold Mining Co. has leased its Sanioan mines to 
Roy Wright. Work is progressing and a shipment of good 
ore is now ready. At the Gladstone mine driving Hie 


Mining and Scientific Press. January h.hhm. 

adit has exposed heavy lead ore carrying value in gold and 

silver. A large amount of machinery for the Tom Reed 

Mining Co. is passing through Kingman. The mill 

treating ore from the Idaho mine is running smoothly; by 
means of magnetic separators a clean zinc product is being 
made. A large body of ore is exposed by drifts from the 
bottom of the Idaho shaft. 


The Growler Copper Co. is installing a new hoist and 
engine at its mine, 65 miles south of Gila Bend. The main 
shaft is 250 ft. deep, and there are 175 ft. of drifts. Devel- 
opment is to be pushed, and the company expects to be 

shipping ore in a short time. Ore carrying gold, silver, 

lead, and copper is being shipped to the El Paso smelter 
from the mines of the Sultan Gold Mining Co., which are 

under lease to C. 8. McHenry and A. Hoover. The 

Mansfield company is sinking a shaft to the 550-ft. level 
in the Sweet mine; it is mining ore on the 250-ft. level. 
Ore shipments are frequently made from the Black Cat 

mine to the El Paso smelter. The Tucson Consolidated 

Copper Co. is working at the Old Pueblo mine with a re- 
duced force of men; the shaft, which is now down 175 ft., 
is to be continued to a depth of 500 feet. 


The mill is practically completed at the Dunkirk mine in 
the Slate creek section; the ore- shoots exposed in the upper 
and lower adits are improving under continued develop- 
ment. A. H. Mitchell is superintendent. The shaft at 

the Verde Grande mine in the Jerome district has pene- 
trated slate carrying sulphides; this shaft is 419 ft. deep.— 
The Haynes Copper Co. being unable to handle the water 
flow with a whim, has shut down, awaiting the arrival of 

machinery. The Arkansas-Arizona mine is temporarily 

closed on account of water. At the Boston-Jerome mine 

the shaft is down 128 ft., exposing good ore. The road to 

the Mescal mine is nearly completed; it is expected that 

development of the mine will begin soon. The Arizona 

Placer Mining Co. is preparing to test its ground in the 
valley of the Hassayampa river to determine the advisabil- 
ity of erecting a large dredge. At the Venezia mine, 

Frank Olin, a lessee, has found gold ore of a width of 4 ft. 
in a shaft at a depth of 82 ft.; a whim is being erected to 

enable sinking to a much greater depth. E. H. Eplustill, 

Henry Price, and Willis Spence have 2 ft. of high-grade 
concentrating ore at the distance of 100 ft. from the portal 
of the Portland mine, near Palace station. — -At the Buster 
Brown mine, Leroy Spence and Burt Evans are sink- 
ing a shaft on a lode which at a depth of 40 ft. has 2 ft. of 

good ore. At the Jaunitamine a small force of men is 

driving an adit; it opens an orebody 8 ft. wide which is said 
to carry $22 per ton. O. I. Tawney made a small ship- 
ment of ore from the Peck mine; it carried 750 oz. silver per 
ton. The Leontina Consolidated Mining Co. has pur- 
chased the Revenue group of claims in the Big Bug district. 
Four of the locations have been made on a large porphyry 
dike which has been explored along the foot-wall by a shaft 
114 ft. deep; in the bottom of this is ore carrying 4.9% cop- 
per and a sufficient quantity of gold to make the total value 
$45 per ton. The new owners intend to sink the shaft to 
the depth of 600 ft. and explore the dike by several hundred 

feet of cross-cuts and drifts. At the First Home mine, 

in the Big Bug district, 8 tons of ore were taken from the 
240-ft. level; this ore carried 50% lead, 20 oz. silver, and *20 

gold per ton. The people of Wickenburg are excited over 

the prospect of the Vulture mine soon resuming operations. 
A 53-lb. bar of gold from the Octave mine was on exhi- 
bition in Prescott on Christmas. The company that owns 
the Octave mine also owns the Mudhole mine at Walker, 

on which it is planning to resume work in a short time. 

W. M. Nellis is preparing to install a hoist and pump at his 

French Lily mine in Crazy basin. The Haynes Copper 

Co. has purchased a double-drum hoist and an air-compres- 
sor powerful enough to run 12 drills. S.Morrison and 

son have found some good ore in the Windsor mine in the 
McCabe district; it is from one inch to a foot in width and 
carries from $20 to ¥80 gold per ton. 


A carload of very rich ore has been shipped from the 
North Star mine; it is claimed that practically every piece 
of it carried gold visible to the unaided eye. Much of it was 
stolen. The value is estimated at $6000 to $7000 per ton. 

Plans are being made for the construction of a 50-ton 

smelter near Parker on the Colorado river. 



Associated with the quartz vein in the Mammoth mine 
there has been found a streak 3 to 4 in. wide of red clay that 
is highly impregnated with gold, an assay giving it a value 

of $300 per ton. The Stockton Ridge Consolidated Gravel 

Mining Co. is driving an adit to reach an old river channel; 
this adit is now over 1400 ft. long and it is expected to reach 
the gravel within another 400 ft. Stephen Hughes is superin- 
tendent. Tom and Hugh McSorleyand Edmund Stocker 

are working a drift mine near the old Boston mine; recently 
they secured 7 oz. of gold from two panfuls of gravel. 


A test run on 100 tons of ore from the Vivian mine is said to 

have given a satisfactory result. A. Goldsworthy and 

Paul Ricci are developing a promising lode at the Oakland 
mine. Mrs. L. E. Pease has abandoned work at tbe Gar- 
ibaldi mine near Greenwood, but has a crew of men at work 

at the Geo. Bower mine. At the Marshall mine in the 

Mount Pleasant district, a pipe-line is being laid prepara- 
tory to installing power-drills in the mine; the power will 
come from the air-compressor at the Mount Hope mine. 


The new mill at the Casa Diablo mine is practically com- 
pleted; F.J. Girard of Berkeley, Cal., has been engaged to 
take charge of the cyanide plant. A large body of good ore 
is said to be exposed in the Dry Bone drift. — At the Red 
Rose claims, near Bishop, active operations for development 
have begun. Very rich specimens have been secured from 
the outcrop of the lode; some on exhibition in Bishop are 

estimated to contain $50 per lb. Zinc ore has been found 

by H. M. Gibson and P. W. Forbes in developing a silver- 
lead lode in Black canyon; its quantity has not been deter- 
mined but it is wider than the adit. Near Chrysopolis 

a number of locations have been made on presumed rich 

placer ground. A big strike of ore is reported from the 

old Cerro Gordo mine near Keeler. It was found in sinking 
from the 850 to the 900-ft. level. The old smelting plant 
is being rebuilt. 


(Special Correspondence) . — Sinking is going on at the 
Central mine and considerable development work is being 

done below the 4000-ft. level. A large force of men is 

steadily employed in development work at the Empire 
mine; a large tonnage of high-grade ore is being handled, 
and the mill is running constantly. Promising ore is be- 
ing developed in the Niagara mine; several men are em- 
ployed, and much development work is being carried on. 

Extensive development work is going on at the Union 

Hill mine, and good ore has been encountered. At the 

Kenosha a small force is developing a promising shoot 
of ore. The main orebody continues to show well with 

increased depth. Active work has commenced at the 

Nevada hydraulic mine at Red Dog. The restraining 
dam is fulfilling expectations admirably, and the manage- 
ment expects to have a successful season. The Junction 

mine has been closed. It is expected that active operations 
will be resumed in the spring. The management contem- 
plates the construction of a tram-line before resuming work. 
The closing of the property is attributed to the financial 

stringency. A ledge running from five to seven feet wide 

is being developed in the Barton mine. The ore carries 
from 50c. to $2.50 per ton free gold. The sulphurets carry 
good values. The advent of winter has forced the suspen- 
sion of construction work on the new oO-stamp mill. This 

will be completed in the spring. The strike recently 

made in the Champion mine continues to show up well; 

gcod ore is coming from the Home shaft. High-graders 

are causing the management of the Plumbago mine con- 

January 11, 1908. 



siderable trouble. An arrest was recently made, but no 
evidence could be secured to hold the suspect. 

Grass Valley, Dec. 30. 

E. D. Dean is sinking an incline to develop the Royal 

gravel mine at Selby Flat. The Maryland mill has 

finished crushing 150 tons of ore from the Golden Gate 
mine; the lessees of this mine have a year to operate yet 
and are retimbering the old shaft and sinking it deeper. 

W. P. Martin is superintendent. The adit at the Snow 

Point mine is being driven ahead; three men will be em- 
ployed until spring. D. Stewart and J. Waarden are 

driving an adit to open the back channel in the Loosenes 

gravel claim near Gott's ranch. L. B. Clark and Henry 

Goering are opening up a placer mine near Round Moun- 
tain and the gravel they are washing is said to be giving 
good results. — Ten stamps have been added to the mill at 
the Yuba mine; 20 stamps are now dropping regularly on 
good ore, part of which is brought on the rebuilt tramway 
from the Mayflower mine. About 60 men are employed at 
the Yuba and Mayflower mines; Charles A. Marriner is 

manager. Seventeen tons of ore taken at random from 

the Norambagua mine have been crushed at the Southern 
mill; the yield was $29.75 per ton. Nine men are employed 
at the mine in driving north toward a presumed large ore- 
body. Preparations are being made for reopening the 

Normandie mine, owned by Frank Dulmaine. There are 
two known lodes, on one of which a 40-ft. shaft has been 
sunk. The property has been bonded to several young men 
from Reno, Nev. , each of whom has taken a course In min- 
ing engineering. It is reported that on December 28 Deer 

Creek carried away the ground-sluicing plants from several 

placer mines near the Newtown bridge. The new 10- 

stamp mill at the Ancho mine near Graniteville is in opera- 
tion; some good ore is being taken out of the mine. 


The dredge at the Cash Rock properly has been launched; 
it is 84 ft. long and 44 ft. wide. The machinery is being put 

in place; 20 men are working on it. Lukens & Sons have 

Installed a steam-hoist at their mine at Hoggs Diggings and 

have taken out some good ore. At the Herman mine 25 

men will be kept at work during the winter. A. Moer 

is driving a second adit at the Vineyard mine near the Wis- 
consin Hill-Yankee Jim toll-road. The retimbering of the 

Grey Kagle tunnel is in progress. A number of men are 

opening up the Polar Star mine. At the McGeachen 

mine 20 men are taking out gravel; the new hoisting plant 

at the Juniper shaft is finished. Four men are working 

at the Gleeson mine; the adit is about 400 ft. in good paying 

gravel. At the Hidden Treasure mine 25 men are at 

work ; adrift is being extended toward the Mountain Gate 

channel which it is expected to reach within :500 ft. 

Henry McAuley has a number of men working in the 
Drummond mine; a hoisting plant is to be put up and a 
shaft sunk on the lode. 


The Plumas-Mohawk mine was closed some time ago, as 
no preparations had been made to run during the winter. 

Four men are developing the pro|ierty on Clearmont 

Mtn. that was recently purchased by YV. E. Oddie. An 
arastra has been erected for the purpose of prospecting the 
ore. The vein is said to carry $10 to $25 gold per ton, as 

determined by mill-test. O. A. Wheelock has taken a 

lease on the Taylor Plumas mine at Crescent Mills and 

Intends soon to begin development work. A. M. Hansen 

la opening up a placer mine about four miles east of the Jo 
Gill ranch. 


At the Midas mine, at Harrison Gulch, about 70 men are 
employed. The20-stamp millcontinues inoperalion except 
when heavy snowfalls interfere with it. The ore devel- 
oped Is expected to keep the mill running for six or seven 

months. L. A. Mcintosh is manager. Senator F. \V. 

1/eavllt of Oakland has purchased a quarter interest in a 
group of claims north of the Mammoth mine near Kennett; 

development of the property is to be begun soon. The 

completion of the Mammoth Copper Co. 's railroad bridge at 
Quart/, enables the resumption oforeshipments from Old Dig- 

gings and Quartz Hill to the smelter at Kennett. A 5- 

stamp mill has been built in Grizzly gulch by John Martin 
and son, to treat ore from the Trucott mine, six miles from 
Whiskeytown; there is said to be enough ore developed to 

keep the mill running for years. The remodeling of the 

Bully Hill smelter is practically completed and the plant 
will resume operations as soon as the Sacramento Valley & 
Eastern railway has been finished to it. The smelter has 
been rebuilt on a larger and improved pattern, and over 
$100,000 has been expended on this work. 


An upraise is being made in the South Fork adit in the 
hope of reaching an old channel deposit. At the Key- 
stone mine near Sierra City six men are stoping ore; the 
mill will resume operations as soon as sufficient water is 

available. The Sovereign mine has been closed for the 

winter. At the Hayes mine a small crew of men is work- 
ing under the direction of Frank Summersville. 


The Morrison & Carlock mine in Quartz valley and the 
Eastlick quartz mine near Greenview have closed down. 

The company operating on .Sugar creek has been unable 
to get coin with which to pay the men, but it is believed 

that it will continue to operate. The Milne Bros, are 

working their hydraulic mine at Johnson's Bar. George 

Magotley & Co. are rigging up their hydraulic mine on Mill 

creek near its junction with Scott river. The owners of the 

Yellow Butte mine are preparing for a shipment of ore to the 

Mammoth smelter at Kennett. An electric power plant 

has just been completed by the California Consolidated Min- 
ing Co. at Sawyer's Bar. The big flume, ditch, and water- 
right of the Salmon River Hydraulic Co. were purchased. 
Power will be supplied to the Ball group of mines and it is 
Intended that next summer the line will be extended to I lie 
King Solomon mine. 


The Bonanza King mine is in the hands of a keeper fol- 
lowing the recent attachment of the property for wages due 
the 4!) miners who worked in it. The preliminary sur- 
vey has been completed for the State highway that is to 
connect the central part of Trinity county with the road 
system of Humboldt county. When built this road will be 
of great benefit to the mining interests of the northwestern 
portion of the county. A full force of men is working at 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 11, 1908. 

the La Grange hydraulic mine. At the Globe mine an 

adit is being driven to connect with the Chloride mine, 
which is on the opposite side of the mountain. 


The Longfellow mine at Big Oak Flat has closed down; 
the employees are proposing to file liens against the prop- 
erty for unpaid wages. The Montezuma Tunnel Mining 

Co. has leased its gravel mines to J. Hagman, who will con- 
tinue driving the adit and inaugurate operations on Turner 

flat. Thirty stamps are dropping in the Harvard mill; 

when new concentrators have been installed, 10 more stamps 

will crush ore. The Eagle-Shawmut mine is in operation 

on a 9J-hr. workday; a force of 200 men is employed. 



Governor Sparks has called an extra session of the 
Nevada Legislature to convene on Jan. 14, to pass new laws 
for the policing of the State. Two full companies of sol- 
diers have been ordered to remain in camp at Goldfield 
until after the Legislature adjourns. The remainder of the 
troops left on Jan. 3 for their various stations in California. 
Pickets and guards have remained on duty at the mines 
but there has been no trouble between them. On Dec. 27 a 
complaint was filed before the United States District Court 
at Carson City, by Attorney W. H. Bryant, on behalf of the 
Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co. , praying for a writ restrain- 
ing the Western Federation of Miners from interfering with 
the operations of the mines, also asking that the Federation 
be dissolved, as the organization is classed as a conspiracy. 
Judge Farrington set Jan. :! for the hearing on the petition 
for a temporary injunction. Considerable progress has been 
made by a movement to form a new union entirely separate 
from the Western Federation of Miners and based upon the 
old Virginia City Union. Many of the miners are becom- 
ing convinced that the Goldfield Mine Operators' Associa- 
tion intends to remain firm in its determination never to 
employ members of the Federation, and they are beginning 
to consider any plan whereby they can go to work as union 
men and still meet the demands of the operators. Indeed, 
numbers of them are breaking away from the Federation 
and are going to work under the card system and under 
the new scale of wages adopted by the mine owners. On 
Jan. 4, the Combination Fraction mine, after an idleness of 
five weeks, resumed with three shifts, many of the men 
being former Federation men. On the same day, the 
Mohawk proper resumed work with former Federation 
men and new men from California and Utah. The two 
Becker leases at the Atlanta mine began work with new 
men brought into camp by the manager. The Von Polenz 
lease at the Florence mine also started up with a full com- 
plement of men. C. W. Merrill, of Lead, S. D., has been 

in Goldfield for the purpose of looking after the erection of 
the 500-ton mill of the Goldfield Consolidated company on 
the west slope of Columbia Mtn., at an estimated cost of 
$700,000. The management of the Little Florence com- 
pany of Goldfield has made arrangements with the Ameri- 
can S. & R. Co. for the receipt of all the high-grade ore that 
can be shipped over the railroads to Denver; over 200J tons 
of ore on the dump are said to contain an average of $250 

per ton. The plant of the Goldfield Chlorination Mill Co. 

near Columbia is rapidly nearing completion. At a depth 

of .500 ft., the Kansas City lease on the Velvet claim is said 
to have penetrated an orebody 12 ft. wide, chiefly low- 
grade, but displaying some rich seams. German miners 

have secured a lease on the Milltown Fraction claim and 

will soon begin work. The shaft of the Gotwaldt lease at 

the Combination mine has reached sulphide stringers that 
yield assays as high as $20 per ton; it is expected soon to find 

the extension of the famous old Iteilly pay-shoot. The 

Oddie-Gardnermill is to be used to treat ore from the produc- 
ing leases in the new Stimler district. Plans are underway 

for the building of a copper matte smelter at Mina; some of 
the prominent mine owners of Goldfield and Tonopah are 
said to be interested in the project. 

A new copper district has been found near Luning; 
many locations have been made. On the Green Mystery 

claim, a 20-ft. shaft has been sunk in a lode whose 
outcrop is 60 ft. wide. The shaft, it is said, exposes two feet 
of ore which carries 10 to 12% copper, 8 oz. silver, and $2 

gold per ton. The mines of the Goldfield district will 

have to pay $107,830.33 bullion tax. This tax is at a rate of 
4.77% of the net receipts of the mines. All of it goes into 
the county treasury except three-fourths of one per cent, 

which goes into the State treasury. Twenty stamps are 

dropping in the Pittsburg-Silver Peak mill at Blair; it is 
expected that the entire 100 stamps will be in operation 

soon. At the Garfield mine three carloads of ore running 

in value from $50 to $600 per ton have recently been taken 
out; about 25% of the value is in lead. A cyanide plant is 

to be erected soon. The control of the Nevada-Alpine 

mine at Lone mountain has passed into the hands of J. 8. 
McCord & Co., Philadelphia brokers. The property will be 
under the management of S. A. Brady, superintendent of 
the Belmont mine. The Nevada-Alpine is alead-siver mine; 
much ore has been shipped from it. 


The Tonopah Mining Co. has issued a statement covering 
the operations for the last quarter. The mill was closed 
about ten days to permit of a change in fuel from coal to 
oil, which change should reduce considerably the cost of 
operation. The mill was also closed down for about a week 
on account of a strike on the railroad. The recent fall in 
the price of silver decreased the company's earnings during 
the past three months to the extent of about $40,000. How- 
ever, the net earning of the company for September, Oc- 
tober, and November amounted to $305,520.64. 

The ore shipments over the Tonopah & Goldfield railroad 
for the week ending Jan. 2 as reported by the Western Ore 
Purchasing Co., were as follows: Tonopah company, 285 
tons; Jim Butler, 53; Tonopah Extension, 111; Midway, 
189; total, 638 tons. The Tonopah company sent 2160 tons, 
the Belmont company 800 tons, and the Montana Tonopah 
1100 tons to the mills. Thus the total output of the Tono- 
pah mines was 4698 tons of an estimated value (the ship- 
ping ore being valued at $70 per ton and the milling ore at 

$30 per ton) of $166,460. Plans are being drawn for a 

stamp-mill of 300 tons daily capacity at the Tonopah Ex- 
tension mine. The pulp from the batteries is to be re- 
ground in tube-mills and then cyanided under air pressure 

in rotating barrels. By driving a cross-cut north on the 

800-ft. level of the Midway mine, a large low-grade vein has 
been found at the contact of andesite and dacite: it is not 
yet possible to correlate it with any other vein in the Tono- 
pah district. The Montana mine is developing below the 

765-ft. level and as there is no geological reason why ore 
should not be found below the dacite intrusion that has 
given so much trouble in Tonopah mines, the result of 

this work will be of great benefit to the district. The Jim 

Butler mine is producing the customary quantity of ore; 
the new compressor is working satisfactorily and rapid 

progress is being made on all levels. The Quincy Mining 

Co. intends shortly to resume operations at its mine near 
Crow Springs. At the property of the Washington- 
Nevada Mining Co. on Lone mountain driving on the lode 
has been in progress for several weeks: the ore carries lead, 

silver, gold, copper, and zinc. The Tonopah Mining Co. 

has discontinued shipping ore to the smelters, but the mill 
will be run without interruption to its full capacity of 350 

tons per day. At the Manhattan Pine Nut Extension 

mine an 18-in. vein of ore has been found; there is also on 
the property a 30-ft. shaft the bottom of which is in ore 

carrying $7 per ton. At the Tip Top mine high-grade 

milling ore has been developed; there is also a narrow seam 
of very rich ore, showing much free gold. The Davis- 
Shea lease on the Union No. !> claim at Manhattan is pro- 
ducing much high-grade ore; the lessees are doing all in 
their power to get this ore out rapidly and are employing 

every man that they can make room for. J. W. Travers 

is preparing to begin development work on the tungsten- 
bearing lodes of the Round Mountain-Philadelphia and 
Round Mountain-Nugget groups of claims which lie east of 
the town of Round Mountain; the ore also contains gold. 
The cross-cut on the 200-ft. level of the Mineral Hill mine 

January 11, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


at Manhattan cut the lode on December 14. The ore Is five 
feet in width. Assays of $24.64 and $109.36 gold per ton 
were secured from it. The best ore is in the centre of the 
lode. The gold is largely free but the vein also carries sul- 
phides. Good gold pannings were obtained across the entire 

width of the vein in a cut 200 ft. west of the shaft. The 

Smuggler Mining Co. 's shaft at At wood is down 60 ft.: it 

has yielded some fine ore. At the Gold Crown mine a 

gasoline hoist is being installed. As soon as the mine has 

been cleaned out, hoisting ore will be resumed. At the 

Gold King mine the timbering of the shaft has been com- 
pleted; a good body of ore was developed by this shaft. 

The Pactolus mine is being worked by lessees ; they have 
on the dumps about 100 tons of shipping ore and 250 tons 

that will average it, it is expected, about $25 per ton. At 

the Tecopa mine it has been found necessary to reduce the 
tonnage produced ; this gave rise to a rumor that the mine 
had closed. It is the intention of the company to construct 
a spur from the mine to Tecopa siding of the Tenopah & 
Tidewater R. K.; also to erect a smelting plant ; to build 
first a 600-ton unit and ultimately to increase the capacity of 

the plant to 1000 tons. The Nevada Smelter & Mines 

Corporation has installed a large Snow station-pump on the 
400-ft. level of its mine at Tybo ; a 100-hp. boiler and a 
6-drill Ingersoll compressor have also been added to the 
plant. The mine has been cleaned and prepared for stoping 
the rich ore that has been found on the :100 and 40C-ft. levels; 

this ore carries silver, lead, and gold. A contract has 

been let for the building of a 50-ton mill at the Patton-I'aul- 

Rule lease at the Round Mountain Daisy mine. At the 

Homestake mine in the Bullfrog district 40 men are engaged 

in preparing the foundation for the mill. Osbourn & 

Williams are sacking high-grade silver ore at their mine 
four miles southeast of Round Mountain. » Someof it is said 
to contain a sulphide of copper, bismuth, and lead. The 
clean-up of the Sunnyside mill for November, it is 

stated, was nearly $20,0t0. Work in the western portion 

of the McNamara mine has continued during the lawsuit 
which has prevented work in the remainder of the property; 
a 60-ft. raise has been made in a vein four feet wide, con- 
taining ore of shipping grade. 


At least two weeks more must elapse before the three 
imprisoned men in the Alpha shaft of the Giroux property 
can be brought to the surface; all the ground encountered 
by the rescuers in the shaft to a depth of 660 ft. had been 
loosened by the shifting of the timbers and earth which 
caused the cave-in. On Jan. 1, 400 ft. of earth intervened 

between the entombed men and liberty. For three 

months ore from the mine of the Boston-Nevada Gold 
Mining Co. at Osceola has been milled in the Whitney 

20-stamp mill. It is refuted that 4-"> men will soon be 

put to work on the big tunnel which is to convey the water 
of Duck creek through the ran <e to the smelter at McGill. 



A notable increase in equipment has been made at the 
Simmons, Cameron A Logan placer mine in order to handle 

the deep gravel deposits on the property. At the Baby 

mine, near Jump-ofT-Joe creek, a small force of men is 

working; ao-stampmill is in operation. At the Lucky 

Bart mine J. K. Kirk and son are preparing to make an- 
other mill-run. J. H. Beeman is doing development work 

on the Alice mine. At the Hinkle mine Bart Carter and 

Frit/ Hammersly are preparing for a test run of ore at the 

Bart mill. The stamp-mill at the Tin Tan mine has been 

completed. At the Buzzard group of mines a contract has 

been let for a 100-slamp mill, which is to be completed 

within six months. A Kent crushing mill of 100 tons 

daily capacity and a cyanide plant of the new Rankin lyi>e 
are to be installed at the Klk Creek gold mine. 


(Special Correspondence! . — The Insurgent Gold Mining 
Co. has leased the Insurgent group of claims to Wm. M. 

Crummer for six months; the lessee has made a shipment 
of 35 tons of ore of a value of $18 per ton, of which $15 was 

gold. The face of the lower drift of the Copper King 

mine at Keeler is reported to be in high-grade ore. The 

new adit at the Copper Key mine is over 150 ft. long and 
shows small stringers of low-grade vein-matter; progress is 
reported at about 9 ft. per day. Another adit, to cut the 

vein at an additional depth of 195 ft., has been started. 

The Colville M. & S. Co. is pushing work on the Mountain 
Boy and Summit adits; the latter is intended to develop the 

vein at a depth of over 700 ft. A contract has been let by 

the Silver Tip Consolidated M. & S. Co. to drive an adit 200 
ft. long on its property on Don mountain. 
Republic, Jan. 2. 


(Special Correspondence). — An electric locomotive has 
been placed in position in the long bore of the Palmer 
Mountain T. & P. Co. at Laomis; the mill is nearly com- 
pleted. The Nespelem Central Mining Co. has installed 

an electric fan and drilling machinery at its mine in the 
Colville Reservation. Ore recently found in the mine 

assayed about $51 per ton. The Marcus D mine lately 

produced 20 tons of high-grade ore from the first level. The 
shaft is being sunk to a depth of 150 ft. A wagon road 
three miles long has been constructed from the mine to the 
Okanogan river. 

Republic, Jan. 2. 



The Grand Forks Smeltermen's I'nion No. ISO and Phce- 
nix Miners' I'nion No. 8 arranged to resume work at the 
smelter and mines of the Granby Consolidated M. & S. Co. 
the day after Christmas; owing to the impossibility of 
immediately reorganizing the force, only 25 men were 
accepted on Dec. 26, 75 on the succeeding day, and in a 
short time over 800 men will probably be employed by the 
company. The scale of wages adopted is about 50c. |>er day 
lower than that prevailing when the mines closed on 

Nov. 11. The output of the Rossland mines for the week 

ending Dec. 21 was as follows: Centre Star, 4652 tons; I* 

Hoi, 2084; Evening Star, .30; total, 6766 tons. Since 

adding 10 stamps to the mill at the Queen mine, near 

Sal mo, 55 men have been employed on that properly. 

The Canadian Zinc Co. expects to have its electric zinc- 
reduction plant completed about Feb. 15; it will be the first 

of the kind on the continent. At the Stemwinder mine, 

in the Similkameen district, rich ore has been found on the 
500-ft. level. The Whitewater mill has reduced its con- 
sumption of ore to 280 tons daily. The ore shipments in 

the Cranbrook district for the week ending Dec. 28 were as 
follows: St. Eugene, 479 tons; Sullivan, 600; North Star, 

64; total, 1143 tons. Ten men are working on the 225-ft. 

level of the Crescent mine at Skylark. The completion 

of the tramway at the Hewitt mine, near Slocan lake, is 
being hurried so that ore may be sent to the mill as soon as 

possible; it is intended to trans|x>rt 100 tons per day. At 

the Maggie mine a new lode containing 24 in. of clean 
galena has been found in sinking the shaft. In cross- 
cutting the Reco-Goodenough lode a streak of ore 11 in. 
wide has been found, but it is of much lower grade than the 
ore formerly shipped from this property. At the Blue- 
bird mine good galena ore 20 in. in width has been devel- 
oped; a carload of it has been sacked for shipment. 

The ore shipments from the Rossland mines for the week 
ending Dec. 28 were as follows: Centre Star, 2*40 tons; 
Le Roi, 1680; Le Roi No. 2,431; Evening Star, 37: Blue- 
bird, 40; total, 6028 tons. At the Trail smelter there was 
received during the week ending Dec. 28, 4872 tons of ore. 
Besides that sent from the Rossland camp, shipments wort' 
received from other mines as follows: St. Eugene, H04 tons; 
Silver King, 11: Whitewater Deep, 24; Reco, 47; Vancouver, 
21: Granite, 40; Hewitt, 21; La Plata, 165; Sunset, 21 tons. 
At the smelter of the Le Roi Mining Co. at Trail shipments 
were received as follows: Le Roi, 1680 tons; First Thought, 
109; total, 17H9 tons. The total shipments from the Ross- 
land and Slocan-Kootenay districts during 19J7 were 1,608,- 
048 tons. 


Mining and Scientific Press. January u, ms. 

Special Correspondence. 

Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Diamond Schemes that Went Wrong.-Exodus of White People.— 
Mineral Production — Base Metal Mining.— The Industries Com- 
mission.— Future of the Country. 
It looks as if some of the shady diamond propositions 
that have been organized to fleece a gullible public 
were " coming home to roost." The Ebenezer diamonds 
went through the winding up process the other day. The 
investigation committee appointed to examine into the 
doings of Beresford diamonds was not able to prove the 
allegation that the property had been salted. "Gross 
misrepresentation" seems to be the verdict of this jury. 
One crime is as bad as the other, and today this enter- 
prise, whose shares reached a high figure, are practically 
worthless. But the worst impression has been made by 
Dr. Carstorphiue's report on the Robert's Victor diamond 
mine. Dr. Carstorphine is an honest and able geologist, 
with wide South African experience, who was commis- 
sioned to make a thorough examination of this property, 
which was looked upon as a thoroughly sound proposi- 
tion. His report is disconcerting. The original area 01 
the mine was stated to be 102 claims. To be conserva- 
tive, so it was stated, this estimate was cut down to 99 
claims. Dr. Carstorphine's report shows that there must 
have been more "gross misrepresentation," for he gives 
the area of the mine as 57 claims. Robert's Victor 
shares, which were boomed up to £14, now stand at £2. 
Through this "gross misrepresentation" by the mine 
managers, much money must have been stolen. Of 
course the culprits should be in jail, but they are not. 
These fraudulent enterprises do an incalculable harm to 
legitimate mining, and do a great deal to keep capital, 
which is so needed for the development of South Africa, 
out of the country. 

The exodus of white people from South Africa contin- 
ues. In the past 21 months about 26,000 people have left 
the country. In a recent speech the Premier of the 
Transvaal, General Botha, declared that what the whole 
of South Africa wanted was a large white population. It 
is therefore rather distressing to know that instead of the 
whites increasing they are steadily leaving the country. 
Under the circumstances the best thing that a white man 
out of employment can do is to leave South Africa, if he has 
sufficient money. Little headway is being made in solv- 
ing the problem of the unemployed. Many white men 
are working hard for the municipality at wages that can 
only be considered starvation. People are beginning to 
state that legislation must be introduced to protect the 
white man. No doubt this will be one of the recommen- 
dations of the commission now taking evidence in Johan- 
nesburg. What form their recommendation will take is 
difficult to say. Some people advise passing a law prohibit- 
ing the Kaffir from doing skilled labor on the mines, on the 
lines of the Chinese Labor Importation Ordinance, which 
distinctly protects the white man from the Chinaman. 

The following particulars of minerals (other than gold, 
coal, and diamonds) produced in the Transvaal during the 
month of October, l',)07, is of interest: 

ures for October show a big drop. Almost all this de- 
crease is accounted for by copper. There is no doubt that 
the high market values of the base metals stimulated the 
work of exploitation, but now that copper has had such a 
serious fall, and with it zinc and lead, the development 
of base metals will be seriously checked. In an expen- 
sive country like the Transvaal the prices of metals must 
be very favorable before people feel inclined to go in for 
copper, lead, and zinc. 

Quite contradictory evidence is being given before the 
Industries Commission now sitting at Johannesburg. 
This commission has been appointed for the purpose of 
inquiring into the possible extension of industries in the 
Transvaal. The evidence given by the working men is 
a strong plea for protection, while the arguments pre- 
sented by the Chamber of Mines is an uncompromising 
request for free trade. Self-interest seems to dictate the 
evidence so far given. From the workman's point of 
view, protection is required for the Transvaal, while the 
Chamber of Mines people will benefit most from free 
trade. It is to be hoped that a fair compromise will be 
effected, and that any industry with a chance of success 
in the Transvaal will be helped in every way. Year by 
year the gold reserves of the Rand are growing less, and 
statesmen fully realize that if the gold does not help to 
develop the country, the Transvaal in twenty-flve or 
thirty years will be like a sucked orange. 

(asbestos, graphite, mercury, 






Total value £12,867 

Compared with the returns for September (the value of 
the base metals having been declared at £19,966) the fig- 

Copper ore 

Galena '■ 

Tin " 


blende, etc. 


. 101 


.. 2,322 


Coalite.— A Smokeless Fuel.— Conditions in England.— An Inter- 
esting Invention.— Wood Pulp and Mining in Newfoundland.— 
Tanganyika Concessions.— Important Copper Enterprises. 

During the early part of 1907 a great deal was heard in 
London of the new fuel Coalite and in June the public 
was invited to subscribe for the capital of a company 
formed to manufacture and sell it, called British Coalite 
Limited. The shares were not taken up freely by the 
public, and the underwriters were saddled with consider- 
able liability. At the time, the information published as 
to the nature of the fuel and the process employed was 
scanty, and such facts as became public were unofficial or 
were supplied by the opponents of the scheme. The 
patents describing the process have been published, one 
of them a month ago and the second this week; it is 
therefore opportune to say something about the subject 
at the present time. Briefly, the idea is to partially coke 
a bituminous coal, so that it will burn with a bright 
smokeless flame in an open grate. In England the 
closed stove and the steam or hot-air pipe are not popu- 
lar, and though gas has to some extent displaced solid 
fuel in the cooking ovens, the open grate continues to be 
used for heating purposes. England is a country subject 
to mists and fogs, and when the air is still, the smoke 
from the chimneys hangs in a dark sulphurous cloud. 
In the manufacturing towns of the North of England 
most of the black fog is caused by the manufacturers' 
chimneys. In London there are very few works and 
factories, and such as do exist are forced by law to burn 
the best quality of South Wales smokeless coal. The 
London black fog is caused almost entirely by house- 
fires. It was the idea of the inventor and promoters of 
Coalite to appeal to the London householders and encour- 
age them to use a fuel that was guaranteed to give no 
smoke and yet to burn perfectly freely in an open grate. 
As already mentioned, the details of the manufacture 
and the actual nature of the fuel were not disclosed, and 
the matter was wrapped in some mystery. There were 
many guesses published, and some articles appeared in 
the press written by coke and gas-makers, giving the 

January 11, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


opinions of rivals as to the validity of the unpublished 
patents. It is not until the last month, when the two 
patents were published, that any reliable opinion could 
be given. The patentee is Thomas Parker, a well known 
engineer and electrician, and the patents are numbered 
14365 and 17347 of 1906. Essentially the claim is for a 
hard and smokeless fuel produced from bituminous coal 
by a process of partial destructive distillation, the heat 
being gradually increased to a temperature of 800° F 
and maintained at this temperature until the illuminat- 
ing gases cease to be evolved, after which steam is 
introduced for the purpose of removing the sulphur as 
much as possible and of reducing the temperature to 
some extent before discharging the retorts. The specifi- 
cations give some details, but only of a meagre kind, as 
to the nature of the apparatus and plant, but these do not 
really matter, as the patent is for the fuel itself and for 
the method of the process, rather than the plant. The 
process also includes the working up of by-products, such 
as the illuminating gas and pitch. 

The chief point of the process appears to be that the 
coke made is just hard enough for 
handling, and for use on a small 
fire, and will burn freely in an 
open grate without any draft. The 
low temperature used in coking 
causes sufficient bituminous matter 
to be retained and produces a text- 
ure soft enough to make the fuel 
burn easily. It is probable that the 
smokelessness is obtained as much 
by the swelling of the coal and the 
porosity of the fuel, so bringing a 
larger surface for contact with the 
air, as by the partial driving off of 
the bituminous matter. 

Coalite does not differ greatly 
from the old metallurgical coke 
used a hundred years ago; this was 
soft and semi-bituminous, and was 
not made at very high tem|*>ra- 
tures. Modern metallurgical coke 
is made at high temperatures, so 
as to produce a fuel strong enough to bear the bur- 
den of large blast-furnaces, and the coke obtained as 
a by-product in gas manufacture is just as hard, be- 
cause a high temperature is used for the purpose 
of obtaining a large quantity of illuminating gas from 
the fuel. The production of Coalite seems to me to be a 
reversion to the days before hard coke was invented. 
The inventor and the coni|>any certainly deserve success 
in founding a big industry in smokeless fuel, but it is 
difficult to say de6nitely that their patents are unassail- 

During the past few weeks some curious reports have 
been circulated in London with regard to the proposition 
of the Amalgamated Press Ltd. to use its reserve fund 
for the prosecution of mining ventures. This, of course, 
is a wild story. The Amalgamated Press is the com- 
pany owning the Harmsworth publications, the Daily 
Mail, the Ismdon Magazine, and a whole host of weekly 
and monthly publications. The company is prosperous 
and pays good dividends. For some years the directors 
have foreseen the coming scarcity of wood pulp and the 
consequent rise in the price of paper, owing to the prodi- 
gal way in which the spruce fir is lieing used up. They 
therefore looked out for a tract of country for themselves 
where spruce can be grown on scientific principles and 
where pa|>cr could be made on the spot. Newfoundland 
was fixed on, and after exhaustive tests of the quality of 
paper made from the trees growing there and of the possi- 

bility of seeding and replanting trees, a large tract of coun- 
try, covering over 2000 square miles, has been acquired. 
A new company called the Anglo-Newfoundland Devel- 
opment Co. was formed in order to exploit the forests 
and erect paper factories. It is proposed that other pub- 
lishing companies shall join in the scheme and take part 
of the shares. The brothers Harmsworth also are taking 
shares personally. The Amalgamated Press is to use the 
reserve fund of the company in subscribing for capital 
in the Anglo- Newfoundland, as it is considered best to 
apply the fund in this way instead of investing in depre- 
ciated Government securities. Besides, the present is 
not a suitable time to ask the public to subscribe to new 
shares. Many of the preference shareholders in the 
Amalgamated Press objected to this use of the reserve 
fund, and slopped at nothing in opposing the scheme. 
Hence the rumors that the reserve fund was to be 
invested in wild-cat mining schemes. In most rumors 
there is generally a basis of truth, and this case was no 
exception. The facts are that in examining and develop- 
ing the forest lands, traces of mineral outcrops were 

found, and with a view to turning every op|H>rtunity to 
account, the directors asked John Taylor & Sons to send 
a mining man to the spot to make an examination. 
Rowland Feilding went out accordingly and is directing 
development work. The deposit on which most work 
has been done contains mixed lead and zinc ores, and its 
commercial value is not yet fully ascertained. Within 
the last few weeks some copper outcrops outside the com- 
pany's tract have been discovered and the land acquired. 
Newfoundland is somewhat of a neglected country, 
although mineral deposits are known to exist there. 

The reports of the Consolidated African Copper Trust 
and of the Tanganyika Concessions have l>een published 
this week and give some information regarding the prop- 
erties in Rhodesia about which a good deal has been 
heard during the last five years. It is a disappointment 
to find that the Tanganyika report contains no reference 
to R. J. Frecheville's recent visit. There is no mining 
engineer who is a better judge of a mine than Mr. 
Frecheville and people in London were keenly on the 
lookout for his opinion. It should be remembered, how- 
ever, that he was not sent out by the company but by 
other people who were contemplating the investment of 
capital in the scheme, so the company has no say in the 
publication of his report. It is probable, however, that 
his opinion will become public property before long. 
Your readers may remember that the country owned by 
this company was explored and acquired by Robert Wil- 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 11, 1908 

Hams. In the early stages the reports were so glowing 
both as regards the extent and richness of the deposits 
that some of us were coldly critical. As time went on it 
was found that every mining man who visited the dis- 
trict came back considerably impressed. I have in my 
possession some specimens, and I have seen the bulk 
samples. The ore is massive chalcopyrite and pyrite 
mixed and contains about &fc copper, in many cases 
more. The report of the Consolidated African Copper 
Trust contains some interesting information as to the 
progress at the Edmundian mine. The ore deposit has 
been extensively opened up and veins 30 to 36 in. wide, 
assaying from 10 to 20 fc copper, have been proved over 
considerable distances. At one point the vein is 7 ft. 
wide with indications that it will prove a lenticular 
mass. Arrangements have just been completed for the 
building of reverberatory furnaces. The concentration of 
the ore is to be effected by the Elmore vacuum process, 
which is now coming forward in a most interesting way. 

Butte, Montana. 

Copper Production.— Smelter Rates Raised at East Helena.— Transfer 
of Control in the Stewart.— North Butte Affairs. 

The estimated copper production in the Butte district 
during 1907 is 240,887,516 lb., as against 342,688,809 lb 
in 1906, a decrease of 101,801,293 lb. Each month of the 
past year showed a decrease from the corresponding 
mouth of the preceding year, but the big falling off came 
with the sudden decline in the price of copper and the 
rapid curtailment of production by the Amalgamated 
Copper Co., beginning in August. From a normal pro- 
duction of 30,000,000 lb. per month the yield fell to 
7,000,000 or 8,000,000 lb., and during the last month the 
Amalgamated mines, with the exception of those of the 
Boston & Montana Co., were closed entirely, and so were 
the mines of the North Butte and Butte Coalition com- 
panies. The Clark mines reduced their production 50%, 
and the only company operating in the Butte district that 
produced more copper than it did in 1906 was the Pitts- 
burg & Montana, a small concern with a daily output of 
about 150 tons of ore. The estimates of production for 
1907 areas follows: 

Company. Pounds of copper. 

lioston & Montana Co 63 003 655 

Anaconda ZZZZ U,lM,m 

Butte & lioston 




North Butte 

Butte Coalition 

Original (Clark) .......ZZ 17,296,! 

I ittsburgA Montana . 7S -, , 

h<<> t t>...*„ ' OJ '' 












ifiast Butte 



Total .240,887,016 

Montana mining men, outside of the large companies, 
are up in arms against the action of the American Smelt- 
ing & Refining Co. in raising smelter rates at the East 
Helena smelter. It is claimed that the new rates are 
I' exorbitant and confiscatory." The new rates went 
into effect on December 1. A heavy penalty has been 
placed on silicious ores, and iron ores alone can be treated 
at a reasonable figure. Already a number of mines have 
been compelled to shut down because of the new rates, 
and others will probably have to suspend. The East 
Helena rates, following the shut-down of the Washoe 
plant at Anaconda, and the suspension of the indepen- 
dent smelters in Utah, competitors of the East Helena 
plant, is a hard blow to the mine operators. They claim 
that the new rates are an advance of fully 50 f„ . Silicious 
ores that were treated at the Washoe smelter at a maxi- 

mum charge of $7.50 per ton will cost from $15 to $22 at 
East Helena. Where the Washoe smelter paid for any- 
thing over 50c. in gold, the East Helena smelter will pay 
for nothing less than $2 in gold. 

The North Butte has made a temporary arrangement 
with the Butte Reduction Works, owned by the Original 
Mining Co., a Clark company, and the latter will for a 
time treat some North Butte ore. The North Butte has 
therefore resumed mining in a small way and is shipping 
from 200 to 300 tons per day to the reduction works. 
For what period the arrangement has been made can 
not be ascertained, but the capacity of the plant is large 
enough to take care of the Clark production and the 
present production of the North Butte. However, the 
Original mine is closed for repairs and one report is that 
the reduction works will receive North Butte ore only 
until the Original resumes production. Still, the Clark 
mines have not been run to capacity for four or five 
months, the output being limited to about 40 # of the 
normal, and until the normal condition is restored the 
smelter may be shared with North Butte. 

The report comes from Wallace that F. A. Heinze has 
probably sold his interest in the Stewart mine to the 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan Co. The Stewart has been in 
litigation with the Coeur d'Alene Development Co., a 
concern closely allied with the Bunker Hill people, and 
engineers of the Bunker Hill Co. recently made an exam- 
ination of the Stewart. Upon that came the announce- 
ment that the Stewart would resume operations in a few 
weeks, which is said to indicate a Bunker Hill owner- 
ship, as that company is operating its proi>erties to capac- 
ity while the other producers are curtailing on account of 
the drop in the price of lead. The trouble with the 
Cceur d'Alene Development Co. appears to have been 
settled, for that company, on whose ground the Stewart 
mill is situated, has agreed to permit the Stewart to 
resume operations on the mill. 

Wallace, Idaho. 

Output of the Coeur d'Alene.— Dividends Increase.— Tonnage Pro- 
duced.— Severe Effect of Lower Metal Prices.— Expectation of 
Recovery.— Future Prospects. 

In spite of the decline in the metal markets and the 
shutting down of several of the large mines, dividends 
exceeding those of 1906 by $31,500 have been paid by the 
big producers of the district. The total amount paid is 
as follows: 

1906. 1907. 

Hunker Hill A Sullivan £2^40,000 ?1,980,000 

Federal M. & s. Co 2,040,000 1,710,000 

Hercules (estimated) 720,000 1,062,000 

Hecla 450,000 520,000 

Snowstorm 90,000 360,000 

Sui ' cess 20,000 60,000 

M °nttor 9j60o 

Total ?5,660,000 S5,691,500 

Under the present owners the mines of the Co?ur 
d'Alene have now paid in all $21,017,500 in dividends 
and under previous owners $11,501,307 making a grand 
total disbursed of $32,518,807. This is distributed among 
the different miues as follows. 

Paid Paid 

under prevl- under pres 

ous owners, en t owners. 

Bunker Hill 4 Sullivan $9,846,000 

Federal M. A .S. Co S8,488,307 r!34O,O00 

Hercules ''Ti^ooo 

Heela '...... i!o2oiooo 

Snowstorm 600,000 450,000 

Frisco 1,723,000 

Pittsburg 9o i000 

Monitor j'^ 

Success 600,000 80,000 

The ore shipped from the district during 1907 is esti- 
mated at 343,125 tons, the maximum shipments being in 

January 11, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


March (with 41,170 tons) and the minimum in December, 
when only 15,000 tons were produced. The total is prac- 
tically the same as for last year. Throughout the whole 
of 1906 the mines were worked to full capacity and for 
the first few months of 1907, owing to the fact that the 
price of lead reached a higher figure than for 25 years 
past. Throughout January, February, March, and 
April the price of lead was six cents and the average 
price of lead throughout the whole year is only two-thirds 
of a cent below the average quotations for 1906. At 
these figures the crude value of the ore shipped from the 
Cceur d'Alene is roughly $20,000,000. Since 1900 the 
mines have shown a rapid increase of production with a 

■ SCALE Or M/1-C3 ' 

Map of Idaho. 

eorres|>onding increase of net earnings. In 1901 148,81*0 
tons of crude ore and concentrate were shipped to the 
various smelters; in 1902 the shipments were 160,310 
tons; fur 1908, 200,696 tons; for 190J, 274,000 tons; for 
1905, 816,000 tons; for 1906, 344,000 tons and about the 
same for 1907. 

Had it not been for the decline in the metal markets 
during the past few months of the present year the ton- 
nage would have sur|>assed that of 1906, but the closing 
of the Morning mine at Mullan, the second biggest lead- 
producer in the district, the Snowstorm, the Success, and 
several BtnaDer mines, has cut the production during the 
last month or two severely. 

The value of the lead-silver ore and concentrate shipped 
to the smelters during 1907 was 164.95 per ton, while the 
Snowstorm copper ore average! about t20 per ton, as senl 
direct from the mine without concentration. The total 
shipments will be about 344,000 tons, of which about 
286,000 will he lead-silver ore and concentrate, the bal- 
ance being copper ore from the Snowstorm, Monitor, and 
the smaller copper producers. The value of the lead 
shipments is roughly estimated at alxiut $14,200,000 con- 

taining $4,250,000 worth of silver. The copper ore is 
valued at $1,000,000, containing silver and gold to the 
extent of $300,000, making a grand total shipped from 
the district of about $20,000,000. 

The outlook for the present year is excellent and it is 
expected that several new mines will become productive. 
Among these there is every reason to believe that the 
Stanley, Rex, Surprise, Idora, Stewart, Pittsburg, 
Charles Dickens, Nabob, and Tamarack & Chesapeake 
will reach the dividend stage provided that the metal 
markets recover. With the completion of the Idaho 
Northern the output will be increased enormously by 
mines on the northern side of the district. 

Salt Lake. Utah. 

Mine Operators Organize.— Smeller Rates Raised.— The Smoke liti- 
gation. — Lead Output Surfers. — New Concentrators at Garfield. 
— Shipments from Tintic. — Coal Production. 

The mine owners of Utah will probably form an organ- 
ization. Such a movement has been in contemplation, 
and since the late attempt of local smelting companies to 
raise their treatment charges with additional penalties, 
the movement has rapidly taken form. Utah producers 
have been confronted with some serious problems lately, 
but by thorough organization and promptness of action, 
they hope to overcome the evils that threaten to cut down 
their profits or force them out of business entirely, par- 
ticularly the owners of the smaller mines. For some 
months the charge has been made that competition in the 
local smelting field was practically at an end. There 
seems to be a |>erfect working alliance between the Amer- 
ican Smelting * Refining Co. and the United States 
Smelting, Refining & Mining Co. with respect to the 
making of new ore contracts or the renewal of old ones. 
Producers who had no contract, but who had been accus- 
tomed to entering the ojwn market with their product, 
were informed that their ores were not wanted at any 
price, and several instances have come to light where the 
product has been unloaded from the cars and left at a con- 
venient place near the sampling mills, in the hope that 
conditions would right themselves and the product be- 
come marketable. Other instances have been noted 
where the smelting companies have not only sought to 
exact higher charges and penalties, but have interposed 
a clause in contracts, which when 0|>erative would give 
them one-half the profit al>ove a certain fixed basis. This 
was too much; and the result has been that very few 
contracts have been signed by the producers, op|K>sition 
l>eing almost unanimous. 

This has led to an independent smelter movement; 
that is, many of the producers have subscribed to the 
project originally planned by !•'. Augustus Heinze. This 
smelter is now assured, the site has been secured, anil it 
is expected that the breaking of ground will l>egin within 
ninety days. The new plant will l>e equipped with both 
lead and copper furnaces. In addition to this, the lead- 
silver ore producers of the Tintic district will find relief 
in the construction of the new smelter of the Tintic 
Smelting Co., which is now iK'ing constructed. This 
plant will lie ready in April, and there is a probability 
of the plant of the Utah Smelting Co., at Ogden, being 
started up again right away. The Ogden smelter was 
shut-down several weeks ago after a run of three or four 
months. The company purchased ores when metal 
priees were high, and came to grief when the market 

The copper smelters at Murray and Bingham Junc- 
tion, involved in the injunction from the Federal Court, 
are practically out of business. The plant of the Bing- 
ham Consolidated closed on the day following Christmas; 


Mining and scienti fic Press. January u, iws. 

the fires were drawn from the last furnace of the Utah 
Consolidated on the night of the 4th inst., and the United 
States Smelting Co. has notified all shippers that no more 
consignments will be received at either of its Bingham 
Junction plants; that it is the intention to close them 
down. This company has about five weeks' supply of 
lead ore on hand, and about three weeks' supply of cop- 
per ore. The victory of the farmers is complete. The 
smelters have been declared a nuisance if erected within 
a farming community. The Garfield plant of the 
American Smelting & Refining Co., however, is not 
involved in this decree. The plants that have been com- 
pelled to move will be re-built in Tooele county, within 
30 miles of Salt Lake City. 

While production from Utah lead mines has been 
practically suspended for the time being, many of the 
copper mines are being operated. Notable among them 
is the Utah Copper and Boston Consolidated at Bingham 
and the Cactus mine in Beaver county. The Utah Apex, 
Utah Development, Utah Consolidated, and Ohio Cop- 
per, however, are on a development basis. Eight sec- 
tions of the new mill of the Utah Copper Co. at Garfield, 
are now at work. The management reported a produc- 
tion of 3,000,000 lb. of copper in December. The mill of 
the Boston Consolidated at Garfield has been given a trying 
out and within the present week the first section will be in 
regular operation. Three sections of the plant are ready. 
The St. Joe Mining Co. has been placed in the hands of 
a receiver. It owns property at Bingham upon which 
little development has been performed in late years 
owing to litigation pending between the majority and 
minority interests. 

The ore shipments from the Tintic last week came 
from the following mines: Bullion Beck, 3; Beck Tun- 
nel, 1; Colorado, 5; Centennial Eureka, 36; Eureka Hill, 
5; Mammoth, 7; Scranton, 4; Tintic Iron, 10; Yankee 
Consolidated, 21 carloads. The annual report of the Coal 
Mine Inspector has been filed with the Governor and 
shows a production of 1,967,621 tons, or a gain of 128,432 
over 1906. The output by counties is as follows: Car- 
bon, 1,816,133; Summit, 73,918; San Pete, 4500; Emery, 
2562; Morgan, 421 ; other small mines, 70,117 tons. 

At the present time several estimates of the gold and 
silver production from Colorado for 1907 are current. 
Some of the estimators seem to be affected by the alti- 
tude. The preliminary report of the Director of the 
Mint credits Colorado with $20,888,833 gold and $7,687,- 
796 silver. This ranks Colorado as the greatest gold- 
producing State and third in the production of silver. 
The falling off in the production of gold is $2,321,796. 
Whatever shortage does appear in the final figures may 
be attributed in large part to the burning of the Golden 
Cycle mill and the closing of several of the mines in the 
Cripple Creek district as a result. In general, the year 
has been free from labor disputes. The insufficient 
smelter capacity of the various plants and the recent 
financial disturbance may have had a slight effect. But 
one factor which must be recognized is the excessive 
operating costs due to high prices for labor and supplies. 
The rate of wages cannot be reduced without starving 

Denver, Colorado. 

Cold Sovereign Directorate. — Land Frauds. — Production of Precious 
Metals. — Coal Output. — Mining at Leadville. 

The dissatisfied stockholders of the Golden Sovereign 
Mining & Tunnel Co. got together at their annual meet- 
ing on Jan. 2 and ousted Abraham Rapp and his board 
of directors. O. H. Hinds, who led the opposition, was 
elected president and general manager, and an entirely 
new board of directors in sympathy with him was put in 
control. The stockholders also voted to rescind the 
recent acts of the Rapp management. This means that 
the lease granted to the Franklin Leasing Co. a few days 
ago will be cancelled and the three-year ore contract with 
the Golden Cycle mill at Colorado City will be reconsid- 
ered. It is the expressed intention of the present man- 
agement to operate the mine on company account. 

The Department of Justice, which has been prosecuting 
several cases of alleged frauds in connection with the 
coal-lands investigation, has received several adverse 
decisions recently in the Federal Court at Denver. Judge 
Lewis has given his decision that the present laws do not 
cover the case as taken up by the Government. He 
maintains that a man may promise to sell his allotment 
before he has received it without violating the law. This 
decision upholds the ' dummy entry ' system. The cases 
will, of course, be carried to the higher court. 

Typical Leadville Geology. 

the laborer, but with the present conditions only the 
high-grade propositions can be handled with profit unless 
they are of exceptional size. 

Cripple Creek produced $13,074,992 in gold during the 
past year and would have materially increased this 
amount had there been adequate milling facilities 
throughout the year. The prospects for 1908 are very 
promising. The treatment and transportation charges 
are the most advantageous in the history of the camp. 
More than 40 new discoveries in old mines or prospects 
have been reported. Every property that has any indi- 
cations of value is being opened and the camp has an 
abundance of skilled miners. There are now 12 mills 
operating in the camp. Most of them were started as 
experiments and have proved successful. These mills are 
estimated to have treated 113,675 tons during the year at 

a saving of about $600,000. Since the closing of the 

mines in the down-town district of Leadville, most of 
the effort has been toward development and prospect- 
ing. The estimated production for 1907 is $10,906,128, 
which shows a loss of $692,590 from the figures given by 
the United States Geological Survey for 1906. A notable 
gain, however, was made in the value of the gold, cop- 
per, and manganese ores. The loss appears in the value 
of the silver, lead, zinc, and bismuth produced. The 
loss in the latter metals is due largely to the fall in 

January 11, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 



Most of these are In reply to questions received by mall. Our 
readers are Invited to ask questions and give Information dealing 
with the practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 

An efficient pipe-wrench for pipes no larger than 6 in. 
diam. consists of a file, cold-chisel, and monkey-wrench. 
For large pipes take about 4 ft. of rope, fray both ends 
thin and put them together; commence with tip ends and 
wrap tightly around the pipe until a loop is made; then, 
with a piece of pipe or a round bar for a lever, turn the 
pipe as you would with a pipe-wrench. 

Bailing water out of a shaft with the ordinary trap- 
bottomed bailing-bucket should never be done unless 
absolutely necessary, especially if there is soft or loose 
ground in the shaft that is not lagged tight. The una- 
voidable leakage washes all the loose material out from 
behind the lagging, loosens the blocking from behind the 
timbers, and causes loose ground to slab off. 

It is not known that any attempt has been made to 
sink a shaft by using churn-drills to put down a series of 
holes which were subsequently filled with sand and then 
cleaned out sufficiently to permit blasting in successive 
sections. It would cost less to sink the shaft in the usual 
manner. One mining company bored a series of holes 
with a diamond-drill and shot them, but they had not 
been put down straight and the result was unsatisfactory. 

In the republic of Panama, the revised mining law 
requires all claim-measurements to be made on the slope 
of the ground, and not horizontally, which makes accu- 
rate mapping difficult, as the claim-lines swing in and 
out wherever the topography of the country is irregular. 
Placer claims are 5000 by 200 metres, containing about 
2171 acres, and quartz claims may be made up each of 
three pertenencios, located end to end, each pertenencia 
being 600 by 240 metres, making an area of about 107 
acres in each claim so located. 

A hypothetical mine in California is opened on a 
4-ft. vein of brittle quartz which has well-defined walls 
and dips at an angle of about t0° from the horizontal; 
the ore contains from 2 to 3jfe of sulphides and will prob- 
ably average by assay 96 gold per ton. It is developed 
by tunnels. Timber is plentiful in the vicinity and water- 
power is available. A home company accustomed to 
California conditions would prolmbly mine and mill the 
ore from this mine for 12.50 per ton; but it might cost a 
New York or foreign company $4 per ton. 

A MINER may fence in his mining claim, if he wishes, 
and rent it for any lawful purpose, but the fact that it is 
used for agricultural purposes might militate against 
securing title to it as a mineral land, if any controversy 
should ever arise between a homestead claimant and the 
mineral claimant as to the character of the land and the 
purposes for which It was Ix-st adapted. The law does 
not contemplate the fencing in of mining claims, but 
there is no objection to it, and, as hereinbefore suggested, 
the question as to whether or not the mineral claimant 
should rent the land for agricultural purposes is one purely 
of policy and judgment. 

Bdctioh-puhtb with rods inside the water-pipe cause 
a good deal of trouble when used in shafts, as all the 
working parts are hidden, making repairs difficult. If 
wood rods are used, they are apt to pull apart at the 
points where the metal Joints are riveted to the rods. To 
repair such a break, it may be necessary to remove more 
than half of the water-column pipe, length by length, 

and when the break occurs some of the rivets almost 
invariably drop down into the valves. By the time the 
rod is repaired, the water may have risen over the 
valves, which are choked, and the bailing-bucket must 
be resorted to. Half-inch pipe makes better rods than the 
usual 2 by 2-in. wood strips. 

Barite has been mined for many years in various 
parts of Virginia. The deposits of commercial impor- 
tance thus far developed which have been worked for 
barite alone, are lenticular masses or pockets in limestone 
or they occur superficially as loose lumps and nodules of 
irregular shapes and sizes, imbedded in the residual clays 
derived by the decomposition of the limestone. Minerals 
associated with the barite are limonite, sphalerite, 
galenite, pyrite, and occasional fluorite. The mining of 
barite in Virginia is surface-work; the greatest depth 
reached in any shaft is 160 ft. In southwestern Virginia 
the mining is largely by open-pit work; but in the dis- 
trict east of the Blue Ridge mountain there are vertical 
timbered shafts and drifts which follow the direction of 
the orebodies. The ore is washed, bleached, and ground, 
and occasionally jigged to remove impurities from the 
better grades of merchantable ore. 

Insurance Agencies have had several inquiries from 
managers of mining companies who desire to take out a 
burglary insurance policy on the transportation of their 
bullion from the mine to the railroad station, against the 
acts' of parties other than the carriers; but the mining 
companies refused to accept the jwlicies that the insur- 
ance companies were willing to write, on account of a 
clause making them void in case the robbery was done 
by an employee of the mining company. In California 
and other Western States bullion is nearly always shipped 
through regular express companies; they take it at the 
value placed uj>on it by the shipper, charge for express- 
age according to this value and guarantee its safe arrival 
at the destination. If a mine is situated far from a rail- 
road or important stage route, express companies may 
refuse to take charge of the bullion. In a case of this 
kind in Idaho the transportation of the bullion involved 
a 52-mile stage Journey. 

A SERIES of experiments for the preservation of mine 
timber planned in 1906 by the Philadelphia A Heading 
Coal & Iron Co. and the United States Forest Service 
resulted as follows: In the destruction of timber by 
decay, ventilation is a large factor. For wood-destroying 
organisms to exist, they must have air and water. It is 
the alternation of wet and dry conditions which produces 
rot. Seasoned timl)er is far more durable than green 
timber and is considerably stronger. From two to five 
months are necessary for proper seasoning. It may lose 
from 80 to :i5^ of its original weight. In durability 
peeled timlHT is superior to unjn-eled timber; in the 
unpeeled condition the space between the bark and the 
wood favors the development of wood-destroying organ- 
isms. Timbers treated with creosote and a solution of 
zinc chloride have very effectively resisted decay. A 
good penetration of the wood by the preserving fluid 
from 2 to 5 in. has been easily secured. Timbers treated 
by the cylinder process are also standing well; but the 
success of the sujK-rflcial brush treatment has yet to Ik- 
proved. On account of their comparative cheapness and 
ease of application, requiring no plant, they may be of 
benefit to small operators or in a situation where the 
timber is likely to Iw broken. This series of experiments 
especially applies to the southern anthracite coal region; 
in places where conditions and species of timber differ, 
the results of these experiments may not be applicable. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 11, 1908. 


Readers of the Mining and Scientific Press are Invited to use 
this department for the discussion of technical and other matters 
pertaining to mining and metallurgy. 

Depth at Goldfield. 

The Editor: 

Sir — I notice that in your issue of December 28, Mr. 
E. G. Tinnebo asks why the mine operators of Goldfield 
have not proven, one way or the other, the vexed ques- 
tions as to depths of commercial orebodies in this district, 
by means of diamond-drills. His letter ends with the 
question: "Do they fear the results obtained from 
greater depth?" 

It is not necessary that I should enter a defense of the 
mining methods pursued here, or of the mines; but as 
Mr. Tinnebo's question has been frequently asked, and 
always through lack of knowledge of conditions prevail- 
ing here, it is time that a definite answer be made. I M v 

There have been, to my knowledge, five attempts to 
drill deep holes here, with core-drills of well known 
makes — all of them unsuccessful because of the soft and 
much broken country that must be penetrated. For 
example, a contract was taken six months ago by experi- 
enced drill-men to sink a hole 1000 ft. on a well known 
property in this district, just east of the present producing 
belt. At 210 ft, the drill entered softclayey fault-material 
and, owing to an accident, the hole was lost. A second 
hole reached the same depth without much difficulty, 
but 50 days were consumed in sinking 35 ft. through the 
fault-material above referred to. This fills the hole rap- 
idly whenever opportunity is given. At present, opera- 
tions are suspended, casing having been used without 
success. The contract was taken at $5 per foot for the 
first 500 ft. The contractors have already lost money 
heavily and cannot possibly come out even. 

Near this same hole, I am developing a property now 
opened to a depth of 250 ft. In the lower level there are 
exposed over 35 ft. of fault material which would be 
exceedingly difficult for a diamond or core-drill to nego- 
tiate. The country, being almost entirely made up of 
weak eruptives, presents many difficulties of the sort and 
is not at all favorable for economical drill work. This 
has been repeatedly demonstrated by very competent 
men in the business. 

The question of depth in this district must, apparently, 
be determined by the slower process of shaft-sinking. 
Orebodies already exposed justify deeper development, 
and owners do not seem afraid. 

Arnold Bkcker. 

Goldfield, December 30. 

Cyanidation of Ore Containing Both Coarse and Fine 

The Editor : 

Sir — Regarding your question: " Given an ore con- 
taining some coarse gold, as well as gold finely divided, 
what steps would you take to save the coarse gold, which 
otherwise will escape solution in cyanide ?" 

Assuming that this ore does not contain any of the 
base metals in an amount to cause a high cyanide con- 
sumption, I would proceed to mill the ore in a weak 
cyanide solution (0.05 to 0.1 fc); passing over amal- 
gamating plates; then classify by screening at practically 
100 mesh; re-grind the oversize in tube-mills; again 
passing over amalgamating plates. After agitation, 
filter the slime, and precipitate the resulting solutions 
with a zinc method; zinc dust preferred. 

Walter L. Reid. 
Telluride, Colo., December 28. 

The Editor: 

Sir — Answering your inquiry, I would amalgamate first 
and cyanide the tailing, which is probably the obvious 
answer to be given, not knowing the peculiarities of the 
ore, or other conditions which might influence the treat- 
ment. For example, I know of an instance of a mine 
equipped with a mill and an extensive cyanide plant in 
operation which preferred to grind up some of the ore 
which contained coarse gold to pass a 40-mesh screen and 
ship to the smelter in preference to amalgamating and 
cyaniding. The determining factor was the richness of 
this ore, which contained between 20 and 30 oz. gold 
per ton. 

E. P. Kennedy. 

Tread well, Alaska, January 2. 

The Editor: 

Sir — In reply to your question: 

"Given an ore containing some coarse gold, as well as 
gold finely divided, what steps would you take to save 
the coarse gold, which otherwise would escape solution 
in cyanide?" 

There are several ways that suggest themselves to me, 
among which are the following four, given in their order 
of preference: 

1. Crush to 40 mesh, amalgamate in battery and upon 
apron plates, slime the whole product in Lane mills, and 
agitate with cyanide solution. 

2. Crush to 20 mesh, amalgamate in battery and upon 
apron plates, size, leach the saud with cyanide solution, 
and agitate the slime. 

3. Crush to 40 mesh, amalgamate in battery and over 
plates, size, leach the sand, and agitate the slime, both 
with cyanide solutions, of course. 

4. Crush to 20 mesh, size, leach the sand with cyanide 
solutions, and save the coarse gold on riffles placed in the 
discharge launders; agitate the slime with cyanide solu- 

The matter of evolving the procedure under any one 
of these headings with the design of the necessary plant, 
can be perfected by any raining engineer or metallurgist, 
and need not be gone into at this time. In regard to the 
Lane mill, which I mention under heading No. 1, I can 
say that the foundry at Rapid City, S. D., manufactures 
what is called an improved Lane mill, in two sizes, and 
I can recommend it as an efficient fine grinder. 

E. A. H. Tays. 

Denver, December 21. 

The Editor : 

Sir — The conditions described in your question prob- 
ably obtain in the majority of gold mines, and certainly 
in all districts classed as free-milling ; so that it would 
seem that the answer ought to be found in actual prac- 
tice. With the same character of ore, approved practice 
will vary with local conditions, but roughly we may say 
that to save coarse gold we turn to amalgamation, for 
fine gold to cyaniding, for combined, alloyed, included, 
or otherwise rebellious gold, which even in a so-called 
free-milliug ore, may amount to over. 40 fc of the total 
value, to a variety of methods. 

But the question is about the coarse gold. Are we con- 
fined to amalgamation, and if so, how shall we amal- 
gamate ? 

Much of the coarse gold can be recovered by concen- 
tration, but the difficulty of sampling the concentrate 
makes this method objectionable unless the mine is doing 
its own smelting. Gold mines, however, are not apt to 
have their own smelters. Chlorination is apparently 
barred. We must amalgamate. 

If the mine be in a district where there is an abund- 

January 11, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


ance of water, especially if there is no tailing disposal 
problem, the answer comes from many a stamp-mill, 
from Gilpin county to the Mother Lode, from Ontario to 
Alaska, each with its own local inflection. Varying in 
equipment and practice ; in stamps, mortars, screens, 
and plates ; in drop, speed, feed-water, and plate-grade, 
as determined by local experience, yet essentially they 
are the same, and their deep chorus is retaining from 
30 to 70 fc of the assay-value, including practically all of 
the coarse gold, in the mortars or on the apron plates. 

I say practically "all of the coarse gold," for I do not 
believe that an appreciable portion of it can escape in a 
rusty condition from the mortars of a properly designed 
and operated battery. Such coarse gold as goes beyond 
the apron plates will almost inevitably be caught in the 
amalgam traps, on the vanners, or on other concentra- 
tors. If not, we are forced to the rather Celtic conclusion 
that it is not coarse gold. 

Where water must be conserved, and, to some extent, 
even where the only difficulty is that the disposal of the 
tailing is restricted, the advice coming from the Black 
Hills, from the arid Southwest, and an ever increasing 
number of new districts is still to amalgamate for the 
coarse gold, but so long as the water must be separated, 
or recovered and pumped back, why not do the crushing 
in cyanide solution, for the cyanide is more efficient in the 
mortar than anywhere else. 

Why does not South Africa join this chorus? That is 
another story. There the amalgamation recovery is so 
important that its efficiency must be the first consider- 
ation, and we must admit that a continuous feed of 
cyanide solution does not improve the character of 
amalgam or save mercury. Australia? Still another 
story, for here we have rebellious ore, much of it 
destined to roasting and grinding before final treatment. 
Really, when I started to answer the question it looked 
surprisingly elementary, but I find to cover it fully 
would really require a dissertation on the whole world's 
milling practice, so I shall have to let this suffice. 

Edwin C. Holdkn. 

New York, December 24. 

Cyanidation in Nevada. 
The Editor: 

Sir— In your issue of Nov. 80, under the heading 
'Cyanidation in Nevada,' R. Stuart Browne makes 
several statements in regard to the (ioldfield ores, in 
which I think he is mistaken. In the first place Mr. 
Browne remarks that the ore is "a hard white quartz 
averaging about 85% silica, 7% pyrite, and about 8% 
lime, magnesia, etc." As a matter of fact, the ore is 
usually an altered and silicifled dacite, with very little 
white quartz present. In the oxidized zone the silicifi- 
cation is especially strong, and the ore gradates from 
rock showing its original porphyritic structure to a dark 
brecciated quartz. In the sulphide zone the siliciflcation 
is hardly so marked, but the ore is still essentially an 
altered dacite, in places changed to a dark flinty quartz, 
while in others the original structure of the rock is still 
plainly visible. Taking it as a whole, it forms a fairly 
hard tough rock, not easily reduced to a fine sand. 

Mr. Browne also remarks that " tellurides of gold are 
frequently present." This is true only to a very limited 
extent. At the Mohawk, Great Bend, and several other 
mines, a little tellurium is present in the very high- 
»rrade ore, but in a great many cases the so-called tellu- 
ride of gold is a form of tetrahedrite. Bismuthinite 
(bismuth sulphide) has also been mistaken for one of the 
telluride minerals in two fir three cases. As a matter of 
fact, it is extremely doubtful whether any noticeable 

quantity of tellurium could be found in the ordinary low- 
grade ore of the camp of the grade mentioned by Mr. 
Browne (3 oz. gold). At the Combination mine during 
the three years that I was in charge of operations, a 
special look-out was kept for specimens of telluride min- 
erals, but we were unable to find a single specimen in 
which the presence of tellurium was conclusively proved. 
I am, therefore, of the opinion that as far as the treat- 
ment of the milling grade of ore is concerned, with the 
possible exception of one or two of the mines in the Dia- 
mondfield area, the presence of tellurides need not be 

With such an ore as I have described, in which the 
gold is so finely disseminated, it seems to me very doubt- 
ful whether a good extraction could be obtained without 
comparatively fine grinding in addition to roasting. I 
am not sufficiently familiar with good roasting prac- 
tice to form any idea of the probable cost of roasting 
Goldfleld ores, but with coal at from $16 to $20 per ton, 
and crude oil at $2.70 per bbl. or thereabout, I am of the 
opinion that the cost of roasting the ore would exceed the 
additional cost of re-grinding to a finer state of division. 
During the seven months, from July 1, 1006, to February 
1, 1907, the cost of re-grinding sand with a 4 by 16-ft. 
tube-mill of trunnion type, fitted with silex lining, was 
approximately 70 cents per ton of sand re-ground. This, 
I take it, is considerably less than the cost of roasting, 
with the best possible arrangement. 

Edgar A. Collins. 

Tonojwih, December 8. 

Cyanide Practice at Copala. 
The Editor : 

Sir— In reply to the letter of Mr. D. G. Putnam in 
your issue of November 23, I would say : 

(1) The methods of estimating cyanide and alkali 
mentioned in the article in question were not given by 
way of recommendation, but were intended to be merely 
explanatory, as indicating the basis on which the figures 
there given were obtained. It is taken for granted that 
everj' metallurgist will ascertain for himself the limita- 
tions of the meth<xls he uses and their applicability to the 
individual conditions under which he works, because it 
seldom happens that any particular method of analysis is 
equally applicable under all circumstances. 

(2) Mr. Putnam, in his letter, does not give the limi- 
tations of Green's ferro-cyanide method; he may see 
these by reading the paper published by Gerard Williams 
in the Journal of the Chemical, Metallurgical & Mining 
Society of South Africa for May 1904. 

(3) Any suitable acid may Im> used in place of oxalic- 
acid without affecting the procedure of the method in 
question. In cases, however, where too much solution 
is not made up at a time and where the acid burette is in 
constant use, oxalic will probably l>e found to maintain 
its standard as well as any other. 

(4) (Jreen has already pointed out the formation of 
zinc nitrate, acid to phenolphthalein; this nitrate, how- 
ever, does not l>egin to form until the free cyanide has 
all l>een titrated and decomposition of the zinc-potassium 
cyanide commences, so that it would seem that Mr. Put- 
nam's preliminary titration for free cyanide, in the 
instance detailed by him, was carried far beyond the real 
free-cyanide end-point, and probably to a point coinci- 
dent with that which would have been indicated by the 
yellow end-point if usintf the potassium iodide indicator. 
The meaning of the term, 'first faint opalescence' 
seems to Ik? the stumbling block. If Mr. Putnam wishes 
to know what we understand by it here let him first filter 
the solution to be tested for free cyanide until perfectly 


Mining and Scientific Press. January llf 1908 . 

clear and limpid, and place his measured quantity in a 
flask as transparently clean as the solution; then on 
adding the standard silver nitrate and observing the 
solution on a line with the eye against a dark back- 
ground and with a good side-light, a faint general dull- 
ing of the brilliancy of the solution can be observed 
when the true free-cyanide has all been titrated. This 
is what we understand by the term, ' first faint opales- 
cence.' Before this point is reached there may be some- 
times a slight precipitate formed by the lime present, 
but this is easily distinguished with a little practice. If 
Mr. Putnam will test in this way to the true free-cyanide 
end-point and then add phenolphthalein and titrate with 
standard oxalic or sulphuric, or any other acid he may 
prefer, I think he will find that the protective alkalinity 
shown will agree closely with that indicated by Green's 

I can assure Mr. Putnam that what he chooses to call 
the oxalic acid method does not necessarily " fail upon 
solutions which contain much K 2 ZnCy 4 " when properly 
performed, though I am not prepared to assert that it is 
universally applicable under different conditions; that is 
a point for each metallurgist to determine for himself. 

L. N. B. Bullock. 

Copala, Mexico, December 10. 

[ This is a good example of a useful discussion. Our 
readers will join us in thanking Messrs. Bullock and 
Putnam. — Editor.! 

Capitalization of Rand Mines. 

The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of December 21 my friend, Mr. 
Fischer Wilkinson, takes exception to my statement 
that, as a rule, the mines on the Band are not over- 
capitalized, and says: "The nominal capital means very 

It only means the thing that we are talking about, 
namely, the amount of capital placed upon a property by its 
sponsors and upon which the said property will pay ade- 
quate returns if the amount is not too great, that is, if it 
is not over-capitalized. He cites in refutation the price 
at which in many cases the working capital shares were 
subscribed, a point already alluded to in my first letter. 
But the working capital shares seldom exceed one-third 
and are sometimes less than that proportion of the total 
share capital, hence they are in the minority and cannot 
be regarded in any sense as the ' capitalization ' of the 
company, unless the tail is to wag the dog. Their issu- 
ance at a premium is legitimate business, especially 
when guaranteed and underwritten by the issuing house, 
as already pointed out; in the cases cited an excellent 
return on the investment is being made even at the 
enhanced working capital price. For instance, in the 
case of the Witwatersrand Deep while the dividend is 
but 10 fo on the 80s. shares, it is 16$ on the 50s. shares, 
or an average of 13 f, quite good enough for a property 
with so long a life as it has. Moreover, this rate of divi- 
dends was established on monthly profits of £18,000 to 
£20,000, but the recent profits of £26,000 to £28,000 per 
month will admit of a decided increase in dividend over 
the 13 f rate on working capital shares. The Bobinson 
Central Deep, paying 17 J fc on working capital shares, 
is also good; hence admitting, for the sake of argument 
only, that the greater is to be measured in terms of the 
lesser, it is evident that the showing is still good. As 
for the Rand Mines Limited, comprising a group of 9 or 
10 producing mines, and regarding which I am informed 
the dividend is to be increased, the 120$ return may 
figure comparatively less on the market price, but that 
is a valuation which does not enter into the question of 

original capitalization in any manner, and was therefore 

purposely ignored by me. 

With reference to the statistics quoted, these also I see 

are based on " market valuation of the shares," hence I 

fear they must be ruled out of order, with no necessity 

for quoting Disraeli on the subject of statistics. Finally, 

I must beg to submit, Mr. Editor, that your heading, 

'Capitalization of Rand Mines' to my first letter, written 

in refutation of your editorial questioning the integrity 

of the Witwatersrand engineers, is something of a 


Thos. H. Leggett. 

New York, December 31. 

[The heading ' Capitalization of Rand Mines ' seemed 
better than ' Integrity of Rand Engineers,' for the latter 
was a question that it was unpleasant and unprofitable to 
discuss further. Mr. Leggett holds that the engineers on 
the Rand are not responsible for any over-capitalization 
of mining companies and he denies that his professional 
acquaintances at Johannesburg participated in the flota- 
tions that made certain gentlemen at Hamburg and 
London so rich. We do not care to press the point 
Mr. Leggett himself, Mr. H. H. Webb, and a few 
other first-rate men gave an example of professional 
decency, and it may be that they are generous enough to 
impute to others a standard as high as their own. Mr. 
Leggett says that he does not know of a single engineer 
who "gave his authority to over-capitalization and, 
indirectly, to the wild dealing in shares" during the 
boom of 1895 and at recurrent intervals. It may be that 
we are not agreed as to the definition of an engineer, and 
Mr. Leggett may refuse to recognize as fellow-profes- 
sionals the men we had in mind. There never was a 
boom without such performances, and there never will 
be.— Editor.] 

The Sapphire Mine in Montana. —The sapphire 
mine at Yogo Gulch, Montana, is probably the greatest 
gem mine in the United States. The igneous dike which 
contains the sapphires has a length on the surface of 
about four miles; it probably descends to a great depth. 
It has been estimated that the entire content of workable 
sapphire-bearing rock may approximate 10,000,000 cu. 
yd. The stones obtained in mining this dike are not of 
large size. They range from 'culls' to gems averaging, 
when cut, from half a carat to two or three carats, and 
rarely five or six. The ' culls ' are used for watch jewels 
and other mechanical purposes, for which they have an 
advantage over East Indian stones in their form; this is 
largely short prismatic or rhombohedral, with flat basal 
terminations. The gems are brilliant, free from flaws and 
range in color from light shades to the rich deep blue of 
oriental sapphires. They are sent to Amsterdam for cut- 
ting, and yield in finished stones from two-fifths to one- 
half of their original weight. 

Copper Mines of Alaska. — All the copper-pro- 
ducing mines of southeastern Alaska are on Prince of 
Wales island, in the Ketchikan district. The orebodies 
are genetically related to the intrusive rocks and occur 
either as contact or replacement deposits in the form of 
lenses or irregular masses. They are found in limestone, 
quartzite, or a greenstone-schist country rock. The chief 
copper ore is largely chalcopyrite, accompanied by pyrite, 
magnetite, and pyrrhotite, besides various gangue min- 
erals. Enrichment zones are lacking, evidently on ac- 
count of the absence of the zone of weathering which 
was removed during the glacial epoch ; and at only one 
locality (Copper Mountain) are secondary ores present in 
quantity. At this place they extend only a few hundred 
feet below the surface. — Chas. W. Wright. 

January 11, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press, 



Written for the Mining and Scientific Pbkss 
By Forbes Rickabd. 

The end of 1907 finds Cripple Creek pre-eminent among 
the camps of this State, both in the record of production 
and in those steady improvements that give foundation for 
the production of the new year. 

Cripple Creek production for the past year was close to 
$13,000,000. Dividends in excess of $2,000,000 have been 
paid out; in these the Portland, Vindicator, Mary Mc- 
Kinney, and El Paso mines have a good share of repre- 
sentation. The Cresson, South Dante, and Little Clara 
are among the mines that have come into recent promi- 

The drainage adit, still the most important piece of 
work affecting mining interests in common, got started 
in May on the 740 ft. of new ' backs ' which it gets from 
the new portal. And while the advance has been delayed 
by the transfer of work from the hands of one contract- 
ing party to another, the adit has, mainly under the 
direction of the El Paso Co., been extended a distance of 
1220 ft., out of a total of 26,000 ft. of this project. Driv- 
ing is to be continued under new specifications. 

The deeper development of several square miles of 
Cripple Creek's productive territory, to l>e accomplished 
through this adit, will coincide with a period in the his- 
tory of the camp when milling and mining methods will 
have been brought near to the top notch of efficiency and 
improvement. It will bring within the range of profit 
and make available an immense area, much of which 
without such drainage would be out of reach of ordinary 
mining operations. 

The end of this year sees the final stages of much liti- 
gation, which has been a hindrance to greater progress 
in the Cripple Creek district, notably the Portland and 
Stratton's Independence trespass suit. Signal advance 
has been made in the exploitation of the lower grades of 
ore from mines working under the lease system. The 
growth of the cyanide process, as shown by the erection 
of many new mills to treat the low-grade ores of mines 
•and dumps, has contributed mainly to such a result. 
While the milling ore now ranges in value from $4 to $12 
per ton, oxidized ores of an average value of *2.H5 per 
ton have been successfully treuted in the local mills. The 
successful exploiting of these low-grade ores must, in 
many instances, lead to discoveries of high-grade streaks, 
which under former mining conditions would have been 
overlooked. Particularly might that l»e the ease where 
veins are blind and many of the dikes associated with 
the ore deposits do not come to the surface. 

The Golden Cycle mill (750 tons daily capacity) of the 
company that bought the best part of the property of the 
United Gold Mines Co., was re-modeled, burned, and re- 
built during the year. After much adjusting of freight 
rates and treatment charges to meet varying competitive 
factors, the schedule shows an appreciable reduction in 
both transportation and metallurgical departments over 
the charges that have prevailed heretofore. Altogether, 
general conditions at Cripple Creek conspire toward the 
stimulating of the camp's production and an increasing 
activity in mine and mill. 

While Cripple Creek has been receiving a stimulus 
from the advantage of the minting of its bullion produc- 
tion and meeting its payrolls with gold, Leadville has 
been operating under disadvantages of constantly falling 
metal prices and comes through the year with a showing 
that reflects the varied nature of its resources and does 
credit to the old camp. The slump in the prices of 
silver, lead, and spelter will for a time cut down the 
mining operations, through the closing of the Coronado 

and others of the mines in the down-town district, and 
some of the mines whose receipts and operating expenses 
have so near balanced as to make it a process of swap- 
ping dollars, yet Leadville has been equipped to make 
the most of the high zinc market that has prevailed 
through the greater part of the year and Lake county has 
been yielding 80 <f<, of the total zinc production of the State. 
During the year important discoveries have been reported 
from Leadville's gold belt, in the Breece Hill district. 
The Ibex group is employing from 400 to 500 men under 
lease and is getting high-grade ore from its 1300-ft. 

The Yak Tunnel Co. has added to its already large 
development and has come through the year successfully. 
Its dividends will exceed the $320,000 mark of 1906. Of 
the production of the whole district, there has been 
heavy demand for silicious ores throughout the year. 
The monthly production has ranged from 71,000 to 
77,000 tons, of which from 65 to 70^ goes to the local 
smelters, from 8000 to 12,000 tons of zinc ore to outside 
points, and the balance to the Salida smelter. Among 
the newer enterprises that have come into prominence 
during 1907 are those of the Mammoth Co. in Big Evans 
gulch and the Bartlett Tunnel Co. on Sugar Loaf 
mountain. Rock Hill (in the Reindeer) has been the 
locus of new ore developments. 

The mines of the San Juan have worked uninter- 
ruptedly and have maintained a good showing in 1907. 
In the Telluride district, a consolidation of small groups 
of mines was made through the Ioua Gold Mining Co., 
and at Silverton a controlling interest in the stock of the 
Mountain Queen was reported sold to the Guggenheims. 
The Tomboy publishes the results of a most successful 

In Gilpin and Clear Creek counties the progress of the 
Newhouse Tunnel claims first attention. It has this 
year drained the Saratoga and Old Town mines, through 
connections made with it, and incidentally disclosed new 
orebodies belonging to these proj>erties. In March the 
adit had reached a length of 17,500 ft. and was then 
approaching the limit of its haulage capacity. The 
transfer and consolidation of the Six-Day and Perigo 
grou|>s, near Rollinsville, was one of the interesting 
events of the year. 

In metallurgical progress, two advances are note- 
worthy. The one is the introduction of the Huntington- 
Heberlein process in the Colorado plants of the American 
Smelting A Refining Co., making use of a partial roast 
preliminary to sintering before blast-furnace fusion. 
The object being to put the ore into condition admitting 
of lower temperature in the fusion; at the same time pre- 
venting lead loss aud allowing of the utilization of a 
heavier proportion of sulphide in the smelting mixture. 
The other is the almost complete superceding of the 
chlorination processes by cyanidation, and its acces- 
sory machinery and equipment, in the metallurgical 
practice applying to Cripple Creek ores. 

In general, the mineral output of the State has been 
scarcely affected by the drop in the price of copper, since 
the production of this metal is, with small exception, 
accessory to the production of ores in which gold, silver, 
and lead predominate. The shortage of labor in the 
earlier part of the year did much more to limit the annual 
production than the lower metal prices of the last part of 
1907. Cripple Creek especially experienced a drain ii|>on 
its lalwr through circumstance of higher wages obtain- 
able in the boom camps of Nevada. The exodus result- 
ing has l»een checked in the latter months of the year and 
since the Goldfleld troubles began there is promise of a 
gradual return of the Colorado miner to his former habi- 


Mining and Scientific Press. January n, i%8. 

Nagybanya, Hungary. 

Written for the Mining and Scientific Pkess 
By Edward Skewes. 

This district is in the eastern part of Hungary, bounded 
on the east by Roumania and Galicia. It is easily acces- 
sible, being about 13 hours railway journey from Buda- 

The principal mines are owned by the Hungarian Gov- 
ernment, and the managers in charge may, in addition 
to their other titles, write Royal Hungarian Engineer. 
Some of these mines are very old. I was told that the 
Kereszthegyi, known hereafter as the Cross mine, had 
completed its one-thousandth birthday. On July 6 the 
Veresvizi, or the Red Water mine, celebrated its 500th 
birthday; all work in the mine was suspended, the 
mouth of the adit was gaily decorated with arches, 
evergreens, bunting, flags, and miners' lanterns ; the 
interior of the machine-shop was like a conservatory. 
The Government distributed 2,500 litres of wine to the 
540 employees. 

The mines are among a series of hills related to the 
main range of the Balkans ; they are situated at eleva- 
tions varying from 400 to 800 metres. The country is 
well wooded, oak and birch being abundant. The for- 
mations are classed as trachyte and andesite, while the 
best mines are in quartz-trachyte, the eruptives break- 
ing through the late Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The 
best mines are in a straight line from east to west, 20 
km. in length, from Rota-Anna or Kapnik Banya to 
Nagybanya. Two kilometres farther west are the Bor- 
patak mines, which have become famous within the last 
four years ; the largest owner, formerly a Roumanian 
school-teacher, earning 18 kronen, or $3.50 per week, is 
now wealthy. Still farther west is Lapos Banya* which, 
prior to the fall in silver 20 years ago, was a hive of in- 
dustry, as witnessed by several disused mills and smelt- 
ers. In passing the site of an old copper smelter at this 
place I saw several men and women at work, and was 
told that they were milling all the slag, digging around 
all foundations, and milling the scraps for silver and 

The course of the veins is approximately north and 
south, usually five degrees more to the west of north than 
to the east of north ; the dip may be both east and 
west in the same mine. At Felsobanya a good instance 
may be seen of the fan-like structure of the veins. The 
dip does not influence the productiveness of the veins. 

The veins that I saw outside the main belt were 
narrow, none of them three feet wide, but were unmis- 
takably veins continuous in length and depth, with well 
defined walls ; they were as distinguishable as are the 
saddle reefs of Bendigo, there is no mistaking them. In 
several of the old narrow and crooked adits, I saw the 
results of using heat (of burning brush) to break the 
rock before the advent of explosives ; such adits were 
unusually high and showed eonchoidal fracture. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Bertalan I was permitted 
to go underground at the Cross mine. After walking 
1,081 m. we came to a place where a large station had 
been cut, and where a vertical shaft had been sunk 380 
m. ; the bottom level had been driven at a depth of 332 m. 
At the station there are three large boilers, with electric 
hoists on both sides of the shaft; also large ore-bins, 
machine-shops, etc. The two drifts that I examined had 
been extended over 1,000 m. from the shaft, and the ven- 
tilation was good, save at the face, where it was unpleas- 
antly warm for working, the men being almost naked, 
except for shoes and overalls, and in some cases even less. 
The veins are narrow when unproductive, but range 

"Banya means mine; nagy means big ; lapo.i, Mat; .felso, upper. 

from 2 to 5 m. in all the stopes, for where the veins are 
valuable they are always wide. The faces of levels 
were fully 2 in. wide. The cost of a drift on the vein, 
2 m. wide and 2J m. high, is 115 crowns* per metre; 
raises cost 80 crowns; and shafts 510 crowns. The vein 
is hard, principally quartz and sulphides. The height to 
the surface from the shaft was 300 metres. 

The first 600 m. of the adit was built of, and arched 
with, stone, as were most of the levels where stoping was 
in progress. Instead of stull-timbers, old rails from 40 
to 50 lb. were used, placed one metre apart, and cov- 
ered with hard flagstone. From the ore-bins at the shaft 
to the mill the ore was conveyed in one-ton cars — long 
and narrow — hauled by one horse, drawing three cars, 
and pushing one car, by means of extended shaft, attached 
to the pushed car with an iron loop. 

In 1896 a pamphlet was published giving a history of 
the mine; two or three extracts will be interesting. 
There is no record of the mine prior to 1086; in that year 
the Kuns (not the Huns) came and destroyed this mine 
with others in the district, and killed all the people in 
Nagybanya. In 1141 King Geiza II introduced the 
Saxons in large numbers to work the mine, and it was 
again in full blast. In 1490, while Columbus was dream- 
ing of America, Prince Albert, a Polish prince, and 
brother of Ulaszlo II, the Hungarian king, burned the 
buildings, and work was abandoned. In 1710 the mine 
was again idle, on account of the miners suffering from 
an outbreak of boils and sores on the arms. About this 
time the Government officials resolved not to lease the 
mine, but to work it themselves, as it appears that every 
set of lessees left the mine in a pretty sickly condition. 
The tables from 1875 to 1895 are very full for every year. 
The figures are given in forints,f equal to 40 cents 



Income. Expenses. 





1885 .. . 

Forlnts. Forlnts 
232,396 176,722 
253,700 233,813 
301,783 185,414 
263,809 161,305 
285,913 177,941 
613,716 ! 314,728 












Another table shows full particulars of expense account, 
b"ut only two or three items will be selected out of the 26 








value of 













































ber of 











cost of 
1 cu. m. 














































From Table II the duty per stamp (680 lb.) will appear 
ridiculously small, but the weight of the stamp is ouly 
200 kg., the reasons for which will be given later. 

The adit has a single track. Around the mouth of it 
there are no dumps; while the offices, machine-shops, 

*A crown or krona is equal to 20 cents American. 
tA fori nl is an old Hungarian coin, formerly equivalent to an Eng- 
lish florin. It has not been coined since 1890. 

January 11, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


magazines, warehouses, are near, all the waste rock must 
be conveyed some distance. The Cross mill was built 
close to the mouth of the adit. The building is long and 
narrow, and only one story. I have not seen a mill in 
Hungary built on a hillside. In the mill there are four 
sets of three batteries of Californian stamps, hand-fed, with 
no rock-breakers. In front of each set of batteries there 
are Rittinger (who was a Hungarian) amalgamators, 
about 2 ft. diam., which save from 6 to 8jfe of the valu- 
able metals. No copper plates are used in the mills. 
The sand and slime are elevated by pumps to large spitz- 
kasten, and the sand is concentrated on Rittinger tables, 
which were well regulated and were doing good work. 
The slime was treated on Bartsch revolving tables. (See 
Fig. 2.) From what I saw of the working of the Govern- 
ment mills, they appeared to be efficient, equal to the 
average of mills in other countries treating the same 
character of ore, containing galena, blende, antimony, 
iron pyrite, and quartz. The miners were expected to 
pick out the galena and blende when massive; this is 
sent to the smelters. The reason why the light stamps 
are used, is to prevent sliming; the principal portion of 
the gold and silver is in the galena and blende, and these 
minerals easily slime under a heavy blow and float on 
the water. An English company a few years ago, after 
spending 4,000,000 crowns in the erection of heavy 
stamps and up-to-date methods, was glad to sell its prop 
erty for 350,000 kronen. 

I omitted to mention that before entering the adit I 
was requested to put on a Government cap, a short coat 
with epaulets, brass buttons with hammer and pick 
embossed, similar to the crest of the A. I. M. K., also 
trousers, and there seemed to be a plentiful supply of such 
suits in stock for visitors. 

The quartz trachyte in which this mine is situated is 
covered with andesitic tufa. There are many veins on 
the property. The reserves are estimated to last for 30 
years at the present rate of production. 

The Veresvizi, or Red Water mine, is named after the 
color of the water which flows from it. The present 
names of the claims which comprise thin mine were given 
in 1764, and were not called after the discoverer's •best 
girl,' as in the Western States, but were all named after 
the saints, as follows: St. Lipot, St. Josef, St Haromsag, 
St. Marton, St. Ferenoz, St. Janos, etc. In 1776 the city 
of Nagybanya leased the mine to a private company until 
1778, and in that year 472 lengths — as far as a man could 
stretch with his arms extended — were driven. The les- 
sees, according to the records, did not keep up their 
development work. In 1795 the Government took pos- 
session and began to drive an adit. This adit is 11 km. 
long, with a height of 190 no. to surface. A shaft has 
been sunk 60 m. below. Fig. 1 shows the entrance of the 
adit. On this property there are 80 gold and silver- 
bearing veins, varying from 1 to 20 m. wide. The 
ore is in shoots, directly above each other, as shown 
in the sketch. 

Through the kindness of Mr. Schmidt, the engineer of 
the Red Water, I accompanied him to an up|>er adit 
(Lobanya) which is 270 in. higher and 4 km. distant 
from the portal of the Svaiczer, or main adit. This adit 
must have been driven, at least part of its 800 m. in 
length, by the Romans many centuries ago. Here there 
was a waste heap, but a waste heap beautified by a 
variety of flowers growing in tastefully arranged beds, 
although in the midst of a large forest and a mile from 
civilization. In the adit there is a stope that serves as a 
vault or strong room; from it 180,000 or 200,000 crowns 
may lie taken out at any time, if the mine requires it to 
meet any extra expenditure. It is not the Australian 
nest egg, in the sha|>e of bullion, for the money is in the 

ore; the stope is 26 m. long, and from 1 to 5 m. wide. 
At one time 400 kg. yielded 13 kg. of gold. This ore is 
all sacked in the stope and the bags well sewn and passed 
from hand to hand to the adit. The vein was originally 
quartz, now it is rhodocrosite, with blende carrying 
silverand gold, next comes gray quartz with fine-grained 
galena, then a little calcite on the foot-wall, with small 
vugs or crevices in the richer portions. The miners 
employed in this stope are of the best selected brand, and 
are paid at the rate of 200 crowns, or $40, per month, 
together with a small percentage, from 3 to 4^, of the 
profits. There are two heavy iron gates in the adit. 
The miners work from 5 A. M. to 1 p. m., from 1 to 9 
P. M., and from 9 to 5 a. m. 

In connection with this mine there are three mills at 
work, all built on the level, and all using the same water 
as motive power and for milling, all lit by electricity, 
and in one, oil engines are at work. The mills are fairly 
close to the adit, the farthest not much more than a mile. 
The cars are of the same size and shape as at the Cross 
mine, and When drawn by horses four cars are moved; 
with locomotives, a train of 16 cars is pulled. The gauge 
is about 20 inches. This company has three locomotives. 
The horse-drivers used to stop at certain places and fill a 
small tank situated above the wheels on the side of the 
car; the water gradually fell on the rail through a small 

In these mills the same methods are used as in the 
Cross mill. In the central plant a battery is employed 
exclusively for making tests. The smelting ore is also 
brought here, duui|>ed from the sacks, and is crushed 
dry under Cornish stamps to the size of peas, sampled, 
re-sacked, and sent to the Government smelters. These 
three mill** are well equipped with Californian and Cor- 
nish stamps, with Kittinger tables, concentrators, and 
slime-tables. They are well managed. The shipping 
ore carries al>out 180.80 in gold and 48 crowns in silver, 
or a total of $35.76 jkt ton. The mill-ore yields 21 
crowns in gold and 1.30 crowns in silver, or about $4.60 
per ton. The reserves in this mine are estimated at 22 

In the Felsobanya mill there are 76 stamps of 200 kg. 
each, and 72 wooden stamps weighing from 100 to 110 
kg., and the mill treats from 80,000 to 88,000 tons per 
year. The cost of milling is 4 crowns (80 cents) and for 
mining, including all charges, from H to 12 crowns per 

Table No. IV shows the output, but in gold and silver 
only, together with the excuses of the Government 
mines in the Nagybanya district. 

Table No. V gives the increase or decrease in the 
movable stocks during the year, also the profit and loss 
on the respective mines, together with the valuations; 
the last column is supposed to include everything that 
cannot l>e sold. These six mines are valued at 18,382,498 
crowns, or $2,676,498; they made a profit of $75,518, or 
leas than 3 56. In ordinary mining, that is, with private 
funds, the interest would l>e considered low. The Hun- 
garian Government mines, we are told, are not worked 
primarily for the profit, but for the benefit of the miners, 
and the towns near which the mines are situated. 

Considerable improvement may be effected in the 
mines and mills owned by private companies or indi- 
viduals. In one mine there were four persons employed 
pumping water by hand-pumps from a depth of 60 ft., in 
relays of about 12 to 18 ft., while there were only two 
miners at work stoping, but I have recently learned that 
there is to be a new management and that a steam-pump 
has lieen substituted. In connection with [this mine 
there were nine stamps, 12<» kg. each, which crushed 
three tons each jier month. 


Mining and Scientific Press. January u, lm 

The private mills, and there are many of them from Fel- 
sobanya to Nagybanya and from Nagybanya to Borpotak 
and from Umazzi to Lapos Banya, are very crude and 
primitive, all driven by water-power, with oak axles, 
cams, stems, and tappets (there are no rock breakers or 
feeders, even in the Government mills). The only ma- 
chine is the Hungarian concentrator— a very remote 
ancestor to the bumping table of Gilpin county, Colorado, 
—which is a table 5 ft. wide, 9 ft. long, suspended by 
movable chains at each corner. The sides are six inches 
high. Motion is imparted by means of an extended arm 
under the head of the table, working in connection with 
a wooden axle and tappet, the blows varying from 1 to 3 
per minute, and the distance of throw from 6 to 12 in. I 
saw over 60 of these at work, in more than a dozen dif- 
ferent mills, but not one was being looked after as it 
seems to me it should have been. A small boy or girl 
fed the concentrator, and when the tailing end wanted rais- 
ing a lever was put in a roller from which the end chains 
were hung and raised one notch. When the concentra- 
tor is full it is stopped, the tailing is thrown in the creek, 
the middling and heading to their respective departments 
for further treatment. The capacity would be less than 
1} tons per day. 

This concentrator may have been suitable for the oxi- 
dized ores of 1,000 years ago, when the axle, cam, and 
tongue were new and in good order, but for the present 
ore it is not suitable, as it cannot possibly save more than 
60^.. In talking to the mill-owners, they said in effect 
— although I had to listen for hours: "My father worked 
the mine and mill in this way, and he handed it to me, 
and I must hand it over to my boy. We have not the 
money to erect new machines to save the slime, and if we 
did we should perhaps work too fast; we know we are 
losing 50^ of the metals." In all the old mining leases 
the Government was entitled to all the mineral below 200 
ft. in depth, consequently, for the sake of posterity, the 
mine must not be worked at express rate. 

The free gold, here known as 'fire gold,' is extracted 
by a system of panning and then amalgamated. From a 
20-stamp mill about 25 kg. of No. 1 , or best concentrate, and 
about 35 kg. of the second concentrate, largely galena and 
iron pyrite, are sold monthly to the Government smelt- 
ers. The pulp flows into strips, and the heading is car- 
ried to long narrow buddies having 45° incline; one boy 
attends to one buddle, and after feeding he cuts the block 
into small pieces with a wooden knife, so as to let the 
water pass uniformly. When the waste has been washed 
away a wooden trough is placed at the bottom of the bud- 
dle and the mineral is washed into it. These are panned 
and sometimes yield 'fire' or free gold. The toe of the 
pan is inclined on the principle of the vanning shovel. 
The pan is made of }-in maple wood, ic some cases lined 
with tin; the sides and end rise 1£ inches. The opera- 
tor, usually the manager or proprietor, takes the pan and 
strikes the back of it against a padded apron tied around 
his waist with a 3-in. throw, causing the heavy mineral 
to come to the back of the pan while the lighter particles 
are driven to the front, then a large bullock's horn, with 
a small hole at the small end, is held in the right hand 
and the lighter portion of the ore is washed into the tank; 
there is more shaking and more shaking, and more wash- 
ing and more washing, until only a small portion of the 
richest is left; this is washed into a kettle, the contents 
of which are Anally amalgamated. In the Government 
mill there were two horns for washing the pan; one had 
a very fine hole, used only during the final washing of 
the pan. In one large mill, where richer ore was being 
treated, there were four men constantly panning, with a 
responsible man supervising them. 

The Hungarian cart is very primitive. It is drawn by 

two horses or oxen. The horses have but little head-gear. 
The body of the wagon has an inside measurement of 7 
ft. 7 in. long, 1 ft. 9 in. wide, and 12 in. deep, say, one 
ton capacity. (Almost everything here is measured 
by dimensions, not by weight.) The body is secured to 
the carriage by means of a chain encompassing it in the 
centre, tightened by a long pole, the end of which is fast- 
ened to the rear. To unload is to unloosen the pole, re- 
move the chain, and push the box over or shovel the ore 
out. For the carrying of concentrate a large basket with 
sloping sides and ends is placed on the four wheels, kept 
in position by upright poles connected to the axles by 
means of an iron loop, and lined with sacks. The wheeLs 
are 3 ft. diam. with 2-in. tires. 

The Hungarian car was also crude, yet it meets the 
requirements of the narrow and crooked adits and levels 
better than the ordinary wheelbarrow. The width of the 
car is 10 in. There are no openings or doors, it must be 
lifted perpendicularly by the handles to be dumped. The 
central wheels are attached to the car by means of an iron 
strap. Both sets of wheels are underneath, the outside 
measurement being 6 in., so that they can easily be nav- 
igated over 8-iu. plank by very small boys. 

From what I saw of the Government officials at Nagy- 
banya and Budapest, I feel confident that no foreigner 
need lose money without having a fighting chance, pro- 
vided he consult the right men. I had occasion to com- 
pare some maps of mining leases with those of the Gov- 
ernment records. The leases are in circles equal to 2,500 
ft. diam., and these leases may be covered by a dozen 
other leases provided the centre of the prior lease is un- 
molested. The way the circles overlap each other resem- 
bles the overlapping of rectangular claims in a new 
mining camp in the West. In a private letter I wrote 
that "mining leases in Hungary are a delusion and 
a snare." The seller is usually careful to mark only his 
own circle on the map. A mining lease gives one the 
right to search for mineral in that particular lease. When 
mineral is found, the prospector takes a sample to the 
mining captain, the mining captain goes over the ground, 
compares the samples with the discovery, and if he 
thinks there is a ' mineral find' a notice is posted at the 
' discovery point' to the effect that the prospector has 
applied for a ' mine' and that owners of adjoining circles 
must object or vacate all their rights in a rectangular 
block, 224 metres wide by 874 metres long, within a 
period of two months. This claim, when granted, is 
known as a ' mine,' and is unassailable while the yearly 
stipulated work is performed and the eight kronen are 
paid annually. 

Geza Szellemy, the chief of the Government office of 
record, showed me a map where six circles covered the 
same territory. He also told me that in one case the Gov- 
ernment received the eight crowns for the same area 
from nearly 20 different owners. I have since been in- 
formed that the owner or owners of a mine, by following 
their payable mineral under a lease, may apply for a 
mine to the exclusion of the owner or owners of the 

There are no private assay-offices, as Government 
laboratories are found in all the towns. The cost of as- 
saying for silver is 70 hellers, about 15 cents, whereas if 
you want to know the gold in the silver, it costs eight 
additional crowns, or about $1.50. It did seem sin- 
gular that a large sample could be pulverized, mixed 
with the necessary fluxes, scorified and cupelled for 15 
cents, yet to part the gold and silver costs $1.50. The Gov- 
ernment makes no reduction in price for a large number 
of samples, and the money must be paid beforehand; there 
are no exceptions to this rule. 

Some of the younger members of the Department 


Entrance to the Veresvizi Adit, in Hungary. 

Interior of a Hungarian Mill, Showing Old -Fashioned Buddie. 

Mining and Scientific Press. January n, imb. 

would like to modernize the methods and make them more 
efficient; hut in old countries there is a power with 
which you are unacquainted in the States, namely, Tra- 
dition, who will not die, neither can any David "hit 
him hard" in a vulnerable part. 

Charcoal is used exclusively for fuel. Most of the labor 
in the assay department is skilled but not trained or 
technical. The Hungarians are quick to learn, and mix 
and handle the fluxes, scorifiers, and cupels well. The head 
of the Department does the weighing on the fine bal- 
ances, and no more, save on special occasions. The 
Government will only purchase the ores or concentrates 
on scorifler assays, although they are low-grade, and the 
method is much more expensive than crucible assays, as 
large quantities of test lead are used in the former, which 
the Government must buy, whereas the Government 
makes its own litharge suitable for the latter method. 

I took my samples to two different assay offices to check 
them, and the results agreed well. The assayers concede 
the fact that they are always low, and it is for a purpose, 
as the Government is a buyer. I took two of my check 
samples to Benedict Kitto, in London, and his results 
were Ifo higher on 19 dwt. gold and 2 oz. silver. 

At Pernezely there is a Government smelter which has 
been undergoing reformation for several months, so that 
several new reverberatory furnaces will be at work 
shortly. It was interesting in one of the old lead fur- 
naces to see the Siberian hearth at work. The blast-fur- 
nace house, which is now idle, looks, with its 12 mas- 
sive circular pillars on a side, like a nave of a cathedral. 
This house was built in 1853. Heap-roasting of matte is 
still carried on. Heretofore this furnace has had a capac- 
ity of 8,000 tons of concentrate per year. 

A private company under the management of Henrick 
Auer, a well known chemist, is building a sulphuric acid 
works, the Government allowing the use of the sulphur 
from the smelter and giving a sum of money. Budapest 
and other towns will be available as markets. From 
Felsobanya station carloads of sulphur concentrate, also 
iron pyrite in lumps, are sent to Budapest to the sul- 
phuric acid plants. 

A prospectus, published in 1902, states that the wages 
of the miners is 1 crown per day; the wages today (apart 
from the Government mines) is about 50 cents per day, 
mechanics getting $1. The boys in the mines were earn- 
ing from 10 to 15 cents and the boys and girls in the 
mills from three to five cents per day. The miners in 
the Government mines earn from 30 to 40 cents. These 
mines give steady employment, and a pension provided 
there has been good conduct. The only time there has 
been any labor trouble was during the spring of this 
year, when the miners in the Government mines asked 
for more wages, and I was informed the question was 
settled by a compromise after three weeks. 

Beach wood for fuel costs 75 cents per cubic metre. 
No. 1 dynamite costs $7.50 per case of 50 lb., and detona- 
tors, $3.75 per 1,000. 

The question arises: How does the management of 
the Government mines compare with that of the private 
properties ? As a rule it is superior, but still one must 
confess that the standard of management of the former 
is not to be compared with the management of mines in 
the United States, Canada, or England. The private 
mines can call to their assistance the services of the 
Government engineers, through the Minister of Mines, 
without paying the consultation fees. 

I think that Hungary holds out fair opportunities for 
successful mining in its gold and silver deposits, not to 
mention those containing zinc, copper, and antimony, 
besides the placers. The aid of the Government officials 
should be sought, and although they move slowly, they 

live. I have no doubt that a manager combining the 
enthusiasm of a "two year old" with the experience 
of a Methuselah, could galvanize the life of the depart- 
ment, and if so, success would be attained. The climate 
is good; the summer is hot; the winter is cold with plenty 
of sleighing. Labor is good, but saint-days are plentiful. 
I was told that in the Hungarian calendar there are 27 
holidays, while in the Roumanian there are 37 days, all 
of which are religiously kept by the miners. 

The ignorance of the language is not only a serious 
handicap but it is a tedious and vexatious worry, for it 
necessitates sitting or standing for an hour in order to 
ascertain through interpreters one simple question. A 
mining man, to do business here, should be able to talk 
Hungarian and Roumanian. All of the Government 
officials can converse in German. 

An electrical hoisting equipment of considerable 
interest was recently built by the General Electric Co. for 
the Kendall Gold Mining Co., of Kendall, Mont. This 
equipment is designed to raise 2,000 lb. of ore from a 
depth of 1,000 ft. every 103 seconds when operating two 
drums, and every 170 seconds when only one drum is in 
operation. The shaft has two compartments and is ver- 
tical. Two cylindrical drums are used, provided with 
the usual clutches for individual and combined operation. 
The rope is 1 in. diam. and weighs 1.6 lb. per ft., the hoist- 
ing speed being 1,000 ft. per miu. The feature of special 
interest about the equipment is one which was provided 
to overcome the effect on the somewhat limited generat- 
ing plant from large rushes of current at starting, which 
tended to produce undesirable voltage fluctuations in the 
system. A fly-wheel, motor-generator set is provided, 
which consists of an induction motor and a direct-current 
generator with a heavy solid-cast fly-wheel swung be- 
tween them, and a direct current exciter overhung at one 
end of the set. The system of control is arranged to 
brake the lode electrically in a manner which gives com- 
plete control over the retardation of the moving parts of 
the hoist, at the same time returning a considerable por- 
tion of their kinetic energy to the fly-wheel. The hoist 
equipment consists of a shunt-wound direct-current motor 
driving the drums by gearing, and receiving its power 
from the motor-generator set previously described. The 
small overhung exciter on the motor-generator shaft 
excites the fields of the direct-current generator and of 
the hoisting motor. The fly-wheel weighs about 12,000 
lb. and operates at a peripheral speed of about 18,000 ft. 
per min. In order to obtain the value of the fly-wheel 
in alternately storing and surrendering energy, the induc- 
tion motor is arranged for variable-speed operation, 
changes in speed being automatically controlled by the 
variation of the main-line current, which is led through 
a small three-phase regulating motor operating a water 
rheostat in series with the secondary winding of the motor. 

Man is the crowning work of God on earth, but though 
so nobly endowed, we must not forget that we are the 
lofty children of a race whose lowest forms lie prostrate 
within the water, having no higher aspirations than the 
desire for food; and we cannot understand the possible 
degredation and moral wretchedness of Man, without 
knowing that his physical nature is rooted in all the 
material characteristics that belong to his type and link 
him even with the fish. The moral and intellectual gifts 
that distinguish him from them are his to use or to 
abuse; he may, if he will, abjure his better nature and 
be Vertebrate more than Man. He may sink as low as 
the lowest of his type, or he may rise to a spiritual height 
that will make that which distinguishes him from the 
rest far more the controlling element of his being than 
that which unites him with them. — Agassiz. 

January 11, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


The Copper River District, Alaska. 

Written for the Mining and Scientific Press 
By W. M. Brewer. 


At the present time the most direct route by which to 
reach this portion of the interior of Alaska is by way of 
Valdez, at the head of Prince William sound; thence 80 
miles northerly along the Valdez and Fairbanks trail to 
Tonsina telegraph station where the Tonsina river (a 
tributary of the Copper) is crossed; and a short distance 
north from the bridge the traveler leaves the Govern- 
ment trail and branches off toward the east, following 
down the Tonsina river to near its mouth, a distance by 
trail about 25 miles; at this point the Copper river is 
crossed by means of a boat-ferry and swimming the 
horses, thence the trail continues in a general easterly 
course and crosses the following streams: Horse creek, 
Strelna, Koteina, Kushkilina, and Lakina 
rivers. All of these, with the exception of 
Horse creek, empty into the Chitina river, 
which is itself a tributary of the main 
Copper river. The total distance from the 
Copper river to the crossing of the lakina 
river is approximately 65 miles by the 
present trail, but this could be very much 

As a matter of fact, while this mining 
district has been always designated as the 
Copper River district it would Ik- much 
more appropriate to refer to it as the Chitina 
River district. Chitina really means ' cop- 
per river' in the Indian language; 'chit' 
standing for copper, and ' ina ' for water or 
river. The Indians for generations have 
been finding specimens of native copper in 
and near the Chitina and its tributaries, 
while the stream known today as the Cop- 
per river lies to the westward of any 
known discoveries of copper ore. 

The discovery of copper in the mountains 
surrounding the headwaters of the Koteina, Kushkilina, 
Lakina, and Chitina rivers was first made in 1*99 by a 
l»rty of prospectors known as the Hubbard-Elliott crowd. 
The discoveries made by members of this party arc situ- 
ated on a stream known as Elliott creek, a tributary of 
the Koteina river, where a large number of claims were 
staked which today comprise a portion of the holdings of 
the Hubbard-Elliott Mining Co. This proj>erty is near 
the western boundary of the mineralized Ix'lt of this part 
of Alaska, and exploration has been carried on by 
prospectors to the east and northeast of these claims, 
although some property has been located adjacent to the 
Koteina river itself. 

During the past summer I made a hurried trip through 
a portion of this mining district, confining my examina- 
tions to the mountains adjacent to the headwaters of the 
Lakina. As far as the remainder of the district is con- 
cerned I visited none of the cainjw, but was enabled to 
form some opinion as to the problems confronting the 
operators of most of the properties lying l>etween the 
Koteina river and the Lakina, because the route followed 
by the trail has been laid out with a view to bringing 
the main trail in as close touch as possible with the 
various camps. 

There is no question but that the most important prob- 
lem to be solved in this part of Alaska is the question of 
transportation, and I deem that a brief discussion of the 
projected linesof railroad, and the difficulties attending con- 
struction, will not l>e out of place. For several years past 

the newspapers have made reference from time to time 
to railway building in this portion of Alaska, but it is 
impossible to judge of these matters except by making a 
personal investigation. 

It was not long after the town of Valdez had been 
located at the head of Prince William sound (and Fort 
Liscum had been built about three miles distant from the 
town and on the opposite side of the bay) that John 
Rosene, then president of the Northwestern Steamship 
Co., conceived the idea of building a railroad from the 
vicinity of the town of Valdez into the interior by way of 
the Lowe river, Keystone canyon, and over the summit 
of the Coast range by one of the passes. He organized 
the Copper River & North Western Railroad Co. and 
made a futile attempt to move the town of Valdez to a 
site selected by himself about three miles down the bay, 
thereby expecting to seek relief from the ever present 
danger to life and property which has always menaced 
the town because of ite situation in such close proximity 

Map of Alaska. 

to the foot of the Valdez glacier. Although be built a 
wharf and did considerable work on this proposed town- 
site, he was entirely unable to j>ersuade any of the towns- 
people to move to his new site, and as a matter of fact no 
vessels ever landed there. 

At about the same time Colonel Swanick, who had 
during the previous year been engaged in constructing 
a portion of the Alaska Central railroad from Seward at 
the head of Resurrection bay, came to Valdez and pro- 
posed to build from the old town into the interior by a 
route paralleling that selected by John Rosene for the 
Copper River A North Western Railroad. 

This brings the history of railroad construction up to 
the season of 1905, during which year both of these com- 
panies did more or less work of a preliminary character, 
such as locating lines through Keystone canyon, with 
some grading, enough to cause a great deal of newspaper 
discussion; and in the fall of that year Mr. Rosene was 
successful in securing recognition from J. Pierpont Mor- 
gan, who proposed to continue the construction of the 
Copper River & North Western Railroad, in consideration 
of a contract with the owners of the Bonanza mine, 
which is near the head of the Chitina river. It was 
understood generally that at that time the Ouggenheims 
had become heavily interested in the Bonanza property, 
and that the contract made by Mr. Morgan was between 
himself and the Ouggenheims by which the railroad 
should have the contract to haul all the ore from that 
property for a term of years. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 11, 1908. 

Previous to this, the town of Catalla, near the mouth 
of the Copper river, and some distance easterly from Cape 
Hinchinbrook, had been selected by Pittsburg capital- 
ists, whose assistance had been secured by Dr. Bruner, as 
a desirable ocean terminus for a railroad into the interior 
of Alaska. This project, however, received but little con- 
sideration from men who knew the Coast, because Catalla 
is situated at a point where there are no harbor facilities 
and where the ocean swell breaks directly on the shore, 
and during several months in the year vessels can only 
discharge freight and passengers with great hazard and 
very considerable delay. 

Early in 1906, M. J. Heney and associates actually 
commenced the work of railroad building, having 
selected the old Eyak cannery site on Cordova bay for 
their ocean terminus. At this point the harbor facilities 
are exceptionally good and afford safe shelter for vessels 
of any draught at all times of the year. Mr. Heney pur- 
sued a policy entirely at variance from that pursued by 
his competitors. He commenced railroad construction 
in earnest, instead of in the newspapers, which had been 
the rule previously followed by all his competitors, and 
by November, 1906, he had graded several miles of road- 
bed and had laid rails from the wharf at Eyak for a 
distance of some four or five miles. 

Early in the summer of r906, J. Pierpont Morgan's 
representative, M. K. Rodgers, arrived at Valdez to 
report on the situation instead of bringing in a big gang 
of laborers prepared to commence construction work on 
the John Rosene right-of-way. This gentleman, on 
investigation, not being satisfied with the condition of 
the surveys, sent parties of engineers into the field to run 
preliminary lines. He ascertained that a portion of the 
road would be on a 3Jf c grade if constructed from 
Valdez. Thereupon he set out to find a route with an 
easier grade, and in company with Captain Jarvis made 
a boat trip down the Copper river. They found that it 
was quite feasible to build a road on a water grade up 
the river and selected Catalla as their ocean terminus, 
securing at the same time enough land for terminal 

The situation at this time was as follows: The Valdez 
route selected by John Rosene was turned down by Mr. 
Rodgers, representing J. Pierpont Morgan. On the Valdez 
route as selected by Colonel Swanick, some construction 
work was being performed, and about three miles of grad- 
ing had been finished, besides a wharf and approach on 
which rails had been laid, the first spike having been 
driven by Judge Gunnison while he was in Valdez 
holding a term of the United States District Court. M. J. 
Heney was pushing construction on his line from Eyak 
or Cordova, as the place had been re-named. The Dr. 
Rruner outfit was doing some little work at Catalla on 
its terminal ground. M. K. Rodgers had made a 
report to his principals advising construction from Catalla 
because, while it was quite true that considerable expense 
would be involved in constructing such substantial break- 
waters as would insure good harbor facilities, yet the 
road when constructed would be on the east side of Cop- 
per river, thus avoiding some very expensive bridge 
work which would be necessary in the case of the Heney 
route, as the railroad on that line would approach the 
Copper river from the west side. 

The engineers who located the line for Mr. Heney 
report an average grade of i f c from Cordova to the dis- 
trict in which the copper mines east of the Copper river 
are situated, and that while the bridge work necessary 
to cross the Copper river would be expensive, yet it is 
quite within their power to erect such a bridge as will 
be perfectly safe and secure. 
During the winter of 1906 and 1907, J. Pierpont Mor- 

gan and his associates bought out the Heney project in 
its entirety, thus removing the most dangerous of all the 
competitors from the field. Mr. Rodgers, who was man- 
aging for Mr. Morgan on the Pacific Coast, did not con- 
tradict any newspaper reports to the effect that not only 
would the Heney route from Cordova be abandoned but 
that the rails already laid would be taken up and all the 
movable equipment taken to Catalla. On the opening 
of the season of 1907 active work was commenced by Mr. 
Rodgers and the Dr. Bruner party at Catalla, while all 
the other projected routes were, so far as could be judged 
from the conditions, abandoned. One advantage in 
building from Catalla, provided there were good harbor 
facilities, was that the distance from that point to the 
coalfields is only about 20 miles, while from Cordova to 
the coalfields over the route selected by Mr. Heney is 
about 70 miles. 

Soon after the two opposing forces had commenced 
work at Catalla, in the late spring of 1907, friction 
occurred because of the attempt of the Morgan workmen 
to cross the right-of-way of the Bruner railroad. In this 
the Morgan party was successful after a skirmish in 
which the opposing forces used clubs, axes, and pick- 
handles for weapons. TJiis followed an ineffectual 
attempt on the part of Dr. Bruner's men to obtain an 
injunction from the court at Juneau restraining the 
Morgan outfit from securing the crossing. 

During the summer and autumn of this year the loss 
from wrecked lighters and because of the delay occasioned 
through holding vessels in the roadstead to await favor- 
able opportunities to discharge their cargoes has been 
enormous, so great indeed that recently Mr. Morgan and 
his associates made a contract with Mr. Heney to return 
to Cordova and construct the railroad according to his 
original location. It is reported, however, that this 
company intends to continue building the line from 
Catalla to the coalfields and from there to the point where 
it will form a junction with the Heney road building up 
Copper river. In the meantime it is reported that the 
Dr. Bruner party is also continuing building operations 
toward the coalfields. 

During the month of August Mr. Reynolds, the presi- 
dent of the Alaska Development Co., created quite a 
boom in Valdez by proposing to take over the Colonel 
Swanick project and build that road to the summit 
beyond Keystone canyon, making the promise that he 
would have it in operation in time to haul freight out 
from Valdez during the coming winter. When his sur- 
veyors started to run lines through Keystone canyon the 
Copper River & North Western Railroad Co., or Mr. 
Morgan's party, immediately discovered that the old 
John Rosene route from Valdez had not been abandoned 
and an attempt was made to stop Reynold's surveyors 
from continuing their work. This attempt was so forci- 
ble that several men were wounded by shots fired at 
Reynolds' men, who are reported to have been unarmed. 
Later, the Reynolds project fell through because of his 
inability to finance it, and several hundred laborers were 
landed in Valdez unable to secure their pay, thereby 
causing considerable consternation among the people of 
that town, who for a time apprehended that rioting 
might result. 

Judging from the past actions of the Morgan party, an 
outsider can only conclude that they have determined to 
control southwestern Alaska. 

Alluvial deposits in Japan are represented by allu- 
vial gold in the district of Esashi, in Hokkaido, and iron 
sand in Chugoku. The former is derived from auriferous 
quartz veins in the Paleozoic rocks and deposited in the 

January 11, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


Leasing Ihe Federal Coal Lands. 

Written for the Mining and Scientific Press 
By H. Foster Bain. 

Whether the remaining coal lands belonging to the 
United States shall be sold or held for development 
under a leasing system is a question likely to come 
sharply to the front at Washington this winter. The 
President has recommended a leasing system. He has 
in view seemingly the better safeguarding of our future 
by conserving our mineral resources and feels that the 
public as a whole is more trustworthy than are indi- 
vidual owners. It may not be unprofitable to consider 
briefly what may be urged for and against the proposed 
leasing system. 

In the first place it is to be remembered that the 
American system of allowing mineral lands to pass into 
the hands of individuals without recourse is unusual. 
In many countries the leasing system now obtains and lb 
the United States it was in operation in the Upper 
Mississippi valley lead district for many years. In cer- 
tain cases, in lieu of lease rentals, special taxes are 
assessed against mines and mining. In the United States 
such special taxes are not common and in general min- 
ing property is considered as only taxable on the basis of 
any other property; though the method of assessing and 
collecting the tax may be special, as it is in the case of 
railways and indeed, other kinds of property. 

The change from the early system of leases to the 
present one of individual ownership was brought about 
mainly by the desire to promote the rapid development 
of the country and to afford the largest possible scope for 
development of individual initiative. The Government 
has never been run as a money-making business and the 
ownership of land, mineral or otherwise, has never been 
looked upon from that point of view. Land of all kinds 
has been sold or given away with practically no thought 
of its present or future value, but with the expectation 
that this would not only give our citizens the best chance 
for their own development but would also develop tax- 
able wealth far greater than the value of the land itself. 
There can be no question that in the past this policy has 
justified itself and our gain in material wealth and in the 
quality of our citizenship, measured only as wealth- 
producers, has been worth many times any reasonable 
value that might have been placed on the land. There 
may nevertheless be reasons why a policy good in the 
past should now give place to one better for the future. 

Considering the matter first as a business proposition, 
there can be no question that if we as individuals owned 
the coal lands and did not need the money represented 
by that ownership, we would not sell them at the present 
price or at any reasonable multiple of it. The revenue 
derived from the sale of mineral lands is so small as to be 
negligible and the Government, because of its greater 
credit, could if need be, borrow money to carry the lands 
at a lower rate of interest than could any individuals or 
corporation. As a business proposition then we need not 
hesitate to do collectively what we would do individu- 
ally. The land will never sell for less money than now. 
Furthermore when the coal is mined in the years to 
come, the interest charge against the investment will be 
smaller if the Government carries the land than if it be 
disposed of to private parties. Under these conditions, 
the possible selling price will be lower. It goes without 
saying that a low selling price for fuel is a matter not 
only of individual interest but of prime importance to 
our very civilization. 

In the second place, the separation of mineral title 
from surface title and the disposal of the latter would 
open the way to the settlement of certain lands available 

for dry farming which though underlain by coal are not 
of such immediate value to the farmer as to warrant his 
paying a coal price for his land. It is certainly reason- 
able that each piece of land should be made available as 
rapidly as possible and if the presence of coal is going to 
keep land out of cultivation which might be farmed, a 
change is desirable. 

It will probably be conceded by everyone familiar 
with the conditions that the present mineral land laws, 
and particularly the coal land laws, need thorough re- 
vision whether we go to the lease basis or follow the 
present plan of selling the land. It has been abundantly 
shown that the present laws do not permit of the honest 
acquirement of tracts of coal land in sufficient area to 
meet modern conditions of development. Indeed they 
were not designed to do so. They were planned on the 
basis of individual development of small mines and were 
a part of the general policy of helping the individual to 
land-ownership. The very fact that they do not now do this 
is in itself a strong argument against the continuance of 
the system. If the sale of coal lands does not meet this 
prime condition of helping the establishment of indi- 
vidual citizens on an independent basis, it fails in its 
most important mission. One needs only to read the 
testimony in the various land fraud cases recently tried, 
to realize that the laws as now existing are of benefit 
principally to unscrupulous s|»eculators and open the way, 
to debauching citizens at the same time that they un- 
fairly penalize corporations and individuals honestly 
trying to develop the coal-mining industry. 

Modern conditions demand that large tracts of coal 
land should be given for development and mining into 
the hands of single companies. Are we prepared to give 
this land irrevocably to them by sale, or is it better to 
lease for a term of years under such terms and conditions 
as may be fair to all interests ? A few years ago it was 
the custom to give perpetual franchises for street 
railways, public water systems, and other public 
utilities. It is now generally recognized that this is both 
unwise and unnecessary. Capital is found for all these 
enterprises upon the basis of franchises extending from 
20 to 60 years, and as the various franchises expire new 
ones are drawn upon terms that better meet the condi- 
tions. No one can foretell for 50 years what will be 
wisest as regards conditions of coal mining. Why 
then bind ourselves for eternity? Is not coal a prime 
necessity, just as water and local transportation are? 
There is no injustice in this plan since a mining plant 
works itself out within the limits of such a term of years, 
and a new plant is necessary in any event. All coal 
mining is done on the basis of amortization of plant and 
land Investment, and if a royalty be paid in place of 
interest and sinking fund charges, the financial transac- 
tion is the same. This royalty need not be burdensome. 
The President has stated that from his point of view the 
matter of revenue is not important. The royalty may 
be made as low as is necessary to get the best results. 
This is probably the right attitude, though it may be 
pointed out that leasing is nothing new in the coal indus- 
try, and everywhere there are mines working on royal- 
ties side by side with others which have all interest 
charge on land investment much lower than the royalty. 
While coal is now mined and sold on a relatively narrow 
margin, any ordinary royalty is a very small element in 
the cost of the coal, and a royalty which would make 
the administration of the coal lands entirely self-sustain- 
ing would be no burden to mines working on govern- 
ment land. 

What then would lie the advantage of the leasing sys- 
tem? The principal advantage would be that it would 
leave the way openat the termination of any existing lease 


Mining and Scientific Press. January n, m&. 

for a readjustment of conditions. When the land is sold the 
Government has no further control of it and must rely 
upon indirect uses of its power of taxation for any regu- 
lation which changed conditions may make necessary. 
Taxation should be on its own basis and not distorted to 
serve other uses. Aside from the power of taxation, 
Federal and State, there remains the police power of the 
State. This extends only to matters of safety and affords 
no means of controlling the conditions of mining as 
relates to waste. The latter may be written into the terms 
of a lease with the single reservation that the terms may 
not be made so onerous as to leave no profit. In that 
event no one will be found to take up the lease. 

It goes without saying that leases will need to be care- 
fully drawn, but being in the nature of bargains the com- 
bined experience of the coal operator and the government 
expert would be brought to bear on them. In the leases, 
so long as leased mines were in competition with mines 
on private lands, many concessions would need to be 
made to the operator. All this could, however, be done 
without in any way altering the fact that a re-adjustment 
would always be possible at the termination of one lease 
and the granting of another and that this is not possible 
when the land is once sold. 

The practical difficulties in introducing a leasing system 
in the coal business are probably less than in the case of 
any mining industry, save possibly oil. Coal-mine 
operators are already thoroughly familiar with the leas- 
ing system. It is true that the movement has recently 
been away from leasing and toward ownership but there 
are special reasons for this. 

It goes without saying that if the coal lands in the 
various Western States are to remain Government prop- 
erty and hence for all time exempt from State and local 
taxation, some compensation, such as a division of roy- 
alty, should be introduced. It also seems clear that if 
this system is introduced it will care for high adminis- 
trative talent and officers thoroughly familiar with coal 
mining. This is an added reason for the establishment 
of a Mining Service or Bureau of Mines as has been 
recommended by the President and is now under consid- 
eration at Washington. 

Summarizing the reasons for the introduction of a Fed- 
eral coal-land leasing system, they are: 

(1) The failure of the present coal-land laws, designed 
to meet the conditions of small ownership, to measure up 
to modern needs and the resulting necessity of a thorough 

(2) The necessity, if the sale plan be continued, of 
selling large tracts of valuable coal-lands to individual 
corporations. It is at least doubtful whether public 
opinion will now permit of this. 

(3) The higher ultimate cost of the coal if the reserves 
are to be carried at private rather than at public charge. 

(4) The possibility under a leasing system of revision 
of terms from time to time to meet new industrial con- 

(5) The possibility from time to time of providing for 
less wasteful development and better conditions as 
regards safety of men and property. 

(6) The reserving to future generations of some con- 
trol over one of the prime necessities of our civilization. 

During the last 50 years of mining in Great Britain 
the yearly number of fatal accidents has not varied very 
much, keeping around an average of 1100 accidents per 
year. In this time the number of miners employed has 
increased steadily from 200,000 in 1851 to over a million 
in 190(5 so that the percentage of fatal accidents has 
greatly diminished. 

The Prospector. 

Enquiries sent to this department are answered free of charge, If 
submitted by subscribers who are not In arrears. The full name and 
post-office address of the sender must be given, otherwise no answer 
will be made. Those whoare not subscribers must accompany their 
questions with a fee of 83 for each question. No assays are made. 

I. C. L.., of Nevada City, sends Basalt. 

J. F. P., of Fairview, Nev., sends a specimen of Rhy- 

M. L. M., of San Juan, Porto Rico, sends altered 

Quartz containing Graphite was received from W. H. 
W., of Amalie. 

J. C. S., of Jerome, Ariz., sends a specimen of Chlor- 
ite-Mica Schist. 

Specimens from Nogales, Sonora, are: No. 1, Trachyte; 
No. 2, Rhyolite. 

The samples from Rawhide appear to be altered 
volcanic Breccia. 

The rock from Clinton, S. C, marked X. Y. Z., con- 
tains Arsenopyrite. 

Gypsum and Carbonaceous clay weresentlby B. G. R., 
of Taos, New Mexico. 

The specimen sent by J. P., of Eureka, Nev., is 
plumose Pyrolusite in quartz. 

The specimens from Soulsbyville marked J. L., are: 
No. 1, Schist; No. 2, volcanic Tuff. 

A specimen of mineralized Uiorite was received from 
T. McD., of French Gulch, California. 

The rocks from R. N. B., of Boise, Idaho, are: No. 1, 
Basalt; No. 2, Andesite; No. 3 and 4, Trachyte or Andes- 

J. C. H., of New York, sends specimen containing a 
quartzitic vein carrying Pyrite and stained red by the 
oxide of iron. 

The specimens from Vontrigger, Cal., marked M. J. 
S., are: No. 1 and 3, decomposed granitic rock; No. 2, 
brown Calcite. 

The brilliant yellowish-red mineral from Tucson, 
Ariz., is Vanadinite, the vanadate of lead. Associated 
with it is Descloizite, another lead vanadate. 

The specimens from Nelson, Nev., marked F. E. A., 
are: No. 1, Biotite-Andesite; No. 2, Andesite; No. 3, 
Granite; No. 4, Quartzite; No. 5, Quartzite; No. 6, 

W. L. B., of Greenville, Cal., sends: No. 1, Rhyolite; 
No. 2, Quartz-Porphyry; No. 3, Porphyrite; No. 4, 
Diabase; No. 5, Porphyrite; No. 6, Bornite and Chalco- 
pyrite; No. 7, Chromite; No. 8 and 9, Serpentine. 

M. J. S., of Palomas, Ariz., sends : No. 1, Cuprite, 
Malachite, and Quartz; No. 2, black Limestone and 
Quartz; No. 3, Hornblende; No. 4, specular Hematite; 
No. 5, specular and red Hematite; No. 6, specular Hem- 
atite in rock. 

The specimens from Wonder, Nev., marked H. G. G., 
are: No. 20, Rhyolite; No. 21, Nevadite; No. 22, Dia- 
base; No. 23, Breccia; No. 24, altered Rhyolite; No. 25, 
Rhyolite-Breccia; No. 2(5, altered Rhyolite; No. 27, 
altered Rhyolite; No. 28, Diabase. 

January 11, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 



Specially Reported for the Mining and Scientific Press. 

REVOLVING FILTER.— No. 872,616; Oscar H. Fair- 
child, Denver, Colo., assignor of two-thirds to William Ar- 
cher Diboll, Denver, Colorado. 

A revoluble filter, comprising a semi-circular solution 
tank; a wheel mounted in said tank so as to be partially 
submerged, and having passages which connect on one side 
with a vacuum tank and on the other side with a source of 
fluid under pressure; filter boxes on said wheel communi- 
cating with said passages, and automatically operated 
valves for controlling said passages. 

Louis C. Oraupner, Ban Francisco, California. 

No. 872,620. 

No. 873,586. 

In a sizing and separating apparatus, the combination of 
a settling receptacle, said receptacle having a wall adapted 
to connect with the interior of a grinder, an overflow valve 
connected with the upper part of the receptacle through 
which pulp held in suspension in the upi>er part of said 
receptacle may be classified and delivered, said wall com- 
prising adjustable gates arranged in overlapping order and 
having channels connecting with the interior of the recepta- 
cle, and an oversize valve in the lower part of the recepta- 
cle, said receptacle having a return port for returning the 
coarser material to the grinder. 

STITUENTS THEREOF— No. 873,686; Dudley H. Norris, 
New York, New York. 

An apparatus of the character described, comprising a 
receptacle having its upper end open to the atmosphere and 
adapted to receive a flowing mixture of pulverized ore and 
water, means for introducing a stream of water containing 
air in solution into the mixture in said receptacle to cause 
lnflnltesimally small nascent bubbles of air to form in said 
mixture and rise to the surface thereof to collect the metallic 

particles of the ore together, a member arranged at the upper 
end of said receptacle to receive the metallic particles of the 
ore, and a discharge pipe at the lower end of the receptacle 
out of which the water and the rocky particles of the ore 
pass; substantially as described. 

MULTIPLE ROCK-CRUSHER. No. 873,080; Edwin 
S. Philips, Kennett Square, Pa., assignor to The American 
Road Machine Company, Kennett Square, Pa., a Corpora- 
tion of Pennsylvania. 

In a rock crusher, the combination with the side plates, 
of a shaft between the side plates and a plurality of moving 
jaws swinging thereon, a second shaft between the side 
plates back of and below the first shaft, and a plurality of 
tumbler-levers, corresponding in number to the moving 
jaws, swinging thereon and actuating the moving jaws 
respectively, a main cam shaft between the side plates 
back of and below the second shaft, cams fixed thereon 
corresponding in number to the moving jaws and actuating 
the tumbler-levers respectively, a cross-brace between the 
side plates back of the main shaft, and brackets on the 
cross-brace having bearings for the main shaft extending 
between adjacent cams, substantially as described. 

METALS.— No. .V73,508; Sherard O. Cowper-Coles, Lon- 
don, England. 

No. 873,508. 

No. 873,687. 

In the electrodeposition of metals from solutions which 
have to be maintained in an oxidized state, the process of 
freeing the solution from impurities in suspension, which 
consists in passing the same through an atomizer and bring- 
ing it into intimate contact with air so as to convert and 
maintain it in an oxidized state, substantially as described. 

ROAHTING-Fl'UNACE SHAFT.— No. h73,M7; Grant 
B. Shipley, Milwaukee, Wis., assignor to Allis-Chalmers 
Company, Milwaukee, Wis., a Corporation of New Jersey. 

A stirring shaft provided with a plurality of hollow arms, 
said shaft being also provided with passageways communi- 
cating with the Interiors of said hollow arms for supplying 
a cooling medium thereto and with passageways communi- 
cating with the interiors of said arms for the discharge of 
the cooling medium therefrom, a separate discharge pas- 
sageway being provided for each arm, said passageways of 
said shaft being adapted to convey the cooling medium in 
contact with said shaft to cool the same. 


Mining and Scien tific Press. January n, mw. 

The Outlook for Copper. 

Written for the Mining and Scientific Pbess 
By Misha E. Appblbaum.' 

The year 1907 proved as sensational in the copper industry 
as it did in the general world of finance. Against the most 
flourishing conditions existing at the beginning of the year 
a demoralized state of affairs prevailed in October and 
November, and it was not until a week or so before the 
present writing that the copper market showed a resump- 
tion of activity and hopes were felt for a substantial, though 
gradual, improvement. 

At the end of 1906 it was the general opinion that the 
stocks of copper were very small and that a good business 
would result during at least the first half of 1907. Copper 
continued to advance from the closing price of 24 cents until 
a level of about 26 for lake and electrolytic brands had been 
established. The subsequent history of the market for 1907 
is a simple one. During the first half of the year a good 
business was done in copper; then the American consumers 
withdrew from the market, and a general business depres- 
sion having already made itself felt, they were not tempted 
by even the heavy reductions in official prices and thus the 
market declined to 25}, to 22, then to 18, 15, and 13J, and fin- 
ally sold in October as low as 12 cents. Just at the height 
of the financial panic a little spurt occurred in copper and 
this carried the price up to 15 cents, but with the approach- 
ing holidays, during which most of the American consumers 
closed their mills for a week or 10 days for the purpose of 
taking inventory, and their refusal to make commitments 
before money became easier and a revival of confidence took 
place, copper again sagged down to 13 cents. Though the 
official quotation was 12| to 13 cents it was practically im- 
possible to obtain copper at that price, and some of the 
American consumers having large orders under 13 cents and 
being unable to obtain the metal became rather nervous and 
increased their limits, with the result that on December 21 
the only copper obtainable was for December and January 
delivery at 13| and 13| for February. Beyond that it was 
practically impossible to obtain copper at around these 

A good many criticisms have been directed against one of 
the leading selling companies for the manner in which 
prices were held and broken, but it should be remembered 
that no one foresaw the panic and therefore it is my opinion 
that the decline in copper has also been one that no one 
could foresee. There is also a good deal of talk as to the 
amount of copper stocks in Europe and on this side. I do 
not think that in view of what has happened in copper it is 
possible for anyone to estimate even within 25,000,000 to 
50,000,000 lb. of the actual stocks on hand. The only public 
figures deserving of credit are those quoted by the Boston 
News Bureau of December 13, in an interview with John 
Gillie, general superintendent of the Amalgamated proper- 
ties. He reports an accumulation in October of 300,000,000 
and sales of 161,000,000 lb., so that one naturally concludes 
that there are 139,000,000 lb. of copper still unsold; and one 
must also consider his remark that some of the sales have 
been made into February, so that perhaps the actual stock 
on hand is between 150,000,000 and 160,0(0,000 pounds. 

With so many mines already shut down and only a fair 
business doing in copper, it is my belief that the surplus 
will shortly be wiped out and that unless the mines are 
opened a sharp squeeze will result. And since at the pres- 
ent moment most of the large mines can produce copper 
with profit and pay good dividends on a 14 to 15 cent mar- 
ket, it is to be hoped that when the price gets to that level the 
mines will open and a conservative and steady level be es- 
tablished, enabling both the consumer and the producer to 
do business at mutually advantageous prices. At a 14 to 15 
cent level the production would continue at a satisfactory 
rate and the consumption would certainly not be restricted. 
Of course, a good deal depends on the financial and business 
condition of the country and if we have seen the worst and 
the expected improvement comes, we shall see a good busi- 
ness in copper. 

•President of the New York Metal Selling Co. 

Commercial Paragraphs. 

The Fiji-ton Iron Works wish to inform their friends 
and the trade in general that F. H. Johnson is not connected 
with their company. 

The Box Electric Drill Co., of 115 Broadway, New 
York, issues Bulletin No. 201, describing the special drill 
manufactured by them. 

The Westinghouse Machine Co., of Pittsburg, have 
manufactured storage batteries for a number of years, but 
they have just issued the initial catalogue on the subject, 
ontitiPfi ' Westinehouse Storage Battery for Portable Use.' 

entitled ' Westinghouse Storage Battery 1 

The Krogh Manufacturing Co. announces the com- 
pletion of a three-stage 300-ft. head Krogh centrifugal pump 
direct-connected to a general electric 220-volt A. C. motor 
for the Channel Mining Co., at San Andreas, Cal. This 
pump will replace one four-stage and one three-stage pump 
of other designs now being used to un water the mine. 

L. S. Pierce, of 1650 Champa St., Denver, recently shipped 
one 50-ton Pierce Amalgamator to the Atlas M. & M. Co. at 
Ouray, Colo.; one 12 by 24-in. machine to Johannesburg, 
South Africa, through the Export Shipping Co., of New 
York; and two 40-ton machines to Baily & Clark, at Port- 
land, Oregon. Catalogue No. 10, which describes the ma- 
chine fully, is ready for distribution and will be mailed 
upon request. 

The Mexican Mines-Prospects Development Co. 
has been organized in Mexico City for exploration, pros- 
pecting, development, and the operation of mining proper- 
ties In various districts of the Republic. The board of 
directors comprises W. Landa y Escandon, J. L. Requena 
of the Dos Estrellas mine; A. G. Mills, of the Otis Elevator 
Co., M. G. Harner, and P. A. Babb, the last named being 
the company's manager and consulting engineer. The com- 
pany already has several properties, which are to be de- 

The Allis-Chalmers Co. describe the Tremain steam- 
stamp in their bulletin No. 1408. This stamp has been 
designed especially to meet the demands of those who own 
mining properties in the first stages of development; ena- 
bling them to establish a thoroughly good crushing, amal- 
gamating, or concentrating plant of moderate capacity in 
the shortest possible time, with tfie least material, and for 
the least money. This machine has not only proven itself 
highly successful for this purpose, but has shown an econ- 
omy in all matters pertaining to its operation which is re- 
markable, and which compares very favorably with results 
obtained in works of larger capacity; the original plant can 
be readily and advantageously augmented from time to time 
as the development of the mine progresses, by the addition 
of more machinery, at a cost a little more than that of the 
machines themselves. The Tremain steam-stamp requires 
no engine, shafting, pulleys, belting, gears, cams, or tappets. 
Not being dependent on cams for raising or gravity in drop- 
ping, the speed and capacity per stamp-mill is, therefore, 
more than doubled. Owing to the compact construction, it 
can easily be carried on mule-back over mountainous roads. 

Catalogues Received. 

The Cling-Surface Co., of Buffalo, N. Y., has issued a 
catalogue entitled ' The Treatment of Belts and Ropes for 
Service and Profit.' In addition to describing the com- 
pany's manufacture, 'Cling-Surface,' the catalogue gives 
much useful information about the proper treatment for 
belts and ropes under the various vicissitudes to which they 
are subjected. 

The B. F. Sturtevant Co., of Hyde Park. Mass., have 
issued 'Bulletin No. 151, Steam Turbines.' This describes 
and illustrates the steam turbines manufactured by it: these 
are of the impulse type, in the sizes below 200 hp., single 
stage, in the larger sizes two to four stage. The bucket- 
wheel is a single forging of best open-hearth steel. One of 
these turbines is in use at Bridgeport, Conn., where it is 
giving satisfactory service. 

Whole Ho. 2478. TE,?™- 

' Science has no enemy save the ignorant." 

Smglc Copies, Ten Ceoti. 



Telephone Kearney 4777. Cable Address: Pertusola. 



Philip Aboall. J. It. Fim.av. 

Leonard 8. Austin. F. Lyn wood Garrison. 

Francis L. Bosqci. H. C. Hoovrr. 

K. Oilman Brown. Courtenay Dk Kami. 

Donald F. Campbell. James F. Kemp. 

J. Parke Channino. Charles 8. Palmer. 




United states and Mexico. 13 

Canada it 

All Other Countries In Postal Union. One Guinea or Id 


Business Manager. 

New York— 500 Fifth Avenue. Denver— 4X McPhee Building. 
Chicago— 834 Monadnock Block. Telephone: Harrison 838. 
London— Edward Walker, Salisbury House, B. ('. 


Entered at Ike San Francitco Pottofflce at Secontl-Ctaii Mailer. 


Editorial: Page. 

Notes 77 

Federal Mining Bureau 79 

By the Way 80 

Genera/ Mining News 82 

Special Correspondence 87 

London Salt Lake, Utah 
Chicago I .i-nclvllli-. Colorado 
Rossland, British Columbia Chihuahua, Mexico 
Concentrates 92 

Discussion : 

History of Cyanidatlon F. Percy Rolfe 93 

College Instructors John A. Rtid 93 

Cornish Pumps of New Design E. I'. Joneo 94 

A Difficult Bit of Geology John M. Jfenton 94 

A Suggestion Muaher 98 

Cobalt Frank V. Loring 96 

Articles : 

J . 

Copper Smelting in Tennessee ..../. Parlu Charming 97 

California Minerals Arthur S. J-ktkte 98 

Copper Production 100 

The Copper River District, Alaska— 1 1 

W. M. Brewer 101 

The Production of Copper L. ('. Graton 102 

Bureau of Mines 103 

Canadian Industrial Disputes Act... Frank A. Ron* 104 

A Mine Signal System 106 

Mining and Metallurgical Patents 106 

Decisions Relating to Mining 100 

The Prospector 99 

Departments : 

Personal 81 

Market Reports 81 

Commercial Paragraphs 106 

Catalogues Received 1C6 


T»HE TRANSVAAL mines ended the year with a 
* record output of 583,525 ounces of gold for the 
month of December, making the total yield for the year 
no less than 6,451,383 ounces, worth $133,350,086, which 
is a gain of $14,137, 149 as compared to 1906. 

•"CALIFORNIA is rich in ^minerals and has been the 
^^ place of origin of many new mineral species. No 
one is lietter fitted to write on the subject than Mr. Arthur 
S. Kakle, professor of mineralogy in the State University, 
and many of our readers will find it interesting to note 
the array of minerals that were first found within the 
boundaries of a region so rich in natural resources. 

IT APPEARS that a dispute as to the ownership of 
* ore near the boundary separating the La Rose and 
Right of Way mines at Cobalt was settled by a com- 
mission of engineers, consisting of Messrs. K. Askwith, 
R \V. Brock, A. A. Cole, J. B. Tyrrell, and A. Wilson. 
They examined and sampled the workings, and their 
decision has been accepted by the parties concerned. 
This is a precedent worthy of imitation. 

ACCORDING TO the statistics of the New York 
Stock Exchange, the combined sales of 12 active 
issues totaled 142,698,873 shares, or 73 ft of all the busi- 
ness transacted. In the case of 11 issues the number of 
shares traded exceeds the total stock, and in the case of 
Reading, American Smelting, and Union Pacific, the 
whole of the outstanding common shares of these compa- 
nies changed hands from 17 to 20 times during the past 
year. This is pretty good proof that gambling, not 
investment, dominates the activities of Wall Street. 

THE Evening Scream states that a professor of history 
in Stanford University has lieen examining gold 
mined at Bullfrog, Nevada. We hope he will not be the 
victim of either his own enthusiasm or that of others. 
Professors of history are as appropriate in a gold mine as 
a bull in a china-shop and as provocative of a smash if 
taken seriously. Or was it history in the making that 
the professor was studying on the banks of the Amar- 
gosa? He had l>etter avoid such incubators of events, 
until, like the brine of the desert, they have iieen 
distilled by Time. 

AMONG the small banks that were overwhelmed by 
the recent panic was the Swickhimer bank of Rico, 
in southwestern Colorado. This institution is controlled 
by David Swickhimer, the man who discovered the 
Enterprise mine in 1H87 and caused the development of 
Newman hill, at Rico. The same indomitable courage 
that caused him to stick to his prospecting, In the face of 
many difficulties, and finally to uncover the ore measures 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 18, 1908. 

that made Rico a rich mining district, was made mani- 
fest when the financial flurry compelled his bank to sus- 
pend payments for a time. It is pleasant to learn that 
the depositors have such confidence in Mr. Swickhimer 
that they have arranged to give him a year wherein to 
arrange matters, and the meeting at which this was 
decided was marked by an unusal manifestation of good- 
will toward the old miner and enthusiastic expressions of 
faith in his absolute integrity. Even a bank failure may 
enrich humanity. 

NEVADA'S latest discoveries of gold are at Raw- 
hide, a mining camp which is 28 miles east of 
Schurz, at the head of Walker lake. Like most of the 
desert goldfields, this new one is lacking in wood and 
water. Pinon pine sells for $1 per sack and water at $2 
per barrel. Coal is worth $45 per ton. This recalls the 
early days of Tonopah, and, as at Tonopah, the energy 
of the exploiters of mineral wealth will conquer the 
natural obstacles, transforming the desolation of the 
desert into a hive of industry. We wish good luck to 
Rawhide. At present, the new district is controlled by 
a few vigorous men and the stock market feature of min- 
ing is pleasantly absent. The leasing system is in vogue 
and good ore is being broken from quartz stringers in 

WE WELCOME the letter by Mr. John A. Reid on 
'College Instructors.' Professors are so accus- 
tomed to lecturing students that a little of their own med- 
icine may do them good. The best of them will welcome 
an expression of ideas in regard to teaching when offered 
by the earnest-minded members of their own classes and 
among the professors there are not a few possessing the 
supreme test of the sense of humor, namely, the capacity 
to see a joke against oneself. Mr. Reid's criticisms and 
suggestions are made in good faith — for that we vouch — 
and we are glad of his endorsement of the proposal made 
by the present writer in another place, to the effect that 
the chairs of metallurgy and mining in schools of mines 
ought to be so endowed as to permit of one professor lec- 
turing while the other is in the field, not practising but 
gathering information at first hand, so that the professor 
of mining becomes a dual personality and is thus enabled 
to perform what is now impossible, namely, lecture on 
theory while in close touch with the practical working of 
his subject. If Smith and Jones were both appointed to 
the professorship of metallurgy in the College of Minerva, 
Smith would devote himself to a term of lecturing while 
Jones would be at Bingham, Anaconda, or Tennessee 
studying copper smelting, or at El Oro and Kalgoorlie 
investigating cyanide practice, or at Wallace and Broken 
Hill studying the treatment of lead ores. At the end of 
a semester Jones would arrive at the College bubbling 
over with ideas and information for the use of his stu- 
dents, while Smith would be released from lecturing and 
it would be his turn to make a voyage metallurgique. The 
plan is feasible; it would cost about $15,000 per annum, 
that is, $5000 as salary for each professor and $5000 for 
traveling expenses. That is all. And it would be better 

than the erection of a marble palace to commemorate a 
late lamented or the donation of a library to celebrate the 
success of a champion rebater. 

JAMES J. HILL is quoted as saying that one bene- 
ficial result from the curtailment of industry is that 
"one can get a day's work out of the laboring man 
these days." Others will echo this statement. The cost 
of mining has risen seriously by reason of the excessive 
demands of the labor unions, operators being unwilling 
to have a strike and interrupt work when the metal 
markets were at the top notch. Mr. James Douglas is 
credited with the statement that the cost of producing 
copper has been advanced three cents per pound during 
recent years, and in southern Arizona the shortage of 
fuel, car congestion, and labor troubles have been the 
main factors in causing this increase. Elsewhere an 
increase of two cents per pound is a fair estimate, such 
an addition being due mainly to the higher pay and les« 
efficiency of the wage-earner, together with the incre- 
ment of cost for all supplies and machinery. Undoubt- 
edly, the labor market has been as demoralized as that 
of the metals, and efforts to monopolize the one and the 
other have been equally detrimental to legitimate indus- 
try. The mine manager has been between the devil of a 
tyrannical labor union and the deep sea of unrestrained 
speculation among metal brokers. He prays to be 
delivered from both, and it is unfortunate that such 
relief cannot come save through the drastic discipline of 
hard times. 

AN ALASKAN MINER, under the pseudonym of 
'Musher,' writes to suggest that the Survey do a 
little real prospecting on its own account, by grubstaking 
a few of the younger members of that scientific bureau. 
The charge that the Survey reports are so late in their 
appearance as to serve mainly as obituaries on mining 
districts is one that might have been made a few years 
ago, but it is rarely true today; at the risk of seeming 
inconsistent we venture to say that the reports are now 
so prompt in their appearance as to be in danger of being 
compared to ' write-ups,' journalistic performances of an 
ephemeral kind. As far as our friends the ' mushers' of 
the North are concerned, surely they have abundant 
cause to feel grateful to the United States Geological Sur- 
vey, for the bibliography of Alaskan reports is already 
voluminous; in fact, on the very day the letter of our cor- 
respondent arrived we were making mental note of the 
splendid mass of information on Alaska given out by the 
bureau at Washington; why, there is nothing like it, no 
mining region in the world has been so intelligently and 
usefully served in the matter of scientific investigation. 
Alfred H. Brooks and his corps of assistants have not 
only issued a number of geological monographs of 
unquestionably great value but they have done some of 
the very pioneer work mentioned by our correspondent, 
not, it is true, finding ore deposits, though even that has 
been done incidentally, but in making surveys and maps 
of comparatively inaccessible tracts, exploring rivers, 
climbing mountains, correlating geologic facts, and 

January 18, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press 


co-ordinating all the information extant at the time. 
No; Mr. Musher, you have barked up the wrong tree. 

Federal Bureau of Mines. 

O Y THE COURTESY of Mr. \V. P. Englebright, 
*-* one of the representatives for California in the 
Congress of the United States, we are in receipt of a copy 
of the bill introduced last week for the establishment of 
a Bureau of Mines in the Department of the Interior. 
This is the result of several years of work on the part of 
the American Mining Congress, which at its successive 
sessions has ventilated the subject, pa&sed resolutions 
asking for Federal recognition of the mining industry, 
and urged the creation of a Department of Mines, with a 
cabinet minister at the head of it. Whatever sins of 
omission and commission may be charged to the Mining 
Congress, it is only fair to acknowledge that the near 
probability of the creation of a mining bureau at Wash- 
ington is to be credited to Mr. James H. Richards and his 
friends, who have labored unremittingly for this achieve- 
ment. And yet the outcome is not exactly what they 
desired. We are to have a bureau and not a dei>artment, it 
being known that President Roosevelt does not want 
any more cabinet officers and considers that the Cabinet is 
already too much like a town meeting. Moreover, every 
department includes a number of independent bureaus; 
for example, in the Department of Agriculture there are 
twelve of them. At present there are but few bureaus 
at Washington that are so closely related as to Ik; pro|>- 
erly included within a Department <>f Mines. < )f such 
the most important is the Geological Survey, which has 
close relations with the Land Office, the Forest Service, 
and a number of other branches of government work, so 
that at present it would not Ik- likely to Ik- placed within 
a Department of Mines. The preparation of the general 
topographic map of the United States, for example, is 
not related directly to mining; in fact, much of the 
pressure for this map comes from the general staff of the 
Army, from educational institutions, from drainage 
interests, and others not connected with mining. Hut the 
strongest argument, to our mind, for the creation of a 
bureau as against a detriment, lies in the fact that the 
chief of the latter is a cabinet officer, who changes with 
each administration ( if not, as according to recent exper- 
ience, at least twice as often ), while a bureau would he 
headed by one whose appointment would Ik- subject to 
civil service regulations and, like the Director of the 
Survey, would be marked by a long tenure of office, 
independent of the political ebb ami flow. While this 
may render the post less attractive to the ambitious, it 
will make it more acceptable to the man with an earnest 
desire to serve the mining industry to the very best of 
his ability. 

So we dismiss the dream of a Mining lx-|nirtment; the 
near reality of a Bureau will suffice for the present and 
when the new organization shall have proved itself use- 
ful and comprehensive, it will be time enough to revert 
to the larger idea. There- will be difficulty in getting fit 
men even for the smaller range of activity, for untrained 
men an<l politicians are not likely to use their authority 

wisely and any bureau must depend for good service 
mainly on its personnel. In this respect, the Geological 
Survey is now well equipped, despite the allurements of 
the financial and industrial corporations, which have 
absorbed so many first-rate scientific investigators. 

The new bureau will be mainly technological. First 
will come the investigation of explosives and the pre- 
vention of explosions, as well as other accidents such as 
have occurred with distressing frequency of late in coal 
mines. It is likely that the Fuel Testing Plant of the 
Geological Survey may be made the nucleus for further 
technological studies and prepare the way for labor- 
atory investigations of a varied character. This is a part 
of the program for which we have no liking, believing 
that there is no need to trespass upon private initiative 
or ask the Government to do what can be done by the 
professional men to whom such work is a means of hon- 
orable livelihood. The lessening of waste, the prevention 
of accidents, the investigation of resources neglected by 
private or corporate enterprise, the regulation of con- 
ditions underground — these are among the duties fairly 
within the scope of the Bureau. And there are two 
more, namely, statistics and lalior problems. We know 
that we offend our Survey friends whenever we attack 
their performance of statistical work. Not that the 
results are depreciated, for we hold that it is done lietter 
today than ever before, but we insist that the special 
training and particular aptitude of the geologist makes it 
desirable that he should be investigating ore deposits 
instead of chronicling the product of the mine and 
smelter. It is a human frailty for men to desire success 
outside of their particular vocation; but despite the 
excellent work done by Messrs. Lindgren, Graton, and 
Boutwell in the compilation of statistics, we still 
begrudge the time that might have been devoted to the 
elucidation of rock structure and ore occurrence. It is 
probable that many of our readers share this regret. So 
we expect to see the statistical work of the Survey trans- 
ferred to the Mining Bureau and the literature of geology 
correspondingly enriched by the men relieved of these 

Labor problems are always with us, and they increase 
in complexity. The officers of the Mining Bureau ought 
to co-operate with the I^abor Commissioners of the differ- 
ent States with a view to investigating the causes of 
unrest and collecting the facts upon which legislative 
action may be based. The incident at Goldfleld gives 
jioint to the need for Federal aid. It should be possible 
to gather facts useful alike to the operators, the laln)r 
unions, and the legislators, and beyond these representa- 
tives of s|>ecial interests, it should lie possible for the 
Bureau of Mines to submit such authentic data as will 
enable the public at large to form a correct opinion and 
thus become an intelligent force in the settlement of dis- 
putes. There are other matters suggested by the pre- 
sentation of the bill for creating the Bureau of Mines, 
but they may well be left for a later occasion. At pres- 
ent, the two things to be kept in view are not to impair 
the usefulness of the Geological Survey and to avoid any 
trespass ujxm the province of the practising engineer. 


Mining and Scientific Press. January is, iws. 

By the Way. 

The legislature of the State of Nevada is in special 
session, convened for the purpose of passing a bill to 
create a constabulary intended to take the place of the 
troops, which are to be withdrawn from Goldfield. 

The report of the three commissioners sent by the 
President to Goldfield, Nevada, for the purpose of inves- 
tigating conditions, has been filed at Washington. 

The report says the conditions did not support the 
general allegations in the Governor's request for troops, 
nor were his specific statements established to any such 
extent as to justify his use of these statements for the 
purpose of getting Federal troops. 

It concludes with this recommendation: "But we 
must firmly believe that upon the assembling of the 
Legislature, or within a few days thereafter, the troops 
should be removed, regardless of any request for their 
retention, that may be made by either the Legislature or 
the Governor of Nevada, it being the essential that the 
State of Nevada shall understand the situation com- 
pletely; shall recognize the fact that there will at that 
date be thrown upon it, and it alone, the primary 
responsibility of keeping order, and that, recognizing 
this responsibility, it may take such action as is the duty 
of the State and as will be sufficient in the premises." 

In his letter to Governor Sparks, after reviewing the 
steps so far taken in the Goldfield mining trouble, the 
President continues: " I have just received the report of 
these three gentlemen (Murray, Smith, and Neill), which 
sets forth in the most emphatic language their belief, 
after a careful investigation on the ground, that there 
was no warrant whatever for calling on the President for 
troops and that the troops should not be kept indefinitely 
in Goldfield. The report further states that there was no 
insurrection against the power of the State at the time 
the troops were called for; that nobody supposed that 
there was such an insurrection, and that none of the con- 
ditions described in sections 5297-8-9 of the Revised 
Statutes as warranting interference by the Federal Gov- 
ernment existed, and that the effort was and is plainly 
an effort by the State of Nevada to secure the perform- 
ance by the United States of the ordinary police duties 
which should, as a matter of course, be performed by 
Nevada herself." 

The report further says: " There is absolutely no ques- 
tion that if the State of Nevada and the county of Esmer- 
alda exercise the powers at their disposal they can 
maintain satisfactory order iu Goldfield; that so far these 
authorities have done nothing but rely on Federal aid, 
and their attitude now is expressed by that of refusing to 
do anything and desiring to throw their own burdens on 
the Federal Government for the maintenance of those 
elementary conditions of order for which they, and they 
only, are responsible. 

"The signers of the report express their conviction 
that the troops should remain in Nevada until the assem- 
bling of the Legislature, so as to preserve the status quo in 
order that the Legislature may deal with the situation as 
it exists, but that shortly thereafter the troops should be 

"I agree with the recommendations of this report, of 
which I inclose a copy, and shall act accordingly. Unless 
it can be shown that the statements of the report are not 
in accordance with the facts, it will be incumbent upon 
the Legislature ot Nevada when it convenes itself to pro- 
vide for enforcement of the laws of the State. The State 
of Nevada must itself make a resolute effort in good faith 
to perforin the police duties incident to the existence of a 

As the operators' association had instigated the call 

for Federal aid, the commission, on reaching Goldfield, 
allowed its counsel to present the operators' side of the 
case fully. This occupied five days. At the end of 
these hearings, the report says: "Inasmuch as we 
were by this time satisfied that the mine operators 
had not in any particular established a case justi- 
fying either the bringing or the retention of the troops, 
we did not deem it necessary to take any exten- 
sive evidence on the other side, and the hearing was 
substantially closed with a brief formal interview with 
the committee from the miners' union." 

Reviewing the conditions leading up to the present 
strike and since the strike began, November 27 last, the 
report draws this conclusion: "The action of the mine 
operators warrants the belief that they had determined 
upon a reduction of wages and the refusal of employment 
to members of the Western Federation of Miners, but 
that they feared to take this course of action unless they 
had the protection of Federal troops, and that they 
accordingly laid a plan to secure such troops and put 
their program into effect." 

When the troops arrived the mine operators issued a 
statement in which they indicated a reduction in miners' 
wages from $5 to $4 a day, also their intention not to 
employ miners who belonged to the union. The report 
adds: " While this cut in wages and refusal to employ 
members of the Western Federation of Miners was not 
announced until after the arrival of the troops, every 
indication confirms the belief that such action was in 
contemplation before the arrival of the troops, was part 
of the general plan of the mine operators to establish 
their independence of the union, and that the coming of 
the troops was expected and urged by them to make 
such a plan feasible." 

Conditions at Goldfield, the report asserts, did not 
justify calling for the troops. The single case of the 
unlawful use of dynamite, which failed to accomplish 
any damage, was surrounded by such circumstances, the 
report says, as to raise a reasonable doubt as to the 
genuineness of the charge that members of the union 
were responsible. The great bulk of the testimony of 
the operators tended to show, according to the report, 
not the existence of past or present disorder, but the 
possibility of future disturbances should the troops be 
withdrawn. This view was held by many men of 
almost all classes, but was based on the changed condi- 
tions since the troops had arrived — namely, the declara- 
tion of the operators reducing wages and refusing to 
employ union men. As to the refusal of the operators 
to employ union men, the report sets forth a statute of 
the State prohibiting such discrimination. The com- 
mission expresses itself as satisfied that throughout the 
miners' union there are not over a few hundred men of 
dangerous type, while the great majority — probably 
three-fourths of the membership — were conceded to be 
men of law-abiding tendencies. By permitting their 
organization to be managed and controlled by men of 
violent tendencies the union as a body has thus laid itself 
open to the reproach of being a vicious organization. 

"In view of the foregoing facts, we believe there is 
considerable danger that serious disorders will be 
attempted if the troops be withdrawn and the mine 
operators insist on carrying out their publicly announced 
policy. But if a handful of men have controlled the 
Goldfield miners' union and committed the organization 
to indefensible policies and practices, it is no reason why 
the county of Esmeralda and the State of Nevada should 
tamely submit to the domination of this same group and 
should not assert their authority and power and enforce 
respect for law and order without support of Federal 

January 18, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 



A i.i. i kn k Case Is here from Nevada. 

8. Sykes, of Johannesburg, is at Denver. 

8. Sergeant Newbury has returned to Denver from the 

C. F. Nourse is now at Kyshtim, in the government of 
Perm, Russia. 

G. M. Hillary has an office as mining engineer at Chi- 
huahua, Mexico. 

N. C. Groch has left San Juancito, Honduras, and is at 
Sandusky, Ohio. 

Russell T. Cornell, of New York, is in Sonora, Mexico, 
on professional work. 

John Herron has been on a visit to Palo Alto. He has 
returned to £1 Oro, Mexico. 

Wm, A. Farish, Jr., has opened an office as mining 
engineer at El Paso, Texas. 

W. H. Paul is general manager for the Dolores Mines Co., 
at San Isidro, in Chihuahua. 

C. A. Prinole, manager of the Calera mine, in Durango, 
Mexico, is visiting his home at Oakland. 

R. M. Atwater, Jr., is now manager for the Black 
Mountain Mining Co., in Sonora, Mexico. 

Charles D. Harding was in San Francisco for a few 
days, and has returned to Goldtield, Nevada. 

J. W. Bryant, manager for the Tyee Copper Co., passed 
through San Francisco on his way to Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Georok J. Graham is general manager of the Aztec and 
Mercer San Rafael mines at Ameca, in Jalisco, Mexico. 

Albert Burch has gone to the Old Signal mine, in Mo- 
have county, Arizona, where he is directing operations. 

E. C. Musorave, manager for the Deer Lodge Con. 
Mines Co., in Montana, is recovering from a severe attack 
of pneumonia. 

H. A. Shi I'M an and R. J. Grant have joined forces 
under the name of Shipman A Grant, with offices at 620 
Ernest A Cranmer Bdg., Denver. 

H. L. Charles baa resigned as general manager for the 
Bingham Con. Mining A Smelting Co., at Salt Lake, the 
smelter having been closed down. 

JSknj. H. Lokr has resigned as metallurgist for the Re- 
formaCo., of Campo Morado, in Guerrero, Mexico. He is 
now at the American Club, In Mexico City. 

William A. Pombroy, on account of 111 health, was com- 
pelled to resign as manager for the Palmarejo A Mexican 
Goldflelds Ltd. and is now at Palo Alto, California, having 
recovered from the effects of malaria contracted in Mexico. 

Robert H. Ru iiakos is approaching the completion of 
his additional volume on 'Ore Dressing,' and has four 
assistants and part of the time two stenographers at work 
upon it. He hopes to go to press in the late spring or early 

William B. Fisher, who for the past two years has been 
general superintendent of mines for the Federal Mining A 
Smelting Co. at Wallace, Idaho, has been appointed man- 
ager for the Salt Lake Copper Co., with headquarters at 
Salt Lake, Utah. 

J. E. Spurr has made a renewed arrangement as consult- 
ing geologist and engineer for the Guggenheim interests. 
On account of the advanced degree of progress reached In 
the geological surveys and examinations of the Guggenheim 
properties he will In the future be able to devote some time 
to other work. 


L. H. Wheei.kk, superintendent of construction in the 
Boston Consolidated mill at Garfield, was accidentally 
killed by the bursting of a steam-pipe in the new plant early 
last week. Mr. Wheeler has trying out the machinery of 
of the plant just prior to putting it into regular operation. 

Latest Market Reports. 

LOCAL vital pkices— Jan. 16. 

Antimony 12@16c Quicksilver (flask) ?46.5 

Casting Copper 17%@18,'.,c Spelter 6@ 6.76c 

Pig Lead 3.86® 4.80ciTln 33@34%c 

Jan. 16. 


Cabled from London. 

Jan. 9. 

£. s. d. 

Camp^Blrd IS 3 

El Oro 1 2 6 

Esperanza I 7 6 

Dolores 17 6 

Orovllle Dredging. 18 o 

Stratton's Independence 3 3 

Tomboy i 7 g 

(By courtesy of W. P. Ilonbright & Co., 24 Broad St., New York.) 

£. 8. 


1 2 
1 7 
1 5 


1 7 



By wire from New York. 
Average dally prices In cents per pound. 



KlectrolyUc Copper Lead 

10 11% 3.63 

11 14'., 3.63 

12 Sunday. No market. 

13 14% 3.63 

14 n-„ 3.68 

15. U\ 3.68 

16 U", 3.73 








San Francisco, Jan. 16. 

Atlanta f 32 Laguna 1.00 

Belmont 76 Manhattan Con 22 

Columbia Mtn 17 Midway 66 

Combination Fraction 89 Mlzpah Extension 10 

Daisy 1.00 Mohawk 11.26 

Falrvlew Eagle 36 Montana Tonopah I-87J4 

Florence, 4.10 Nevada Hills 2.70 

Gold Bar (Bullfrog) 36 Red Top 

Uoldrleld Con 6.35 Sandstorm 21 

Uoldfleld of Nevada 1.00 SUver Pick. 29 

Gold Kewanas 33 St. Ives 46 

Great Bend is Tonopah Extension 1.40 

Jim Butler 38 Tonopah of Nevada 5.25 

Jumbo Tramp Con 18 

Jumbo Extension 64 West End 80 

I By courtesy of W. C. Ralston, 368 Bush St.) 


Closing prices. 

Jan. 16. 

Adventure 2% 

Ahmeek 60 

Allouez 30 

Amalgamated 61!, 

Arcadian 5S 

Atlantic ll 7 « 

Balaklala J% 

Bingham Con \\ 

Boston Con 14', 

Butte Coalition 17', 

Calumet * Arizona 109 

calumet 4 Hecla 67.", 

Centennial 27', 

Con. Mercur. 33 

Copper Range. i\\i 

Daly-West B% 

Franklin 9", 


Greene-Cananea, ctf 7'. 

Isle Koyale 22!, 

Mass 4 


Closing prices. 
Jan. 16. 

Michigan 12 

Mohawk 55 

Nevada Con.._ 11% 

North Butte 51 

Old Dominion. 88% 

Osceola 88 

Parrot 12!<i 

Phoenix 10 

liulncy 91 


Rhode Island 

Santa Fe 2'-« 

Shannon 12 

Superior A Pittsburg 13',' 

Tamarack 72 

Trinity 17'J 

United Copper com 

Utah Copper n\ 

Victoria 6' , 

Winona .V, 

Wolverine 126 

Publications Received. 

' Half a Century of Ho|>e Making ' is the title of a hand- 
some booklet issued by the A. Leschen A Sons Rope Co. of 
St. Louis, Mo. Fifty years ago, in St. Louis, Adolph 
I^eschen began in a small way to manufacture hemp or 
fibre rope. Today the great manufacturing plant of the 
A. Leschen A Sons Hope Co. covers thirty-three acres. 
Four branch houses and twenty-eight agencies handle the 
product of the works, which is sold not only throughout the 
United States and Canada, but in all of the South American 
republics, Mexico, Cuba, the Philippines, South Africa, 
Japan, Turkey, Eypt, India, and Russia. In addition to a 
sketch of the history of the company, the booklet contains 
a finely illustrated description of the wire-rope tramways 
and cables for other uses manufactured by the company. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 18, 19o8. 

General Mining News. 



Announcement has been made by the managements of 
the principal mines in the Warren district that the em- 
ployees will be paid in currency this month; this will cause 
the disappearance of the clearing-house certificates and 
denominational drafts that have been used in the district 

for a number of weeks. It is reported that an orebody 

carrying 15% copper has been found at the 750-ft. level 
which connects with the Junction shaft of the Bonanza 

Circle mine. An orebody over 60 ft. wide has been found 

in one of the cross-cuts on the 120U-ft. level of the Hoatson 
mine; in another opening ore carrying 13% copper has been 
found. At the Copper Queen smelter an additional fur- 
nace and one converter were to be put into commission on 
Jan. 10; this would mean the employment of about 15% 

additional force. Work will soon be resumed at the 

Swisshelm gold mine; the rumor that this property was 
sold last week has been denied by the owners, W. K. Meade 
and Ben Heney. It is said that the Western Mines Devel- 
opment Co. about a year ago offered $250,000 for a 60% 

interest in the property, but the offer was refused. At 

the Claire mine, near Wood canyon, six men are employed, 
but the force will be increased as soon as buildings now 
being erected shall have been completed. It is expected 
to have the first carload of ore ready for shipment in two 
or three weeks. The new adit is now 170 ft. long, and 

exposes a pay-streak from 18 to 22 in. wide. Litigation 

over the Sullivan mine, which has prevented work at that 
property for nearly two years, is at an end; the Duluth- 
Chiracahua Development Co., which has purchased the 

mine, is expected soon to begin development work. At 

the Virtue mine operations have been suspended. 
GIIjA county. 
Recent development work at the Iron Cap mine of the 
National Mining Exploration Co. has given an encouraging 
result. On the 450-ft. level a drift was begun on a vein that 
had been cut 600 ft. from the shaft; the vein at that point 
had been leached, but the drift has penetrated good-grade 


A good body of low-grade copper oxide ore has been found 
at the Lafave mine, which belongs to the Chase ("reek Cop- 
per Co.; the new adit is 2)0 ft. long. At the Gold Belt 

mine the shaft has reached a depth of 260 ft.; prospects for 
the development of an immense body of copper ore are said 
to be flattering. A carload shipment of ore made recently 
to the Shannon smelter averaged 18% copper. 


It is reported that Grant Busick, Andrew Joice, and J. A. 
James are sacking high-grade gold ore at their claims about 
six miles east of Harqua Hala. The ore is only 4 to 6 in. 

wide; two or three tons of it have been taken out. The 

old Harqua Hala mine has just been put in good condition 
for stoping ore; at the mill 20 stamps are crushing ore from 
the Golden Eagle mine and 10 stamps are working on ore 
from the Harqua Hala mine. 


Although the Gold Road mill is closed, regular shipments 
of bullion will be made from the property; this bullion 
will be secured by letting a weak cyanide solution flow over 
the large dumps and pumping back the percolating water 
into zinc-vats in which a high recovery of gold will be 
made. The process has already yielded a big bar of bullion. 
The cost is said to be only a few cents per ton of water 

handled. -At the mill of the Idaho-Columbus Mining Co. 

at Cerbat, the roaster and electric separator are working 

well. It is said that at the School Marm mine in the 

Chemehuevis range, E. Frankforter has found the ore-shoot 
from which much rich gold ore was taken several years ago. 

R. R. Gamey has gone to Los Angeles to purchase 

machinery for the Gladstone mine at Chloride. 


Judge Campbell has handed down a decision in favor of 
Paine, Webber & Co., ofNew York, in the sum of $272,299.04 
against the Copper Bell Mining Co.; the money had been 
advanced to the latter company by Du Parquet, Huot & 
Moneuse for development work, and minority stockholders 
sought to prevent the assignment of the note to the plaintiffs 

in the action. The directors of the Twin Buttes Mining 

Co. have resolved to resume work on their property; 30 or 
40 men were to begin work on Jan. 10, and the number was 
to be increased as rapidly as possible to about 200. William 
M'Dermott is manager. 


The smelter being built at Sasco will soon be ready to be 
blown in. A new concentrating plant is also being con- 
structed; it will be completed in about three months. Two 

Keystone drilling plants have been received by the Ray Con- 
solidated Copper Co.; they will be put in operation at once 
at the Ray mine. 


The Four Metals Mining Co. is planning to further 
develop the Hillside mine by driving an adit and sinking a 

winze. The San Miguel Mining Co., which is operating 

the California mine, near the Sultana mine, is planning to 
erect a quartz mill; large bodies of ore are reported blocked 
out in the mine. 


Plans are being formulated to pay off the indebtedness in 
Arizona of the Arizona Smelting Co.; this is to be the pre- 
liminary step toward reorganizing the company and resum- 
ing operations at the Humboldt smelter. 



In the Fremont mine, the shaft will require re-limbering 
from the 409 to the 850-ft. level because of a Are; this will 
require three months. When finished an attempt will be 
made to remove the debris to get at the bodies of the 11 men 
who perished at the bottom of the shaft. 


A rich vein of quartz ore is reported to have been found 

in the Red Hill mine in the Aukum district. A test run 

of 100 tons of ore from the Vivian mine has given good 

results. Wm. Craddock has driven the Vulture adit over 

300 ft. At the Dormody mine in the Green Valley district 

two engines have been installed. W. C. Covert has 

bonde*d the Morey quartz mine in the Grizzly Flat district 

and will start development work at once. Work has 

been resumed with a full force of men at the Sherman mine. 

Lumber is being hauled to the Julian mine in the Pilot 

Hill district for the new mill which is to be erected soon. 
At the Shamrock-Lipton mine in the Greenwood dis- 
trict ore rich in sulphides has been developed; thecompany 

intends to sink several hundred feet deeper on the vein. 

H. H. Laederick is developing a mine in the Greenwood dis- 
trict for Mrs. De la Montanya. Lee & White are pushing 

work at the Gilbert mine with encouraging results. 


The I'behebe Lead Co. is developing several small ore- 
bodies at its mine in the Ubehebe district. On the Wed- 
ding Stake claim the adit has a face of lead-silver ore; on 

the Cora claim a 31-ft. vein of lead ore has been found. 

At the Emerald and Valley View mines, J. P. Hughes has 

found ore rich in gold, silver, copper, and lead. At the 

Salsberry mine a contract has been let for the driving of an 

adit 500 ft. long. The Keane Wonder mill has yielded 

$16,000 as the result of two weeks' run on ore from the 
Keane Wonder mine; the mill is now treating 75 tons of ore 
per day, the ore varying in value from $12 to $25 per ton. 

The Greenwater & Death Valley Copper Co. has let a 

contract for additional sinking of its shaft: it is intended 

ultimately to reach a depth of 1600 ft. H. T. Whitworth 

intends soon to begin developing the Surprise group of 
claims in the Coso range; mines were worked there by 

slaves about 1860. At the Good Hope mine near Skidoo 

eight men are at work; Edward Hamlin is superintendent. 

January 18, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 



A company has been formed in Los Angeles to work the 
Cottontail placer mine, in the Red Rock Canyon district. 
Pumps of large capacity will be installed and an effort 
made to sink shafts to bedrock. Dry washing machines, 
operated by gasoline power, have been tried on the ground, 
but the subsoil was found to contain too much moisture for 
good results; it is now hoped to develop enough water for 

sluicing purposes. The Yellow Aster mine and mills are 

working to their fullest capacity; the supply of water is 

abundant. Barney Ostick is keeping a little mill running 

on ore from the G B mine; the orebody is 5 ft. wide. 


The 3-stamp mill recently erected at the Eureka and 
Excelsior mines about seven miles from Mariposa was 
started on Jan. 7 to crush about 200 tons of ore; assays show 
this ore to be of high value. Several men are employed at 
the mines. — Quite a number of small gold nuggets were 
found on the streets of Hornitos after recent rains; the 

largest reported weighed nearly an ounce. A renewal of 

mining activity along the Merced river because of the build- 
ing of the Yosemite Valley railroad has resulted in the dis- 
covery by Eganhoff Bros. A Kuhn of a vein a foot wide, 
which is said to carry $ 100 to $200 gold per ton; a 10-slamp 
mill is to be erected. A flume is being built to develop 
water-power and later an electric plant will be Installed. 
Extensive Improvements are being made at the Moun- 
tain King mine. 


(Special Correspondence) . — At a recent meeting of the 
Bear River Con. T. Co. the old board of directors was re- 
elected; it decided to continue active work at the Bear 
River mine. The adit is in 200 ft. and will be continued to 
a length of 500 ft. Four large veins have been encountered 
since the company has commenced operations. When the 
600-ft. point is reached cross-cuts will be run to develop the 

veins. The Central shaft has intersected a large vein of 

excellent ore. Considerable virgin territory is being opened 
up, and an immense quantity of ore has been developed in 

the upper workings. A splendid body of ore has been 

encountered In the Golden Gate mine by W. 1*. Martin 

and associates; the shaft is being sunk to greater depth. 

A limited amount of development work is under way at the 

old Perrin mine. Good ore Is being developed in the 

Oustomah mine; several men are employed and the mine is 

looking well. The mines in the Washington district 

have been meeting with dilllculty in getting water-power 
since the late storms. Heavy frosts and snows blocked the 
ditches, forcing the Grey Eagle, Yuba, and other large pro- 
ducers to suspend. Late warm rains have thawed things 
out and a plenlitude of water Is now assured. Consider- 
able placer mining is going on through the county and the 
season promises to be a notably successful one. Heavy 
rain in the valleys and much snow on the mountains has 
insured a sufficient water supply for the season. 

Grass Valley, Jan. 13. 

The December clean-up of the Delhi mine was the largest 
of any month since the mine came into the possession of the 
present company. Everything is running smoothly and 
the mine is again on a paying basis. Hamilton Eddie is 

superintendent. Gperations have been suspended at the 

Alaska mine at Pike City until the arrival of a new electric 

pump. At a meeting of the Midas Gold Mining Co. on 

Jan. 6, arrangements were completed for installing the nec- 
essary machinery to sink a shaft to a depth of BOO ft.; the 
machinery includes a 50-hp. boiler, 30-hp. engine, hoist, and 
a 4-in. pump. Concrete foundations will be constructed for 

the heavy machinery. The South Yuba M. & S. Co. 

reports that it has developed a 50-ft. vein of valuable copper 
ore in No. 6 adit of its mine; the directors have decided to 
drive No. 7 adit from near the bank of the river, thus open- 
ing the vein at a great depth. The Cold Spring Quartz & 

Channel Mining Co. is operating the Cold Spring drift mine 
and the Buckeye quartz mine; the latter has recently been 
unwatered, and surveyed for the purpose of putting it on a 
steady producing basis. New machinery has been added to 
the Buckeye mill to enable it to handle a liberal tonnage of 

ore. Some good ore is being taken out of the Noramba- 

gua mine, where stoping is going on steadily on the north 
side of the shaft; it is expected that it will yield $60 per ton 

at the mill. A 7-ft. lode has been found in a t;ross-cut at 

the Arctic mine, near Canyon creek. A lawsuit is in pro- 
gress between the Government and the Central Pacific Rail- 
road Co. to set aside a patent to a section of mineral land 
near Cisco. The land has two mills on it, and miners and 
prospoctors are testifying that the ground is heavily miner- 
alized. Sinking at the Kenosha mine continues without 

interruption; the shaft has passed through what the old 
miners term the 'hard bar' and has penetrated much softer 

ground. Geo. M. Root is manager. The break in the 

North Bloomfield ditch, which caused a temporary shut- 
down at the Union Blue gravel mine at North Bloomfield, 
has been repaired; work was resumed at the mine on Jan. 

8. At the Lincoln mine, near Little Deer creek, the shaft 

is 80 ft. deep and sinking continues; at a depth of 65 ft. a 
drift was started east on the vein; it exposes an orebody 
about 11 in. wide in which gold can occasionally be seen. 

Considerable interest is manifested in the discovery of 

an antimony lode on the Robert Johnson ranch, Ave miles 
south of Grass Valley. It is claimed that it has been traced 
at the surface for a distance of two miles and that the out- 
crop is wide. Numerous prospect holes are to be sunk to 

determine the quality of the ore. The crushingof 100 tons 

of ore from the 600-ft. level of the Idaho-Maryland mine has 
been completed; the results were quite satisfactory. The 
ore has a width of 18 in. Bray Wilkins is general mana- 
ger. Timothy Lyon, of Forest Springs, has sunk a shaft 

32 ft. deep on his New Granada claim; it exposes a vein that 
is .'t to 10 in. wide at the surface but increases in width in 
going down. It is said to carry from $18 to $50 gold ]>er 


(Special Correspondence).— The Morning Star drift mine 
at Last Chance is being cleaned and the old adit repaired 

preparatory to the resumption of mining. At the I'lacer 

Gravel drift mine 15 men are taking out gravel from ii.iih 

ends of the channel deposit on this property. The Home 

Ticket Co. has 12 men blocking out gravel at its drift mine 

in the Last Chance district. At the Rublin quartz mine 

live men are driving an adit on the vein; some good ore is 
exposed. Snow and ice prevent the operation of the 2-stnmp 

mill. At the Deadwood drift mine two men are working. 

The 10-stamp mill at the Herman mine is l>eing ope- 
rated; the machinery for a new power-plant has not all 


Mining and Scientific Press. January is, m*. 

arrived. Baird & Partner are working their placer mine 

in El Dorado canyon. The Imperial Mining Co. is ope- 
rating its hydraulic mine on the North Fork of the Middle 
Fork of American river. The Three Queens mine at For- 
est Hill is being systematically developed; some good ore 

has been found. At the Gray Eagle mine near North 

Star the old adit is being repaired. Joe Bruner and asso- 
ciates are working the Old Drummond mine; at one time 
this property produced rich ore. 
East Auburn, Jan. 12. 


It is stated that many prospectors and others are hurry- 
ing to the site of anew gold strike in the desert country near 
Manvel. The discovery of a vein the ore of which assays 
$2200 per ton is the cause of the stampede. Many people 
have left Needles and Searchlight in automobiles, buggies, 
and wagons, and on bicycles and burros. 


Two carloads of chromite are being prepared by C. F. 
Dougherty and D. C. Brown at their mine near Castella for 
shipment to Valley Springs in Calaverascounty, near which 
there is a copper smelter; the chromite is used for lining 
the four furnaces. The Mammoth smelter at Kennett also 

receives chromite from the same mine. At the Midas 

mine 70 men are employed and the camp is in a flourishing 

The new furnace at Heroult is about ready for continuous 
operation; it is about 20 ft. high and about 10 ft. square and 

is in the form of a regular blast-furnace. At the Milton 

mine in the Lower Springs district, a good orebody has 
been found in a 50-ft. cross-cut driven from the bottom of 
the shaft. 


Gravel said to contain $200 gold per carload has been 
found at the Telegraph drift mine. It was opened at a 
depth of 22 ft. below the main adit. Electric power is being 
used to haul the cars. The gravel is about 3 ft. thick and 
as the work progresses it is widening. 


The Champion Group Mining Co. has purchased the 
Granite mine on Humbug creek from Bird & Grant and J. 
E. Harmon; the new owners have several men employed 
and intend to increase the working force within a short 

time. A statement appearing several times in the local 

press that the Morrison-Carlock mine is closed down is 

not true. It is announced that the owners of the King 

Solomon mine near the South Fork of Salmon river will 
build a 50-stamp mill if the county will extend a wagon 
road from the Black Bear mine, a distance of seven miles. 


The adit under construction at the Union Hill mine, it is 
estimated, will be completed in six weeks and then the 

hydraulic mine will be operated to its full capacity. 

Joseph Porter has been appointed superintendent of the 
Bonanza King mine and will make an inventory of the 
movable assets, but is not to accept service of any papers; 
the property is in charge of Supervisor Stoddard, as a 

keeper for Sheriff Boyce. At the West Point mine near 

Deadwood, a body of rich ore was found on Jan. 11. It is 
over 2 ft. in width and has much gold in a free state. A 
small force of men has been employed at this property for 
five months. As soon as weather conditions will permit a 
boarding house, bunk house, blacksmith shop, and ore-bins 
will be constructed. Mark Manley is superintendent. 


The mill at the Arbona mine is about completed. Four 

men are stoping ore at the Gross mine; the mill will be 

started this week for a month's run. E. Murphy of 

Columbia has a small crew of men working at the Minerva 
mine, at Italian Bar. A 5-stamp mill is nearly com- 
pleted at the Gem mine, Ave miles above Sugar Pine, on the 

North fork of the Tuolumne river. At the Old Soulsby 

mine a pump is being installed at the 600-ft. level in the 

Davidson shaft. John N. Lyon, Frank N. Hill, William 

Blackmar, and John Starr have taken a bond on a portion 
of the Lewis ranch, near Stent, and propose doing some 
mining development on it. 


It is reported that the Frazier Mountain borax mine will 
be closed down shortly and probably not operated again 
before spring. The reasons for the shut-down are the 
severity of the winter, which makes it difficult to keep up 
the roads, and also the action of the larger borax companies, 
which is said to make it hard for the small mine operators 

to market ore at good prices. The Columbia borax mine 

has been closed for more than two months. 


The adit of the Golden Winnie tungsten mine, near Mur- 
ray, is now over 600 ft. long; six men will be kept working 
in it all winter. It is said that this adit develops 
a body of ore 200 ft. long and 5 ft. wide, and that this ore 
carries 12% tungsten. David Gross, the president of the 
company, expects to make a trip to Germany to negotiate 
with the Krupp Gun Works company for the disposal of 

the ore. The Hecla Mining Co. closed its mine on Dec. 

29 for an indefinite period. Of the 155 men who were em- 
ployed at the mine 20 will be retained to install a large new 
air-compressor and hoist; this machinery will permit work- 
ing at a depth of 3000 ft. The 18,000-lb. transformer from 

the Kellogg station of the Washington Water Power Co. 
has been hauled to the Federal mine where it will be In- 
stalled for the use of the Last Chance mine. Ore, some of 

which assays 29% copper, has been found in the Copper Age 
& Edison mine, near Saltese; the adit is 500 ft. long and 
work on it will continue with two shifts all winter. 



The United States Circuit Court at Carson on Jan. 11 
took up the matter of the injunction proceedings against 
the Western Federation of Miners. The affidavits read to 
the court tended to show that the union at Goldfield had 
been the prime factor in all the labor troubles of the camp 
since its discovery; they accuse the union of having counte- 
nanced the action of the high-graders and also of protecting 
them by its fight against the change-room system. On 
Jan. 12 it was announced in Washington that President 
Roosevelt had determined to withdraw the troops from 
Goldfield shortly after the Nevada Legislature begins Its 
special session. On the same date the report of the com- 
mittee which has been investigating conditions at Goldfield 
for the President, was made public. It condemns Nevada 
for yielding to the vicious domination of a small number of 
men of violent tendencies who control the union at Gold- 
field, and scores the mine owners for laying plans to secure 
the protection of the troops. The Legislature convened on 
Jan. 14, with nearly all the members present. It is likely 
that a bill petitioning the Federal Government to establish 
barracks in the State will be presented; there will also be a 
fight by supporters of Governor Sparks to establish a troop 
of rangers on the plan adopted by Texas. The Goldfield 
labor trouble is making little change from day to day, 
except that the mine operators seem to be making steady 
gains that presage ultimate success. The most important 
move during last week was the importation of 80 good 
miners from Park City, Utah, to work in the Goldfield dis- 
trict. They were so quietly recruited by George Wingfield 
that no knowledge of it reached the Goldfield union; con- 
sequently, when they arrived there were no pickets on 
hand; but on the following day 400 pickets swarmed to the 
hills and at every opportunity tried to get the men to quit 
work. The men from Utah were Federation men, but 
before embarking for Goldfield they signed an agreement 
not to become members of the Goldfield Miners' Union No. 
220 or any other union as long as they are working for the 
company which has imported them. Manager Mackenzie 
of the Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co. says that there are 
a thousand men in Utah, all Federation men, who can be 
enlisted for the Goldfield mines. The local union is visibly 
discouraged over the developments, for it had boasted that 

the mine operators would be unable to get good miners to 

come into the district; but it seems to have been mistaken 

in the matter of the Utah men. 
The Goldfield mines are again on a producing basis. On 

January 18, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


Jan. 11 the Western Ore Purchasing Co.'s plant at Colum- 
bia was still closed, but the company was taking all ore 
offered and handling it at Miller. Since Jan. 1 it received 
100 tons from the Florence- Annex lease, of an average value 
of 1100 per ton, and from the Mohawk-Combination mine 
60 tons of $50 grade. The Little Florence company shipped 
1035 tons of an estimated value of $207,000 to Denver for 
treatment; this had been produced before the suspension of 
work due to the miners' strike. Since Dec. 12 the Com- 
bination mill has treated an average of 80 tons daily; the 

average value is placed at $40 per ton. The Florence-Gem 

Leasing Co., which recently took over the old Watson lease 
on Florence ground, has opened ore on three levels; on the 
50-ft. level the ore is medium-grade; on the 100-ft. level it 
runs up to $100 per ton; and on the 150-ft. level there is a 
12-in. streak of ore that assays $628 per ton. It is supposed 
to be a continuation of the Jumbo lode, from which lessees 
took fortunes in the early days of the camp. The super- 
structure for the Florence mill is completed and the ma- 
chinery is being assembled; the arrival of the machinery 
was delayed through its having been lost between Denver 
and Goldfield, and it will be at least three months before 

the mill can be crushing ore. Work on the properties of 

the Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co. is being gradually 
resumed: between 200 and 300 men are employed. Sinking 
is under way in the main shaft of the Mohawk mine as well 

ment of high-grade ore; this was secured mainly in the 
course of development work in a winze and drifts connect- 
ing with the lower adit. It is reported that a large body 

of ore of good milling grade has been found on the 150-ft. 
level of the Seven 1 roughs Eclipse mine; a milling test is 
being made on it and if the result is satisfactory, a mill will 
be erected on the property. 


The ore shipments over the Tonopah & Goldfield Railroad 
for the week ending Jan. 9, as reported by the Western Ore 
Purchasing Co., aggregated 380 tons, divided as follows : 
Jim Butler, 41 tons; Tonopah Extension, 95; Midway, 203; 
West End, 41. The Tonopah company sent 3050 tons, the 
Belmont 800 tons, and the Montana-Tonopah 500 tons to the 
mills, a total of 43.50 tons. The total output of the Tonopah 
mines was 4730 tons, of an estimated value (the shipping 
ore being valued at $50 a ton and the milling ore at $20 a 

ton) of $106,000. Development work is progressing as 

usual at the Tonopah Extension mine; the north cross-cut 
on the 1050-ft. level is being pushed rapidly and good pro- 
gress is being made in the west drift on the 600-ft. level. 

Work in the West End Consolidated mine is being confined 
tolhestopes above the 100-ft. level and to the drifts and cross- 
cuts on that level west of the shaft. The North Star 

mine is yielding some shipping ore of very good grade. 

At the Manhattan-Virginia mine, cross-cutting the out- 

Tht Troops at Goldfield. 

Monfana- Tonopah Mine. 

as development of the orebodies on the lower levels. Opera- 
tion! at the Red Top mine were to be resumed on Jan. 11. 
Grading for the new mill was to be started several days 
later; a large force of men will be employed constantly from 
the time the first shovelful of dirt is thrown until the mill 

la completed. It is reported that in the Wasson adit of 

the Plttsburg-Silver Peak mine an orebody 2J ft. wide and 
of an average value of $140 per ton has been found. On 
Jan. 10, 60 stamps of the mill began crushing ore, and it is 
expected that the entire mill will be In operation by Feb. 1; 

the cyanide plant will be completed shortly. In the 

Rawhide district, the lode on the Royal A Tiger group of 
claims has been traced, it is said, 2100 ft. At one point it is 
12 ft. wide. The Bobbins lease has an orebody 2 ft. wide 
that is said to carry $500 per ton: on the Packard lease there 
is an 18-in. streak of ore which, it is alleged, carries over 

1000 oz. silver and 1 oz. gold per ton. On the Poor Boy 

claim 20 lessees are working; the shaft at the Montana lease 

is 50 ft. deep. Assays from the latest strike at the Reams 

lease on Balloon hill indicate very rich ore. 


During the past five months large >|uanlities of ore have 
been shipped from the mines of the Richmond- Kureka 
Mining Co. at Eureka to the smelter; plans have just been 
perfected for increased facilities for the handling of upward 
of 600 tons per day. The town of Kureka has been revived 
through the renewed activities in these mines. 

The Mazuma Hills Mining Co. has made its fourth ship- 

crop for the purpose of holding the ground free from claim- 
jumpers has demonstrated that the lode is from 12 to 15 ft. 
wide and that it carries sufficient gold to warrant ore ship- 
ments to local mills. A regular daily output of 25 tons of 

ore is being maintained at the Ross-Nash leaseon the Union 
No. 4 claim of the Union Extension Mining Co. Sinking 
has been interrupted by a voluminous How of water, but as 
soon as pumps have been installed the shaft is to be sunk 

to the 115- ft. point. Work at blocks 13 and 14 on Union 

No. !) claim at Manhatten is confined at present toretimber- 
ing and straightening the 200-ft. shaft.; a steam-hoisting 

plant will be installed. Preliminary work has been 

started for the erection of the Mayflower mill in the Bull- 
frog district. The contract for the machinery has been let. 
The process will be crushing by stamps, amalgamation, and 
cyanidation with agitation. The water which was encoun- 
tered in the Maytlower shaft at a depth of 500 ft. will, 
it is thought, furnish an ample supply for all mill pur- 
poses. J. E. Burch has decided to establish a custom mill- 
ing plant in Rhyolite: the initial unit will have a capacity 

of at least 50 tons daily. Taylor it Griffiths have let a 

contract to Bruce Crofoot to sink an additional loo ft. to the 

300-ft. shaft of the Alliance mine. The Gold Center adit 

in Bare mountain is 500 ft. long; work on it is l>eing pushed 
as rapidly as it can be done by hand. Work has been re- 
sumed at the Taylor Bullfrog mine. The Bullfrog Pioneer 

L. & M. Co., which recently secured a lease on the Bi- 
Metallic mine, is making arrangements to install a 25-ton 
cyanide plant and a 15-hp. hoist; it expects later to add an 
air-compressor plant. The lease is said to have developed 


Mining and Scientific Press. January is, im 

an immense body of ore carrying from $5 to $15 gold per ton. 

The Gold Bar mill is complete, locked up, and ready to 

run. The branch of the Nevada-California Power Oo.'s 

line, which is to carry electricity to the Gold Bar and Home- 
stake mills, is nearly completed. Delay in starting the mill 
may be caused by the non-arrival of pumps for the water 
system. At the Homestake mill excavating for the foun- 
dation is almost completed and the cement work is under 
way. Work has been temporarily stopped at the Bull- 
frog Keystone mine pending a decision as to the best plan 

for future development. The lessees at the Gibraltar 

mine are preparing to make another shipment of ore before 

long. At the Golden Scepter mine at Rhyolite work has 

been resumed in the new adit which is being driven in the 

Hobo vein. At the Badger lease on the Ramsay mine 

near Willow creek, a shipment of several carloads of high- 
grade ore is being assembled. Preparations are under 

way for the erection of the Robinson custom mill at Midas. 
At Red Mountain, the Hercules Syndicate Mining Co. has 
had a force of miners at work for four months; the main 

shaft is now 60 ft. deep. Freezing of the water in the 

pipeline of the hydraulic mine in the Round Mountain 
district caused a suspension of operations early in January, 
but work has been resumed. At the Congress mine, at 
Johnnie the old shaft has been cleaned out and driving has 

been started from the bottom. The westward drift at the 

200-ft. level of the Mineral Hill mine near Manhattan is in 
ore that yields gold in the pan; the drift will be continued 
at least 200 ft. farther before sinking will be undertaken. 


The Yellow Jacket mine is about to take on new life 
through the building of a mill to treat the ore. On the 
1100-ft. level of the mine there is developed a vein from 10 
to 18 ft. wide; assays indicate that it carries from $3.41 to 
$14.62 per ton, of which 9<l% is gold. It extends down- 
ward as far as the 3000-ft. level, and some of it was extracted 
from the 1400-ft. level and sent to the Carson River mills; 
owing to a milling charge of $7 per ton, railroad freight, 
and the high cost of steam-power for hoisting, it was impos- 
sible to make a profit. With the Yellow Jacket mill on the 
ground, and with electric power, the ore can be profitably 

worked. At the Ward mine there is being constructed 

an annex to the main hoisting works to accommodate the 
engine from the Ophir; the shaft will be sunk to the 3000-ft. 


Ore is being sacked by M. G. Churchwood and Charles 
F. Mitchell at their new mine about midway between Verdi 
and Reno. The lode is between porphyry and limestone, 
and consists of reddish-brown quartz carrying gold and 

silver to a value of about $30 per ton. The 2-stamp mill 

at Derby has been crushing ore from the Renegade mine at 
Olinghouse; 12 tons of the ore yielded $700 gold. 



The Mogul mill, which was rebuilt from a chlorination 
to a cyanide plant, using rolls and Chilean mills for crush- 
ing, handling the sand in vats and the slime by the Moore 
process, was put in operation about three months ago. It 
was designed to have a capacity of 300 tons per 24 hours, and 
it is interesting to note that the average capacity for No- 
vember was 330 tons per day. The Imperial Mining Co. 

is diligently pursuing work in the Dakota shaft on Bald 
mountain; the shaft has now reached a depth of 430 ft. but 

is not expected to penetrate ore until it is 500 ft. deep. It 

is said that after two years of work, the Mariposa Mining 
Co. has found the vein for which it was searching and has 
developed a good body of ore. 



(Special Correspondence) .—The Grant Consolidated Min- 
ing Co. has driven an adit about 500 ft. long at its mine; 45 ft. 
of it is in an orebody of which the hanging-wall is not ex- 
posed. The vein for which the adit has been driven should 
be reached at about 600 ft. from the portal. Work has 

been temporarily suspended at the Copper World Exten- 
sion mine; it is reported that a diamond-drill will be used 

for prospecting below the 300-ft. level. At the Butcher 

Boy mine the working force has been increased; the adit 
has been connected with the shaft on the 100-ft. level. An 
ore-bin has been constructed and shipping of ore will be 
resumed shortly. A steam-engine, boiler, and air-com- 
pressor have been installed at the Olentangy mine. 

Work has been resumed in the upper adit of the Bluffton 
mine; some good ore has been found. The Molson Min- 
ing Co. has purchased new machinery for its mill. 
Republic, Jan. 13. 


(Special Correspondence) .—The Ark group of claims has 
passed to a new company; a hoist and compressor plant 
have been installed. A new shaft is being sunk on a vein 
of ore containing gray copper and assaying $146 per ton. 

Several tons of copper ore are ready for shipment. The 

Young America mine at Bossburg has been sold to a New 

York company and is to be reopened. Work is to be 

resumed shortly on the Butte & Chief mine with a large 

f 0rce . The adit of the Globe mine is being driven on 

copper-gold ore, interspersed with galena. Development 

work has been resumed at the Trojan mine, under the 

supervision of L. Larsen. The Viking Copper Mining 

Co. is planning to expend $10,000 for equipment and devel- 
opment of its claims three miles from Orient; it is intended 

to drive the present adit 600 ft. farther. In the adit of 

the Paymaster mine, on Toulon Mtn., galena ore contain- 
ing chalcopyrite has been unexpectedly found. From 

the First Thought mine ore is being shipped; some of it 

runs as high as $100 per ton. The Trophy Gold M. & M. 

Co. has let a contract to sink 50 ft. on the Wild Rose claim. 

Arrangements have been made to resume work at the 

Swamp King, a rich gold property northeast of Rockcut. 

Republic, Jan. 2. 



The Granby Consolidated M. & S. Co. has begun ship- 
ping ore over the railways at the rate of 1000 tons dally. 
About 300 men are employed at the mine; men are arriving 
in camp every day. On Jan. 2 two furnaces were blown in 
at the smelter, to be followed by the remaining six in due 
time, as the ore shipments are increased. The Strath- 
more mine has been closed; it is likely that some diamond- 
drilling will be done on the property. The Le Roi No. 2 

mine at Rossland is increasing its shipments. The ore car- 
ries much gold and silver. Another large orebody has 

been found at the North Star mine; from this mine there 

were shipped about 3000 tons of ore during last year. 

Operations at the Da Plata mine near Nelson have been 
temporarily discontinued; there is a large supply of ore at 
the mine but the present prices of silver and lead are not 
tempting. At the Richmond-Eureka mine the new tram- 
way that is being built by the W. 8. Riblet Tramway Co. 
is nearly completed; when it is finished, the company will 
be able to ship a considerable quantity of galena to the 

Trail smelter. A new 80-hp. boiler has been installed at 

the Charles Dickens mine; this will make feasible the min- 
ing of ore on the lower levels. In a short time the plant 
will be handling 150 tons of ore per day, making 10 tons of 
concentrate. Ore is being shipped dally; 34 men are em- 
ployed. The ore shipments in the Cranbrook district for 

the week ending Jan. 4 were as follows: St. Eugene, 600 
tons: Sullivan, 600. 


The Yukon Gold Co. has begun putting on a full force of 
men for winter hauling in the Twelve-mile district. The 
trail is now first-class for freighting; 2500 tons of iron pipe, 
wooden staves, mess-house material, and other freight must 
be moved from Twelve-mile Landing before summer to per- 
mit rapid progress in the construction of the ditch which Is 
to supply water for mining on Hunker and Bonanza creeks. 
IntheBallarat district 76 men and 60 horses have been 
busy handling lumber and it will be necessary to put on an 
additional 50 men. 

January 18, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


Special Correspondence. 


Sodium Cyanide. — TTie Sulphide Corporation. — Poor Results. — The 
Catlermole Process and the line Corporation. — Procrusiian 

The Cassel Cyanide Co., of Glasgow, is doing remark- 
ably well with the manufacture of sodium cyanide. 
Cyanide manufacturers complain of the competition in 
their trade and of consequently decreased profits, and 
another maker in Scotland has been forced to go out of 
the business. The Cassel company, on the other hand, is 
able to show an increased profit. For the year ended 
September 30 last, the gross profit was £69,726, out of 
which £20,000 was written oft" for depreciation of 
machinery, buildings, etc., and £5526 devoted to admin- 
istration expenses, leaving a net devisable profit of 
£41,200. Of this sum, dividends and bonuses amounting 
to £35,250 have been paid, the rate being 40Jfc on the 
issued capital of £88, 125. A year ago the dividends were 
£22,000, and the year before £17,250. The company has 
a reserve fund of £20,000, formed during the last two 
years out of profits, and the plant has been continually 
improved, also out of profits, so that the company stands 
in a sound position. It will be remembered that the 
name of the company has only recently been in its pres- 
ent form. Before 1906, for 22 years the company was 
known as the Cassel Gold Extracting Co. When the 
MacArthur-Forrest patents expired or became valueless 
in other ways, the attention of the directors was turned 
to the manufacture of cyanide. The details of the pro- 
cess adopted are not published, but presumably it is a 
process in which the cyanide products of blast-furnace 
gases are acted on by metallic sodium. The company 
has a working arrangement with the Oastner Kellner 
Alkali Co., which makes metallic sodium electrolytically. 
It is interesting to note that the blast-furnaces in the 
Glasgow and South Scotland district use raw bituminous 
coal and their gases are of special value. The plants for 
the recovery of by-products are very extensive and prob- 
ably the iron-masters obtain as large a profit out of their 
by-products as they do out of the iron. 

One of the standing mysteries of the London mining 
and metallurgical world is the inability of the Sulphide 
(Viri>oration to pay dividends on its ordinary shares. 
The company was formed in 1895 to acquire the Central 
mine at Broken Hill and the Ashcroft process for treating 
zinc-lead ores. It was floated by the Exploration Co. in 
Hamilton Smith's time, conjointly with Antony Gibbs A 
Sons, of I .<>iii l< hi, and Gibbs, Bright A Co., of Melbourne. 
Later on the Ashcroft process was abandoned and alunit 
the same time the Exploration Co. handed the control to 
the Gibbs houses. The capital consists of 550,000 prefer- 
ence shares of £1 each, entitled to IO56 dividend and an 
equal amount of ordinary shares of 15s. each. In addi- 
tion there are £79,600 in debentures outstanding carrying 
hfc interest. The Central mine is undoubtedly a very 
valuable property. In fact, mining men who know 
the district consider it to be equal to the Proprietary. 
Large amounts of lead and silver are produced 
every year and profits are realized on the mining 
and smelting operations. The quantity of ore still in 
the mine and laid open by current developments is very 
extensive. But all the advantages of having such valu- 
able ores are neutralized by the expenditure of gigantic 
sums from time to time on new plants of all sorts and 
on putting the mine into order. If it may be said with- 
out offence, the company suffers from the effect of the 
other interests of the controllers. Giblw, Bright A Co. 

are the commercial agents of the company and as such 
make profits out of the business of the company in vari- 
ous ways. They are also financially interested in syndi- 
cates owning patents for treating zinc-lead ores and their 
judgment and the judgment of the directors and man- 
agers are naturally biased in favor of these particular 
processes. For some years the Sulphide Corporation has 
been saddled in this way with the Cattermole flotation 
process for treating the zinc tailing. The directors say 
very little about the results obtained by this process, but 
it is a matter of common knowledge that the recovery is 
far from satisfactory. The experience of the Zinc Cor- 
poration has shown this. It will be remembered that the 
latter company was formed by Bewick, Moreing & Co. 
and their friends to treat zinc tailing at Broken Hill. At 
first the Potter process was tried and abandoned. Then 
the plant was modified to the Cattermole principle. A 
very few weeks' exj>erienee was enough for Bewick, 
Moreing A Co.'s engineers, and this process was quickly 
dropped. It happens also that some of the Bewick, 
Moreing group have financial interests in the syndicate 
operating the patents, but they were wise enough 
not to force forward a process for their own interests 
when they found that the process would not give satis- 
faction to the shareholders of the Zinc Corporation. 
Instead of doing so, they experimented on still further 
new processes, and found that the Elmore vacuum plant 
would give far better separation of the zinc sulphides. 
Consequently, they recommended this process in place of 
that which they had originally backed, and a large in- 
stallation is now on its way out. I would say, quite 
respectfully, to the Gibbs control: "(Jo and do like- 
wise." It is always a mistake for directors or managers 
of a mine to have prepossessions and predispositions in 
favor of particular processes. It means that the mine 
has to be altered to suit the process. Procrustes used to 
cut off or elongate the legs of his guests so as to make 
them fit his lied. If the Gibbs control would cease trying 
to fit the mine to theift processes and their other interests, 
it would lie so much the In-tter for the mine and for the 


The Interstate Agreement.— Adjustment of Wages in the Coal Regions. 
—Conditions in Illinois.— Mitchell's Successor.— Prosperity of 
the Coal Industry. — Mineral Output of Illinois. 

As the year came to a close the principal question 
among mining men here was whether the Interstate 
Agreement Is to be renewed. It will 1k> remembered that 
the system of collective bargaining originated in Illinois, 
or at least was here first applied to the coal business in a 
large way. As the thicker and more cheaply mined coals 
of the central and southern parts of the State came to be 
exploited the o(>erators in the northern or thin-vein fields 
began to feel the pinch of competition. At an opportune 
time the United Mine Workers came to the front with 
the proposition for collective bargaining, which involved 
the regulation of competition between districts by means 
of adjustment of wages. loiter the same system was ex- 
tended to neighboring States, the two-year labor contracts 
being has**! on an agreement made in a convention rep- 
resenting the miners and operators of western Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois— the so-called 'central 
competitive district.' In this convention the basing rate 
was fixed for each State and wages were raised or low- 
ered from time to time. In Illinois the basing rate is for 
Danville, and in a later State convention it lias been cus- 
tomary to fix rates In other districts of the State relative 
to the Danville rate; preserving the central idea of luing- 
i ng about as nearly as possible fair competition between 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 18, 1908. 

the various districts. It required sacrifices to establish 
this system, which, on the whole, all agree, has worked 
fairly well. The Illinois operators in their perhaps over- 
eagerness to get the system going, practically gave up the 
chances for introducing machine-mining and for payment 
on any but a mine-run basis. For years they have been 
fighting to regain this ground, since changed conditions 
make pick-mining even more desirable than formerly. 
That a run-of-mine system of payment is wasteful and 
extravagant requires no argument. 

In 1906 the Illinois operators refused to grant an in- 
crease of wages unless concessions were made on these 
points. The Pennsylvania operators, led by Robbins, of 
the Pittsburg Coal Co., refused to stand with them, made 
separate agreements with the men, and so the Interstate 
Agreement went to pieces. The various State organiza- 
tions have, however, been kept up, and in Illinois, at 
least, the operators are probably better organized and 
prepared for a fight than they ever have been. The United 
Mine Workers have been trying ever since the settle- 
ment of the last strike to secure a renewal of the Inter- 
state Agreement. While it is not now nearly so import- 
ant as it formerly was, there are probably certain advan- 
tages to all concerned in having it renewed. Two weeks 
ago a meeting was held at Indianapolis to consider the 
matter, but no agreement was reached. The Illinois 
operators refuse to come into any new arrangement with- 
out some substantial concessions on the two points in 
dispute, and temporarily the matter is in abeyance. No 
one thinks, however, that it will be dropped, and while 
a guess now is a guess only, it seems likely that eventu- 
ally the agreement will be re-established and the Illinois 
operators will win their coveted double scale permitting 
payment for screened coal. 

The whole matter of the Interstate Agreement is more 
or less tangled up with politics inside the miners' organ- 
ization. As is well known, Mr. Mitchell has declined to 
serve longer as president. His career has been a long 
and honorable one, and he has been a great steadying 
force in the industry. When recently he was recovering 
from a dangerous illness there was an outburst of con- 
gratulation from all sides, which was as genuine and 
spontaneous among the operators and the general public as 
among-the miners. Mr. Mitchell's closest associates have 
been Mr. Wilson, now congressman and secretary and 
treasurer, and Mr. Ryan, of the Illinois local. These men 
are candidates respectively for the positions of president 
and secretary-treasurer of the national organization. 
They are strong men who, if elected, will follow in the 
wise footsteps of their leader. The opposition is headed 
by Mr. Lewis, now vice-president, who is regarded by 
the operators as a much more radical man and who, if 
elected, would probably materially disturb existing rela- 
tions. It is too soon to say who is to be the winner. 

Taken as a whole, 1907 has been an exceedingly pros- 
perous year for the coal industry of Illinois. David Ross 
secretary of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, recently pre- 
sented statistics showing that for the year ending June 
30, 1907, the production was 47,798,621 tons, as compared 
with 38,317,581 tons for the year ending June 30, 1900 
For the calendar year of 1906 the production was 41,480,- 
104 tons. If the same amount of increase was made for 
the last half of the year the tonnage for 1907 should run 
somewhat over 50,000,000, and that would probably 
again place Illinois in second place. The fall has been 
very busy and last summer was an unusual one, so that 
it is not unlikely that this will be the result. 

The second big increase in the mineral output of Illi- 
nois in 1907 will be shown by the oil. These fields, whirl, 

rj> e 7 ^f/!r-; vered in 1905 - and which in i9 ° 6 p^ced 

>. 3.17,050 bbl., have had a remarkable development since. 

This production for 1907 will run somewhat over 24,000,- 
000 bbl. The oil is of good grade, about 32 gravity, and 
sells for 68c. per bbl., so that this adds materially to the 
year's total. The remaining mineral industries of the 
State have done well, but there are no such remarkable 
increases as in coal and oil. One new portland cement 
plant has been built and several of the old lead-zinc mines 
near Galena have been reopened. The fluorspar mines 
have made their customary contribution and heavy build- 
ing operations have made large demands on the quarries 
and clay pits. In general the year has been a good one, 
though as elsewhere there has been a distinct check in 
the last few months. 

Rossland, British Columbia. 

General Progress.— Mining at Rossland.— The Consolidated Co.— 
Le Roi.—The Boundary District.— Electric Installations.— The 
Slocan District. 

Had the year which has just closed not been fraught 
with many circumstances adverse to the mining and 
smelting industry of British Columbia, the output for 
1907 would have been an exceptional one indeed. The 
operating companies had to contend with a serious strike 
in the Crows Nest coalfield in the earlier part of the year 
and an almost continuous shortage of cars, both of these 
bringing about a scarcity of coke for the smelters and 
other fuel for the mines; and yet they have done well, 
for the output from the Yale-Kootenay district almost 
equals that of 1906, although the mines and smelters 
were only operating part of the time during nearly three 
months of the year. At Rossland a decided step forward 
has been taken by the mines. The Con. Mining A 
Smelting Co. of Canada has led the pace. They have 
acquired a large number of the claims adjoining their 
Centre Star- War Eagle properties, installed a 1000-hp. 
hoisting plant and greatly supplemented their electrical 
and air-compressing equipment. At the present time 
they are to a depth of 2000 ft. and have more ore in sight 
than ever before. The Le Roi Co. had no need to add to 
its already well-equipped power and hoisting plant. 
The principal work was the sinking of the main shaft 
from the 1450 to the 2000-ft. level and the exploration of 
the intervening ground by means of drifts, winzes, dia- 
mond-drill, etc. The mine is looking well. Le Roi No. 2 
worked steadily and made money for the shareholders. 
The other properties did fairly well. 

In the Boundary country the Granby people added 
materially to their smelting, hoisting, and ore-crushing 
machinery. The six crushers now in use at the mines 
have 42 by 30 in. receiving capacity and weigh 56$ tons. 
Their excellent air-compressing and electrical plant was 
not augmented to any notable degree. Steam is rather a 
waning power in this district. The power now used by 
all recent installations is electricity, which is generated 
at Bonnington Falls near Rossland, and carried to the 
Boundary by a heavy transmission line. The Granby 
people also acquired a number of claims adjacent to their 
Phwnix mines and now have enough ore in reserve to 
run their plant for 10 or 15 years. The Consolidated 
Mining* Smelting Co. (the stock of which is largely 
held by prominent C. P. R. men) has also taken over a 
large number of claims at Phoenix; a large air-com- 
pressor has teen added and electrical locomotives for 
underground haulage on the Snowshoe group. It is 
expected that great headway will lie made in 1908. The 
B. C. Copper Co. has gone ahead steadily and only 
recently found it necessary to increase its crushing 
plant by a 561-ton crusher and a big compound air-com- 
pressor. The Mother Lode mine is looking well, with 
plenty of ore in reserve. The Dominion Copper Co. did 

January 18, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


a lot of work during the year. They added to their 
smelter capacity, made it more up-to-date, and installed 
two compound air-compressors, electrically driven, at 
their Sunset and Idaho mines. They are at present 
closed down and have not been operating since the early 

In the Slocan district, the famous St. Eugene, Canada's 
premier silver-lead property, has been operated steadily 
and has made lots of money for the Con. M. 4 S. Co. of 
Canada, by whom it is controlled. Incidentally, it may 
be noted that in addition to the properties at Rossland, 
Phcenix, and Moyie, the Consolidated Co. operates an up- 
to-date smelting and refining plant at Trail near Ross- 
land. Fine gold and silver from these works are furnished 
to the Canadian Mint and are marketed in the United 
States and China. 

The Sullivan group of mines and smelter at Marysville 
were run steadily during the year and did well. The 
smelting plant was brought up to a higher standard and 
a great amount of development work in the mines is 
planned for the early part of the present year. A. I. 
Goodell, who has spent the best part of his life in dealing 
with lead ores, is now in charge and it is reasonably 
expected that a good showing will be made. Qreat 
activity was shown among the smaller silver-lead prop- 

1 ^ 

1 1 *■ 

'MvlLiT'OKC ^w 

z 4J * 

u 'It 

* il 

- "Sr 

if £*»"-JL^—. _ — A 

"••■*€ !»• • 80uN0ARr 


Estates V- 

<*\i Y» T » Im^m 

Map of Part of British Columbia. 

erties and the next couple of years should sec many pros- 
pects blossom into producing mines. Ore shipments 
from the district ran as follows : 

Koaaland, gold-copper 283340 tons 

Boundary, copper-gold 1,148337 " 

81oean-E. KooU-nay, mosUy silver-lead 185,867 " 

The coal mines have been working steadily for the past 
six months, but several have recently closed down, tem- 
porarily. The principal mines, those of the Crows Nest 
Co., are working, as well as those of the International 
Co. The Oranby company has just resumed operation 
after a shut-down of six or seven weeks. It is expected 
that the B. C. Copper and Dominion Copper mines will 
start to work again within the next six or eight weeks. 

A couple of years ago the Canadian Government, to 
assist the lead-silver miners of this country, voted 
•2,500,000 for a bounty to stimulate the industry. The 
bounty was payable on a sliding scale; the higher lead 
went, the smaller the bounty. 

Salt Lake, Utah. 

Smelting Conditions. — Shipments from Tintic. — tower Mammoth Co. 
— Uncertainty as to Future of Smelting Business.— Boston Con. 
Mill. — Silver King Coalition.— An Association of Mine Operators. 

One Utah mining company posted a dividend during the 
past week— the Colorado; the amount was 5 cents per 
share, or $60,000. Although this company is one of the 
clients of the United States Smelting, Refining & Mining 
Co., recently ordered to cease shipments of ore, the direct- 
ors deemed it advisable to share profits with stockholders. 
The treasury of the company is in a healthy condition. 
Production may not be resumed again until the new 
smelter of the Tintic Smelting Co. is ready, which will be 
in April. This smelter is being erected within a few 
miles of the mine, and the equipment is on the ground. 

Ore shipments from the Tintic were a little larger last 
week, this being due to the heavy draught made on the 
Centennial Eureka mine of the United States Smelting, 
Refining A Mining Co., a portion of the ore being diverted 
to Kennett, California. The mines shipping and the re- 
spective amounts were: Bullion Beck, 4; Carisa, 2; Cen- 
tennial Eureka, 44; Eureka Hill, 2; Mammoth, 29; May 
Day, 3; Tintic Iron, 4; Yankee Con., 3; Colorado, 4; to- 
tal, 95 carloads. The shaft at the Opex mine has been 

completed to a depth of 1300 ft., and the management is 
exploring the various levels with encouraging results. 
This mine is owned largely by Salt Lake people; but F. 
Augustus Heinze is a shareholder. Many believe it 
to be one of the best mines in the Tintic district. The 
ore is similar to that of the Centennial Eureka mine. 

In order to carry on development while the mine is not 
producing, the directors of the Lower Mammoth Mining 
Co. have called a s{>ecial meeting of shareholders for Feb- 
ruary 5, at which time the proposal to increase the capi- 
tal stock of the organization from 190,000 shares to 250,- 
000 shares will come up for consideration. It is also 
proposed to issue $80,000 worth of convertible bonds. 
The Ix>wer Mammoth mine is at Tintic and has been 
opened to a depth of 1800 feet. 

The United States Smelting, Refining & Mining Co. is 
still operating its copper and lead smelter in the Salt 
Lake valley; but no ore is being received; it is probuble, 
therefore, that within a few weeks, at the most, the plant 
will be idle. The plans of the company for the future 
are not known. It is believed that the lead smelter, at 
least, will resume operations soon after the shut-down. 
It seems unlikely that the Murray plant of the American 
Smelting A Hetining Co. will be permitted to o|>erate and 
the United States company denied the privilege. 

The Boston Consolidated Mining Co. has a jwrtion of 
its new mill at Garfield in operation. By the end of the 
month it is expected that at least three sections will be 
running on ore and giving treatment to 1500 tons per 
day. At the Boston Con. mine at Bingham about 250 
men are employed. The New England mine at Bing- 
ham is still pnxlucing ore, notwithstanding the low 
metal market, and is continuing vigorous development. 
The Utah Aj>ex has a large force on development; the 
Phoenix mill is nearing completion, and will probably l>e 
ready within a month. The mill will have a capacity of 
200 tons. The I'tah Consolidated management has 
mapped out a cam|mign of development. Just what will 
be done about the construction of a new smelter has not 
been decided, but the matter will undoubtedly Ik- settled 
during the present month. The American Smelting & 
Refining Co., however, has been after I'tah Consolidated 
ore, and the officers of the latter company have been 
approached on the subject. Unless the American will 
consent to a very favorable contract, there will be no 
change in the plans for the new smelter. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 18, 1908. 

The Silver King Coalition Mines Co., of Park City, 
will have to make an accounting for ores extracted from 
the Arthur and Conkling claims. A suit has been filed 
in the Federal Court in which N. Treweek and J. 
Leonard Burch appear as plaintiffs, and allege the own- 
ership of a three-quarters interest in the property, and 
that 10,000 tons of ore of the value of $10 per ton has 
been extracted, for which there has been no division of 
profits. The ore is alleged to have been mined and 
milled by the Keath-Kearns Mining Co., which hassince 
been absorbed by the Coalition company. The directors 
of the Silver-King have passed the usual quarterly divi- 
dend, giving as a reason the unsatisfactory smelting and 
metal market conditions. A meeting of the ore pro- 
ducers of the State will be held at the Commercial Club 
in this city on the 15th inst, for the purpose of organiz- 
ing a State association. In view of the recent effort of 
smelting companies operating in the Salt Lake valley to 
increase treatment charges on ore, mine owners are 
enthusiastic over the proposition of forming an associa- 
tion. The May Day, Uncle Sam Consolidated, Vic- 
toria, and Grand Central Mining companies, all owning 
mines in the Tintic district, have passed the January 

The directors of the West Mountain Placer Mining Co. 
are expected to post a dividend of $5000 during the 
week. This corporation derives its revenue from the 
lease of certain water rights and lands to the Utah Cop- 
per Co. in Bingham canyon. The Utah Copper Co. 

closed the year 1907 with a production of 15,000,000 lb. 
copper. In December the output was 3,000,000 lb., and 
the cost of mining 31 cents per ton. 

Leadville, Colorado. 

Annual Record.— Effect of Drooping Metal Prices.— The Yak Tunnel.— 
Zinc Ore Concentrators. 

The official returns from the various mines of the 
Leadville district show a slight falling off in tonnage as 
compared with the previous year, but an unusual amount 
of development work was accomplished, which, with a 
restoration of prices, should give the district during the 
present year its old standing. The low prices for zinc 
and lead ores during the last two months has forced the 
large producers to curtail their output materially. The 
following is a summary of the various classes of ores 
produced in the district during the year 1907: 

Kind of ore. Tons. 

SUieious 119,000 

Oxidized iron 123 400 

Sul piide ....ZZ"ZZl..Z...'m,m 

Carbonate 39i600 

Manganese 21 000 

Zlnc 136,000 

Tot* 1 .675,500 

Among the principal producers are the following: 

Company. Ton8- 

Yak M. M. & T. Co 89,000 

Ibex Mining Co 62,200 

Western Mining Co 65 400 

Midas Mining Co 80 800 

A. Y. <£ Minnie '"'". 30 '9oo 

Iron Silver Mining Co 101 500 

Morning Star Mining Co 37 000 

New Monarch Mining Co . . 17 300 

The products were as follows : 

Gold 66,137 oz. 

SUver 5,298,922 " 

J ' ead 45,893,669 1b. 

C °PP e . r 5,908,164 » 

Spelter 71,152,400 " 

Manganese 24,000 tons 

Practically all the ores of the district were treated by 
the American Smelting & Refining Co., the Empire Zinc 

Co., the United States Smelting Co., and the Ohio & 
Colorado Smelting & Refining Co. The year witnessed 
an unusual advance in prospecting and development 
work. The Yak enterprise stands paramount. This 
company has extended its operations during the past 
year in various directions and is still extending its lat- 
erals at the rate of 250 to 300 ft. each month. The adit is 
at the present time over 2 J miles long; it has crossed the 
Ibex ground and is pushing toward the north. Among 
the laterals those into the North Moyer, White Cap, 
Belgian-Frenchman, and N. M. Fraction are among the 
most important to the Breece Hill producers. This com- 
pany has adopted electric power and is furnishing a 
large number of producers in this and adjoining districts 
with power; however, its electric plant is now merged 
into the Central Colorado Power Co. During the year 
large mills were erected by the I^eadville District M. & 
M. Co. and the A. M. W. Mining Co. for the treatment 
of zinc ores, the former to treat the Ibex dump and the 
latter the Adams zinc sulphides. 

Chihuahua, Mexico. 

San Toy Mines.— The Encinillas Co.— Sierra Mojada.—The Almo- 
loya District.— Dolores.— Some News From Zacatecas.—The 
Benito Juarez Mines. 

The San Toy mines, in the Santa Eulalia district, 
have increased their ore shipments from 200 to 400 tons 
per day to the Torreon smelter. The mines comprise 
the Galdeana and Juarez. L. A. Dockery of Chihuahua 
is mine superintendent, and J. P. Hutchinson is gen- 
eral manager. The Encinillas Mines Co. is the owner 

of the smelting plant at Santa Rosalie. The company 
has acquired some mining properties in the Sta. Eulalia 
district, one of which is developed. Some new equip- 
ment has been added to the plant and it is announced 
that the furnaces are to be blown in soon. H. Thofern 
represents the French and English stockholders who 
control the concern. R. J. Morambert, formerly with 
the A. S. & R. Co., is superintendent. 

The Sierra Mojada mines in Coahuila are producing 
about 8000 tons of ore per month, which is 2000 tons less 
than was being produced six months ago. The principal 
mines are those of the Cia. Minera La Constancia, man- 
aged by W. Hageman; those of the A. S. & R. Co., 
managed by W. B. Gates; those of the Cia. Metalurgica 
Mexicana, under the management of G. H. Carnahan. 
The Constancia ores are shipped to the smelter at Tor- 
reon, those of the Mexicana to its own smelter at San 
Luis Potosi. The ores of the Mojada district are of two 
classes: A lead-iron ore averaging 400 gin. silver per 
ton, 12<& lead, 35$ iron, and 20 fc silica; and a lime ore, 
carrying 800 gm. silver, 2 ft copper, 30$ lime, and 20$ 
silica. The latter class makes a desirable ore for the 
copper furnaces. The lead-iron ores are obtained at 100 
to 300 ft. depth, the lime-copper ore from 400 to 600 ft. 
The lead blanket has a decided dip and as its strike is 
followed there is a gain in depth. The lime-copper 
ore occurs in the lime near the contact with conglomer- 

The Almoloya mining district is five miles from Baca 
station, the latter being between Jimenez and Parral. 
Among the properties there is the Cigarrero mine, 
belonging to a Mexican company, which has been min- 
ing and shipping ore for the last four years. It is said 
the profits in that time have amounted to P5,000,000. 
The workings extend to 1000 ft., the ores being silver, 
lead, gold, and copper, mostly oxidized. Shipments are 
made to the Monterrey smelter. The equipment includes 
a 3-rail incline tram extending from the mine, on the 
mountain slope, down to the base of the hill to the bins. 

January 18, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


This is 4000 ft. long. The ore is hauled to the Baca 

station over the company's four-mile line of railroad. 

The Mexican Mines Corporation of Chihuahua is devel- 
oping the Placeres group in the Almoloya district, em- 
ploying 40 men. The work has reached 220-ft. depth. 
W. D. Pearce is superintendent. The Cia. Minera de 
Almoloya, in developing the Iguana group, has shipped 
a good tonnage of ort. The shaft is now 500 ft. deep 
and the intention is to sink deeper in the hope of striking 
the Cigarrero vein on its dip toward the Iguana. The 
ores of Almoloya present a variety. Besides lead, 
silver, and copper in an oxidized condition, there is said 
to be considerable of copper and zinc carbonates. 

The properties of the Dolores Mines Co. are at Mineral 
de Dolores, in the northwestern part of Chihuahua. The 
campis reached by traveling35 milesover a new trail west- 
erly from Madera, the latter being on the railroad of the 

Map of Part of Mexico. 

Sierra Land A Lumber Co., which connects with the 
Chihuahua A Pacific railroad at Temosach it-. The Dolores 
company maintains an agency at San Isidro, a town and 
post-office on theChihuahua A Pacific railroad. These are 
the gold and silver mines, opened by a 660-ft shaft and 
a 1200-ft. adit. The latter intersect* the shaft at the 350- 
ft. station. The hoist, air-compressor, and mill are being 
operated by steam, but plans are made for installing elec- 
tric generators having a capacity for all purposes. An 
interesting fact concerning the engines, boilers, mill 
equipment, air-compressor, and pumps is that they were 
all built sectionalized and transported to this camp on 
pack animals. The mill consists of 15 stamps, 3 Bryan 
mills, 2 tube-mills, 3 Wilfley tables, and 7 agitating vats. 
The stamps crush the ore in a weak cyanide solution. 
The tables make an iron and copper concentrate, which 
runs high in gold and silver. In this way most of the 
copper is taken out of the pulp that goes to the agitating 
vats. The re-grinding by the Bryan mills and tube-mills 
is such as to make a product 86 fc of which will pass a 200- 
>ii. -h screen. Aftercyaniding in connection with agita- 

tion and decantation, the slime is passed to Butters filters 
for withdrawing the solution from the solid material. 
W. H. Paul, the general manager, states that the mill 
yields an extraction of 93 to 96 <fc . The gold and silver 
in the ore are about equal in value, making an ore worth 
approximately $50 per ton. This company has exten- 
sive timber rights, and roads have been built into the 
well wooded tracts. Recent improvements include a 
sawmill and a telephone line to the railroad at Madera. 
The company employs 700 men. 

The Benito Juarez Mines Co., of the City of Mexico, 
has acquired and consolidated 30 mining properties in 
the Pefion Blanco district of Zacatecas, situated 10 miles 
southeast of Salinas. These properties have been oper- 
ated for years by Mexican owners and their record of 
production is excellent. About half of these are on one 
mineral zone and the rest on another, striking parallel to 
each other through a country of limestone shale. The 
ore carries chloride and bromide of silver, accompanied 
by gold, some of which is in free state. This applies 
only to the orebodies above the water-level, which is 
about 400 ft. below the surface. Below the water-level 
the metals occur as silver sulphide, with gold, associated 
with pyrite. In the oxidized portion the silver is of first 
importance, while in the sulphides the gold is dominant. 
The vein is from one to ten metres wide. The deepest 
shaft on the property is 425 ft., with a 70-ft. winze from 
the lowest level. The worked-out chambers on this and 
other mines of this group show the ore-shoots to have 
been of great width and continuity. On the lower levels 
where the ore was untouched by former operators the 
vein structure is apparent. To the 450-ft. level the vein 
appears of quite uniform width and between well-defined 
walls. This has reference to the property that is now 
the chief centre of operations. There are other shafts 
and adits along the strike of the mineral belt, with 
numerous dumps of ore of milling grade, affording some 
idea of the extent of the development carried on at an 
earlier period; in fact, there are four or five dumps on 
the group that contain an aggregate of about 30,000 tons 
of ore which will pay to mill. Since July 1, 1907, this 
coni|>any has shipped ore of the value of pi 00, 000, the 
result of development work. In this manner the output 
is paying for exploration and a considerable amount of 
surface improvements. The ore designated as shipping 
ore is said to carry 48.8 gm. gold, 1275 gin. silver per 
ton, with 0.6 '> iron, 14.2 % lime, 71.6J6 silica, giving a 
gross value of p 103 per ton. The mill-ore contains 32.5 
gm. gold, 518 gm. silver, \fc iron, 14.3^ lime, (>8.8^ 
silica, having a gross value of P62 j>er ton. It is esti- 
mated that the mill-ore on the old dumps will average 
I»18 per ton. A mill is to be built on the property, to 
have the capacity of over 100 tons per day. Plans have 
been made and the contract for supplying the machinery 
will be let l>efore this is in print. It will comprise a 
crusher, 20 stamps, belt-conveyors, hydraulic sizers, 
Wilfley tables, tube-mill, aixl cyaniding equipment. It 
is proposed to use cyanide solution in the battery. The 
method proposed has been well tested in an old mill on 
one of the pro|>erties. The mill, air-compressors, hoist- 
ing machinery, and other equipment ure to l>e operated 
by electric power, to be generated at Salinas station. The 
plans also contemplate the building of an aerial tramway 
to convey ore from the various mines to the mill. The 
officers of the Benito Juarez Mines Co. are as follows: 
A. B. Carpenter, president; John C. Brennon, general 
manager; Kngle Carpenter, secretary; E. 1*. Ryan, en- 
gineer. I>r. Philip Marvel, of Atlantic City, N. J., and 
<<co. \V. Coles, of Philadelphia, are among the stock- 
holders. ('. O. Lundberg has just l>cen made general 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 18, 1908. 


Most of these are in reply to questions received by mall. Our 
readers are Invited to ask questions and give Information dealing 
with the practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 

In sinking very dry shafts a little water let down in 
the form of a spray just after blasting will aid in ventil- 

Hard times have not depressed the radium market, 
the latest quotations being $3000 for the thousandth part 
of a gram. 

The breaking of a winding rope while raising or low- 
ering persons happens very rarely; since mining was 
resumed on the Rand in South Africa in 1901 there have 
been only two such occurrences. 

The best preventive of the spontaneous ignition of 
coal is a small cylinder of compressed carbon dioxide 
fitted with a fuse plug melting at 200° F. A cylinder 1 
ft. long and 3 in. diam. would be sufficient to fill the 
pores of 8 tons of coal. 

The cost of producing blister copper at the Mount Ly- 
ell mine in Tasmania during the half-year ended Sept. 
30, 1907, was $3,704 per ton of ore; this was 24.46c. 
higher than in the previous half-year. The ore treated 
averaged 2.32^> copper, 1.72 oz. silver, and 0.045 oz. gold 
per ton. 

The cost of mining coal in Montana and Wyoming 
has been roughly estimated at $1.65 per short ton, dis- 
tributed as follows: Inside labor, 45c; outside labor, 
17c; driving gangways and entries, 63c; supplies, 17c; 
preparation, 8c; general expenses, repairs, and insur- 
ance, 14 cents. 

Much trouble is caused in brazing by not using thor- 
oughly fused borax. Dry borax does not answer, as it 
swells while brazing and makes the joint porous. The 
borax should be melted in a clay or iron crucible to a 
clear liquid, so as to drive off all water. Such borax 
will not swell when used for brazing. 

Where the practice of a mill is rolls and cyanidation, 
the coarse gold may be extracted by running the sand 
over Wilfley tables (200 tons to 16 tables) and then re- 
concentrating the product on four additional tables. The 
product from this can then be placed in a clean-up barrel 
and pan, where the gold becomes amalgamated. 

That underground waters are not necessarily all of 
meteoric origin is now recognized by geologists. Some 
may arise from the squeezing out of occluded water from 
igneous magmas as they cool and contract, but it has not 
yet been proved that such waters are given out in suffi- 
cient quantity to feed thermal springs or to form ore 

Twenty-five stamps each of 1400 lb. are being added 
to the mill at the Witwatersrand Deep mine in South 
Africa, to be used instead of tube-mills for fine grinding. 
The concentrate from the 220 stamps of the present plant 
is to be returned from the spitzluten and re-ground in 
the mortar-boxes of the new stamps, which will have 
very fine screens. 

Work done by a dredge, excavating gravel on a placer 
claim, satisfies the law as to assessment work as to the 
location upon which the work is done, but this class of 
work done upon one location cannot be credited to ad- 
joining locations, nor can the cost of the dredge be con- 
sidered in estimating the amount of assessment work on 
the group of claims. 

In the gold mines of Orenburg, in Russia, a great quan- 
tity of timber is used in the underground workings. 
Drifts,cross-cuts, and winzes are ail closely timbered, even 
when the rock is quite sound and hard. Close timber- 
ing with square sets seems to be invariable in the stopes 
of the Russian mines. It appears that the Russian Min- 
ing Inspectors require timbering in all underground 
workings, regardless of the nature of the ground. 

In the measurement of alluvial deposits, a cubic yard 
of ordinary gravel is usually estimated to weigh 3000 lb. 
The value is stated in cents of free gold per cubic yard, 
and the result is determined per yard of measured dirt 
and per yard of space excavated. The gravel has rarely 
less than 30 <f nor more than 45 fo of voids. If the peb- 
bles have an average specific gravity equal to that of 
quartz (about 2.60) a cubic yard of the gravel would 
weigh from 2408 to 3064 lb., depending on the percent- 
age of voids. 

The law does not restrict the number of claims that 
may be located continuously on a lode by an individual, 
nor does it limit the number of placer locations that an in- 
dividual or an association of persons may make. An indi- 
vidual may make as many 20-acre placer locations or as 
many lode locations as he sees fit, provided, of course, that 
he makes a discovery on each, and otherwise complies 
with the Federal or State laws. This is the uniform rule 
throughout all the States, so far as we are advised. There 
is an exception in Alaska, made by local rules, limiting 
the number of placer locations that a locator may take on 
a given creek or bench. 

The breaking load of the ordinary one-half inch wire 
hoisting-rope, composed of six strands, of 19 steel wires 
each, and a hemp centre, is from 7 to 8 tons, and the safe 
working load is about one ton. If there is more cable on 
the drum than is in use, it should lie perfectly even and 
smooth on the drum. To accomplish this, when attach- 
ing the cable, wooden clamps are often put on the cable, 
to tension it as it is wound on. As these clamps groove 
rapidly, making an uneven tension, a better plan is to 
run the loop of the cable down the shaft, and attach a 
weight there, which will give a uniform load as the rope 
is wound up. A loaded bucket of the size generally 
hoisted makes a good weight, and can be temporarily 
fastened to the cable with a clip. If the rope is not 
tightly and evenly wound, it will jump as it changes 
direction, at each side of the drum, causing an excessive 
strain on the cable, and increasing the wear. 

An unusual method for determining the cross-sec- 
tion of a river having rapids in which a boat could not 
be held, has been used at the Wabegeshik chute on Ver- 
million river in Canada. A fine steel wire such as is 
used for binding armatures of electric motors was 
attached to a 25-lb. lead weight. The length of the wire 
was measured and a transit set upon the bank close to 
the water's edge. The weight was put into the water on 
the opposite side in line with the transit on the cross- 
section desired. The lead weight was pulled across the 
river-bottom by the transit-man. Readings of its posi- 
tion were taken as often as desired. The distance from 
the weight to the axis of the telescope was determined 
by deducting from the total length of the wire the por- 
tion back of the transit. The vertical angle of the wire 
was read by the transit-man sighting at the point where 
the wire cut the surface of the water. These readings 
were plotted to scale and the cross-section of the bottom 
of the river determined as accurately as was necessary 
for the purpose. This was accomplished without dauger 
and at small expense. 

January 18, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 



Readers of the Mixing amd Scientific Press are Invited to use 
this department for the discussion of technical and other matters 
pertaining to mining and metallurgy. 

History of Cyanidation. 
The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of November 30 Mr. Philip Argall 
describes the Diehl process as practised at Kalgoorlie, 
and as I consider this account of the process to be some- 
what misleading, I beg your permission, and the 
author's, to make a few remarks on the subject. In the 
first place, Mr. Argall states that the ore is crushed in 
batteries using dilute cyanide solution; also, inside and 
outside amalgamating plates are employed. As far as I 
am aware it is not at all desirable to use cyanide in the 
battery water, but in Kalgoorlie pure water is such an 
expensive item that it is found advisable to use the same 
liquid over and over again as much as possible; the 
return water contains cyanide and this must neces- 
sarily contaminate the fresh supply. With regard 
to amalgamating-plates inside the battery-boxes I may 
say that this is not the feature of the process, nor, as a 
matter of fact, do any of the batteries in West Australia 
that have big stamp-duties use inside plates. There are 
only two plants in W. A. that make use of the Diehl 
process, namely, the Lake View Consols and the Oroya- 
Brownhill, and in both of these the coarse crushing abso- 
lutely prohibits the use of inside plates. In addition to 
this, on the Lake View Consols there are no outside 
plates, the pulp going straight from the boxes to Wilfley 
tables. I am not certain if the same state of things 
obtains at the Brownhill, but I think it is so. 

Mr. Argall says that the concentrates are roasted and 
amalgamated. This is quite right as far as it goes, but 
in actual practice the roasted concentrate is slimed in 
Wheeler pans Into which quicksilver is fed, and the 
slime is agitated with straight cyanide, and filter- 

I do not agree with Mr. Argall that the process is de- 
clining in Australia. It must be remembered that the 
only installations there are on the two mines mentioned, 
and each of these is a success. I know more about the 
Lake View Consols than about the Oroya- Brownhill, and 
can safely say that on the former property a most excel- 
lent extraction is obtained on $7 ore, and at quite a rea- 
sonable cost The same applies to the Brownhill, but I 
have not the same personal knowledge of this mine as I 
have of the other. 

F. Percy Rolfe. 

Key-tone, Wyoming, December 17. 

College Instructors. 
The Editor: 

Sir— A recent utterance of yours made at the dedica- 
tion of the Hearst Memorial Mining Building at the 
University of California has opened a subject of vital im- 
portance. I refer particularly to your well-timed sug- 
gestion that instructors in the mining colleges should 
divide their time equally between teaching and practical 
work, each year of the one followed by a year of the 
other. I greatly desire to see more interest displayed in 
this question. 

To one who understands the situation, and particu- 
larly to one who has viewed the matter from various 
points of view, the need of this arrangement appears so 
obvious that little remains to be said. Yet neither the 
great public, that court of last resort, nor the majority of 
our leading educators, appears to be thinking at all about 
It. An overgrown conservatism at times clogs the wheels 

of real progress. The greatest weaknesses in university 
training today are directly due to the lack of some such 
procedure as you have mentioned. 

There are two definiteand distinct reasons why instruct- 
ors in technical schools need more actual contact with the 
everyday hard-working world. One of these is of strictly 
practical nature ; the other possesses a moral aspect. 
And the former is not a whit more important than the 

Firstly, each instructor in engineering needs to study 
the application of scientific principles under the condi- 
tions obtaining in actual practice, that his class-room 
work may be in touch and infused with the real life of 
the profession. We have all had experience with the 
' theoretical ' man, the man who is always in trouble 
over the failure of his theories. Paradoxical as it may 
seem, the ' theoretical ' man does not fail because of a 
superabundance of theory, but because of a lack of 
theory. In other words, he fails to grasp all the condi- 
tions under which he is laboring and therefore applies 
too few principles. And the typical college professor is 
the type of theoretical man. Why ? Merely because he 
does not appreciate all the numerous details of actual 
practice. I have seen such a man, eminent in his own 
specialty, visit a reduction plant using the very methods 
upon which he is an authority, and make foolish state- 
ments and suggestions that would disgrace a hod-carrier. 
Yet he is not to be blamed. He is the result of an unin- 
telligent educational system. Surely it is obvious that 
were men of this character to spend alternate years in 
actual work in the field, the grade of their college work 
would be raised far above its present level. What can 
we expect of our college graduates if they are always de- 
pendent for their instruction upon men who never com- 
prehend actual living conditions in the larger world of 
labor? The students themselves feel this, with the result 
that much of their college work is skimmed over and a 
vast amount of training valuable in itself is cast aside as 
of little worth. On the other hand, if students feel that 
they are under men who do understand that which is 
outside the college doors, the quality of their work is 
vastly improved. In my senior year at college, while on 
a trip through the mines, I was greatly impressed, though 
not favorably, by the remarks of a young mining engi- 
neer who had graduated some years previously. His 
statement, almost verbatim, was this: "A college edu- 
cation is a nice thing to have and we are all glad we 
have had one, but when you get through, just take your 
education, fold it up, put it in your back pocket and for- 
get it." This man was a superior student and a capable 
hard-working fellow who was apparently leaving no 
stone unturned in his attempts to achieve success. He 
stands as the commonest type of mining graduate one 
meets today. There is no. need here for a discussion ; 
these things are themselves all too eloquent of a lack of 
correlation between our colleges and everyday life. A 
university is truly a little world in itself, yet there must 
not be such lack of contact between it and the larger 
activities outside that each year's graduates are at first 
like children wandering in an unknown land, who long 
wonder of what good to them was their Alma Mater. 

Secondly, Instructors in technical schools need to keep 
in living touch with the work of their profession in the 
world, that they may realize fully what is needed there, 
and that their class-room work may have that inspira- 
tion which comes only from a real knowledge of human 
affairs. Of all the criticisms of higher education, 1 think 
the greatest is that the college graduates know so little 
of the real needs of humanity. The reason is not hard 
to find. The usual professor or instructor is all too igno- 
rant of the deep throbbing life beyond college gates, with 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 18, 1908. 

its constant striving for higher things, both of matterand 
of the spirit. Our college graduates not only often lack 
adequate knowledge of the application of the principles 
underlying their profession, but fail in that essential test of 
the truly educated man, namely, good citizenship. Now 
of all times do we require educated men, men who can 
and will actively aid in building up a higher standard of 
social intercourse. This can be only when our university 
faculties are in touch and sympathy with the great cur- 
rent of human events. This applies to all departments of 
education, but particularly to the technical schools, for 
our young engineers possess vast potentialities for good 
in the world today. The race is advancing mentally, 
morally, and spiritually through its ever-strengthening 
grasp upon natural phemonena and laws, so that the men 
who deal professionally with these can do much to up- 
build our social structure. 

The whole matter can be summed up upon either a 
narrow or a broad plane. It may be said that if we de- 
sire our college-bred engineers to obtain during their 
undergraduate years the fullest possible knowledge of 
their profession, we must have men to teach them who 
know both theory and practice, who can elucidate all 
necessary principles and explain fully their application to 
the world's work. Such teachers can be had only by 
adopting some such method of procedure as you have 
suggested. Further, if one is not satisfied with the above 
narrow statement, as I am not, it can be put as follows: 
If our colleges and technical schools are to produce men 
characterized alike by thoroughness of training in their 
particular professions and a broad sympathetic insight 
into the social movements of the times, we must first 
have teachers who are true leaders in thought and action. 
To know books one must spend many quiet hours with 
them ; to know the world one must be of it as well as 
in it. 

The country is ever calling for men, and there be 
many who condemn our great public institutions of learn- 
ing because they fail to produce many men. The country 
must learn that for men to be produced other men must be 
working to produce them. We must have instructors 
who know the world from actual contact and association 
with it. If more money is needed in order to get such a 
condition, let us have it ; if more men are needed, let us 
find them. But in any case let us have our instructors 
with their fingers upon the pulse of struggling human- 

John A. IIeid. 

Stockton, Cal., November 27. 

Cornish Pumps of New Design. 

The Editor : 

Sir— In your issue of December 14 mention is made of 
Cornish pumps being used at the Berry United mine near 
Ballarat, in Victoria. 

It may interest you to know that two double sets of 
these pumps were also installed in the Keystone shaft of 
the Loddon Valley Gold Fields Ltd., at Moorlort, in the 
same State, to pump, in two stages, from what was 
called the 500-ft. level of the mine. 

The accompanying photograph clearly shows the con- 
struction of these pumps, and some departure from the 
usual form will be noticed. The flanges are the only flat 
surfaces in the design; and the old, square box-section 
clack chamber, which may have an excuse for its exist- 
ence in smaller sizes, is discarded as being altogether 
unsuitable for a pump with 26-in. diam. plunger. The 
H construction is modified to bring separate parts of the 
pump into convenient weights and sizes for handling. 
The joints are all made with J-in. diam. rubber insertion 

packing compressed into suitable recesses arranged in 
meeting faces. The valves are clearly shown, and are 
practically identical with the valves used by Henry 
Teague in 1863. The main valve ring is made of cast 
steel, the top valve of cast iron, the seat being of the com- 
mon ' clack ' design. 

The Y on the top of the discharge-valve chamber is 
fitted with a snifter 6-in. diam. and the branch is to 
carry an air-chamber. This is charged by means of an 
apparatus of simplest automatic operation, and the 
desired water-level in each chamber, determined by 
observation, is maintained by means of a small escape 
pipe connected between the air-chamber and the dis- 
charge-pipe line. When the air-chambers were to be 
installed one of the ' old timers ' was surprised and dis- 
gusted at the willful waste of money. " And what's the 
good of air-chambers anyhow ? They're no good. Why? 
I never saw one on a Cornish pump in all my life !" 

These pumps were built by the Austral-Otis Engineer- 
ing Co. of Melbourne, from designs by the writer, at that 
time mechanical engineer for Bewick, Moreing & Co. in 
Victoria. The plungers are 26-in. diam. with stroke of 
10 ft. and at a speed of 8 rev. per min. of crank-shaft; the 
plunger displacement is 3,175,000 gal. per 24 hr.; or 
assuming a slip of 10%, which is probably excessive, the 
net delivery would be 2,857,000 gal. per 24 hours. 

A Cornish pump plant of large capacity should 
give a total combined efficiency of about 80% ; this being 
taken from the throttle valve of the engine to the water- 
delivery. Cornish purnps of much less capacity cannot 
be expected to afford equal efficiencies. An electrically 
driven turbine pump-plant, comprising steam generating 
apparatus, can hardly be expected to give a total com- 
bined efficiency of more than about 45 % . The applica- 
tion of electrically driven pumps has had some encour- 
agement during the past few years and some of them may 
be showing satisfactory results. Such plants are usually 
more attractive than the cumbersome and expensive 
Cornish pump. The saving of expense by installation of 
the cheaper plant may be fully warranted when the life 
service of the plant falls within the time limit set by the 
angular contact of the two lines on a diagram of costs 
representing the combined first costs, running expenses, 
interest, etc., appropriate to the respective efficiencies. 


San Francisco, January 4. 

A Difficult Bit of Geology. 

The Editor: 

Sir — A few years ago, while in Mexico, my attention 
was called to what was represented as being a very large 
body of low-grade gold ore, sufficiently rich to be made 
profitable, if equipped with such a plant as the amount of 
ore seemed to justify. 

My informant was a well educated man, a graduate of 
Yale, a man who had traveled extensively, of some ex- 
perience in mining matters, who had assisted in an 
examination and sampling of the mine in question, 
and I could believe had no object in trying to mis- 
lead me. A few weeks later, while in Culiaean, Sinaloa, 
I met a man from the immediate vicinity of this prop- 
erty, who, in answer to my inquiry, spoke well of it asa 
matter of casual observation, and at my request said that 
upon his return home he would again look at it and 
let me know whether or not it would justify a more 
careful examination. This man was an American of 
ordinary intelligence and education, of much experience 
as a niiiier and prospector, and, what is more, an honest 

In a few days he wired me to come and see the mine, 

January 18, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press 


which I did at once. I found the mine being worked by 
Mexicans, and that during the preceding month, as rep- 
resenting one month's work, they had cleaned up about 
$1800 in gold from one arrastre, run by the motive power 
of one burro; which was certainly an encouraging show- 
ing, so I entered upon an examination more than usually 
hopeful of a favorable result. 
For a time the mine was quite a puzzle, which my pre- 

worked; but that as a mining proposition, for commer 
cial profit on any considerable development and invest- 
ment, it was valueless. 

A description and explanation of the geology of the 
mine will perhaps make plain my reasons for this con- 
clusion, and be instructive to some one who might have 
a similar puzzle to work out. The mine, or ore deposit, 
occurs at the valley terminal of a mountain spur which 

Pumps for the Berry United Mine, Victoria. 

liminary work did not unravel, and I entered uj>on the 
work of sampling uncertain what was the form and 
nature of the mineralization. Hut in tin- study of such 
■ p.— -sections as would best represent the value of the 
orebody, or l*>dies, as a mining proposition, and watch- 
ing the work of the miners, it became leas of a puzzle, 
until after some hours its true character became a cer- 
tainty, and I said to my companion that 1 did not care to 
take more samples; that the property was all right for 
Mexicans to work in the way in which it was now being 

in it« uplift has intruded a fissure, which it probably 
caused, in a not very heavy andesite How that covered the 
country, and which, while tteing a plastic porphyritic 
rock, was sufficiently rigid to not flow hut lift the andesite 
as a blanket on its sides without shattering it except at the 
valley terminal, where it gave it a thrust. This shattering 
created gashes or fissures, which permitted of a rapid 
cooling of the hot plastic underlying porphyry, and con- 
sequently a gashing coinciding in a measure with the 
overlying andesite gashing. The unbroken edge of the 


Mining and Scientific Press. January 1 8, ms. 

andesite lying as a blanket on the sides of the mountain- 
spur formed a trough, in which the drainage from the 
central porphyry apex percolated down to the valley 
terminal, gathering the minute quantities of gold from 
the disintegrating rocks and precipitating them in these 
comparatively colder, because more exposed, gashes above 

These numerous gashes on, or around the end of the 
mountain-spur, all mineralized, gave the deceptive ap- 
pearance of a mountain of ore, and might easily mislead. 
Indeed, I subsequently learned that some 15 years prior 
to my examination a Chicago company had spent some- 
thing like $100,000 in building and putting in operation 
a mill, only to shut down after two weeks' run for the 
want of ore of sufficient value to pay; all the ground be- 
tween the gashes proving valueless. Had they spent 
$5000 in proving the mine before building a mill they 
would have saved themselves $95,000. A gash vein is 
not unusual and is generally easily recognized; but a 
system of such veins so closely related is unusual, and 
might deceive an inexperienced man. 

John M. Henton. 

Rhyolite, Nev., December 17. 

A Suggestion. 

The Editor: 

Sir— Without disparaging the excellent work done by 
the corps of geologists maintained in the field by the 
U. S. Geological Survey, there is undoubtedly much jus- 
tice in your criticism that geological reports partake 
largely of the nature of obituaries. The methods of the 
Survey do not seem to favor real pioneer work. There 
is more or less work about affording guidance to the 
prospector, but as it works out in the field it is rather the 
prospector who guides the geologist. 

Now, would it not be economy all around, instead of 
paying the professional geologist for collecting data 
largely furnished gratis by mining men and prospectors, 
to pay the properly equipped prospector himself under 
certain conditions for reporting on territory which he 
explores. A fraction of the liberal salaries which per- 
mit young geologists to acquire experience in the 
Government service would grubstake a goodly number 
of first-class prospectors and probably lead to the discov- 
ery of new mineral districts. Probably many young mem- 
bers of the Survey would prefer a grubstake and the 
chance of doing something on their own account to an 
assured salary. It appears some such plan might be 
worked out that would stimulate prospecting, make bet- 
ter geologists, and develop a spirit of independence where 
it seems to be greatly needed — among our educated men. 


Ketchikan, Alaska, December 17. 


The Editor: 

Sir— In your issue of December 28, there is an article 
written by myself on Cobalt. In this article I state : 
"Up to the beginning of the present year, about 
12,000,000 oz. silver valued at about $7,500,000 have 
been sold." This is an error. I should have stated that 
the production to January 1907, was about 9,000,000 oz. 
valued at about $5,500,000. Kindly correct this. 

The amount of ore sold for 1907 is nearly 15,000 tons, 
containing probably 10,000,000 oz. or more of silver. 
This does not take into consideration low-grade ore of, 
say, 60 oz. or less. Three concentrating plants are in 
operation on the Coniagas, McKinley-Darragh, and Cobalt 
Central. Two large public concentrating plants are 
being erected, one on the Nipissing, using dry concen- 
tration, and another called the Muggley concentrator. 

Various mining companies are contemplating installing 
concentrators. These, as well as the ore at present sold, 
should largely increase the production for the present 

Frank C. Lokixg. 

Toronto, January 4. 

Borax in California. — San Bernardino, Inyo, and 
Ventura counties in California yield all the borax pro- 
duced in the United States. The total output of crude 
borax for the year 1906 was 58,173 short tons, valued at 
$1,182,410. This was an increase over 1905 of 11,839 
short tons in quantity and $163,256 in value. The most 
productive mine was that of the Pacific Coast Borax Co. 
near Marion, in San Bernardino county. The workings 
extend to a depth of about 600 ft. in veins of colemanite. 
However, about the close of 1906, the mine was abandoned 
and the entire force of 200 men was transferred to the 
Lila C mine in Inyo county. The Western Mineral Co., 
near Daggett, produced a small output by dissolving its 
material and evaporating to dryness in solar vats, yield- 
ing boric acid. The American Borax Co. at the same 
place mined a low-grade deposit and produced boric acid 
concentrate which was refined at New Brighton, Pa. In 
Inyo county, the Western Borax Co. is working ' marsh 
mud;' this is concentrated by boiling and the solution is 
then crystallized. Near Griffin, in Ventura county, cole- 
manite is mined by the Frazier Borate Mining Co.; it is 
refined by the Stauffer Chemical Co., at San Francisco. 
The Lila C mine in the Death Valley region is expected 
to be the heaviest producer of borax in the State for sev- 
eral years. The deposit is a colemanite vein known to 
be about 2000 ft. long and from 6 to 18 ft. wide. It is a 
high-grade ore, that shipped in 1907 having a boric acid 
content of about 40^ . The production is expected to be 
at the rate of 30,000 short tons annually. This will be 
shipped to the Pacific Coast Borax Co.'s refinery at 
Bayonne, New Jersey. 

Copper in Newfoundland. — The copper deposits of 
Newfoundland occur on the shores of Notre Dame bay, 
on the east side of the island. They are more properly 
designated as pyrite deposits; they derive their chief 
value from the fact that they are useful in acid-making. 
The Tilt Cove deposit, belonging to the Cape Copper Co., 
and the Pillys Island deposit are the only ones that are 
being worked. They are thick lenticular orebodies of 
cupriferous pyrite inclosed in tilted bands of slates with 
interstratified dolomites, serpentines, and diorites. Three 
orebodies are known as Tilt Cove. The old or East 
mine was opened on an orebody 200 by 300 by 120 ft., 
wedging at a depth of 120 ft. Another is from 22 to 35 
ft. thick. The ore consists of pyrite with close-grained 
yellow chalcopyrite; it carries \fc copper and \\ dwt, 
gold per ton. The Tilt Cove company mined 54,253 tons 
of ore in 1902. It carried 3.3 # copper and yielded a net 
profit of $239,540. In April, 1905, the East mine yielded 
1860 tons of ore averaging 3.25 f ( copper and the. South 
lode, 1977 tons, averaging Z.lhfc copper. 

Damage Suits. — According to a decision just handed 
down by the Supreme Court of the United States suits 
cannot be brought in the United States Court, or in any 
State court of the United States, agaiust the Mexican 
Central Railway Co., Ltd., for injuries received in Mex- 
ico, although the injured parties may be citizens of the 
United States. The decision disposes of 25 cases which 
have been pending on appeal. The decision is based 
upon the dissimilarity of the laws of Texas aud Mexico, 
and the Supreme Court refuses to enforce the Texas law, 
although both the defendant company and the plaintiff" 
come directly within the jurisdiction of the United States. 

January 18, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


Copper Smelting in Tennessee. 

Written for the Mixing and Scientific Press 
HyJ. Pakke Chahking. 

During the early part of 1907 the continued shortage 
of labor in theSouth prevented any material increase in 
the production of the tonnage treated from the mines of the 
Tennessee Copper Co., and the depression in the price of 
copper in the latter part of the year of course discouraged 
any increase at that time. Although the labor situation 
has materially improved, this condition of affairs still 

The production is in the neighborhood of 12,500,000 lb. 
per year, though the mines, railway, and smelter have 
been so equipped that, if conditions demanded, the pro- 
duction could readily be increased to 20,000,000 lb. 
per year. At the principal mine of the company, the 
I iurr-.t Burnt, the 2J-ton skips have been replaced by 5-ton 
skips, and the steam-pressure on the hoisting engine 
raised proportionately, it previously having been re- 
duced from boiler pressure before entering the cylinders. 
This idea was held in view in the original equipment of 
the property and has worked out with remarkable suc- 

For handling the men, cages similar to those used at 
theQuiney mine, on Lake Superior, have been introduced. 
The shortage of labor has prevented much development 
work during the year, but this has now been taken up 
again and the shafts at the various mines will lie sunk 
during the coming winter. An order has been placed 
with the Bucyrus company for a special type of dlpper- 
shovel operated by compressed air and this will be in- 
stalled underground on one of the Burra Burra levels for 
the purpose of loading ore from the underhand stopes 
into the mine cars. It is ho|ied that this will produce a 
material saving in the cost of loading and will also solve 
to a very large extent the difficult problem of securing the 
common labor necessary for this very inij>ortant part of 
mine operations. 

On the railway, a large number of cars have been 
rebuilt and one new 100,000-lb. locomotive added to the 
motive j>ower. At the smelter an immense improve- 
ment has been made in the metallurgical o|*>rations, due 
very largely to increased mechanical efficiency of the 
charging system and the slag disposal system. Heavier 
locomotives and larger and stronger cars have l)een 
introduced. Heavier rails have l>een installed, so that 
delays from derailments have l>een practically over- 
come. It has also been found that the tuyere area 
of the furnaces was too small to permit of proper 
punching of the crust inside the blast-furnace. How- 
ever, by (>aying particular attention to this point 
and keeping the tuyeres well open, the volume of 
blast has been materially Increased, with a consequent 
better running of the furnaces; in fact, four furnaces at 
the end of the year are handling as much ore as six fur- 
naces at the beginning of the year. It is intended to en- 
large the tuyere openings by making out of each j>air of 
tuyeres a long slotted tuyere, and it is hoped that the 
tonnage of the furnace will lie still more increased. The 
larger volume of air, curiously enough, has resulted in 
an increased amount of FeO in the slag and a consequent 
reduction in the amount of silica necessary or else by an 
increase in the grade of the matte. I>uring the early 
part of the year the first matte went about 10% cop|>er. 
At present it seldom runs below 19%, and at times with 
anew furnace and the tuyeres well open, a 80% matte 
has been made continuously for 48 hours. There is a 
possibility that in time the second or concentrating ope- 
ration may be entirely eliminated, though it is still too 
early to predict such a radical change. Now that the 

problem of making sulphuric acid is of as great impor- 
tance as the production of matte, it is necessary to con- 
sider the volume of air blown into the furnace. Still, in- 
dications point to the probability that all air within rea- 
sonable amounts blown into the furnace combines with 
either the carbon of the coke or the sulphur and iron of 
the ore. 

In the converting department the only change has been 
in the final determination to abandon the re-smelting of 
converter-slag and the pouring of that portion which is 
fluid into the settlers. This has been a much mooted 
cpjestion, but at Tennessee it has been definitely proven 
that unquestionably the commercial gains are far in ex- 
cess of any possible metallurgical loss. The converter- 
floor is kept remarkably clean by pouring the last dregs of 
melted material from the converter ladles into small hand- 
pots, which are then run out and dumped. The skull in 
the ladle is dumped on the floor, breaks into pieces, 
and is not cemented together by the usual small amount 
of slag left in the ladle under old conditions. 

The sulphuric acid plant has just been completed and 
at the present time the gases are going through it, and 
such minor adjustments are l>eing made as are necessary 
in any plant of this size. Sufficient progress has, how- 
ever, been made to show that without doubt the process 
will be a success. It is found that the proper grade of 
gas may lx> obtained by an adjustment of the various 
dampers. It is still too early to go into the details of the 
process, but it is hoped that later on a careful technical 
description of the results achieved will !>e given out. 

Cerro de Pasco. — It was five years ago July 9, 19(17, 
that American engineers were sent to Peru to examine 
the Cerro de Pasco mines for the Hearst Estate and J. B. 
Haggin, as a result of which these two interests purchased 
the property. During these 5] years a total of *17,- 
500,(>oo has been expended in the purchase and develop- 
ment of this property to the producing stage, as follows: 
For the mines, (7,000,000; smelter, $8,000,000; railroad, 
120 miles, $2,600,000; development, $5,000,000; total, 
$17,600,000. R. H. Channing, formerly general man- 
ager for the I tab Consolidated Co., is now in charge of 
the Cerro de Pasco. Three or four furnaces of 250 tons 
capacity each are now in commission and 2,000,000 lb. 
blister copper |>cr month is being shipped into the United 
States for refining. Most of this product is being refined 
by the American Smelting & Refining Co. at its Keyser 
plant in Baltimore and the product has subsequently 
found a market in Europe. Operating conditions at the 
Cerro de Pasco make the production of copper a matter 
of considerable difficulty, as the mines are 14,000 ft. 
above sea-level and the native lal>or is very incompetent; 
6000 men are employed. There is a vast amount of ore 
in sight in the mines which averages al>out 10% copper 
in the Cerro de I'asco mines and 16% copper in the Mor- 
octx-ha mines, also owned by this company. There are 
75,00(1 tons of ore on the Cerro de I'asco dumps and 
40, (MM) tons on the Morococha dumps which will 
average 15% copper. The ores are found within a dis- 
trict one mile wide and two miles in length and they 
carry sufficient gold and silver values to permit of cheap 
costs, notwithstanding the many disadvantages of oi>era- 
tion. While probably the Cerro de I'asco has proved 
one of the most expensive copper propositions everdevel- 
oped, the leading interests in the company express no 
fear that eventually they will get back their initial 
expenditure of $17,600,000. .1. B. Haggin, one of the 
largest owners, is 87 years of age. He has been in min- 
ing enterprises all his life and is the guiding genius in 
this Peruvian enterprise. — Bo*ton Xeim Itureau. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 18, 1908. 

California Minerals. 

Written for the Mixing and Scientific Press 
By Arthur S. Kaki.k. 

More than three hundred definite mineral species are 
known to occur in California, and of these about ten per 
cent were discovered first in the State and described as 
new minerals. A brief description of these distinctively 
Californian minerals, with the date of discovery, may be 
of interest. 

Aragotite. A hydrocarbon compound found as 
bright yellow scales in the silicious dolomite of the New 
Almaden cinnabar mine. Discovered in 1872 and named 
for the astronomer, Arago. The mineral was subse- 
quently found with cinnabar at the old Redington mine, 
at Knoxville, in Lake county. 

Bake rite. A hydrous boro-silicate of lime, 
(Ca 8 BioSioO S 5 + 6H 2 0). Found in white amorphous 
masses associated with colemanite and ulexite at the 
borax deposits near Daggett, in San Bernardino county. 
Discovered in 1903 and named for II. C. Baker, of Nut- 
field, Surrey, England. 

Benitoite. A titano-silicate of barium, BaTiSi 3 9 . 
Found in hexagonal crystals of a beautiful blue color, 
transparent and hard, near the headwaters of the San 
Benito river in San Benito county. Discovered in 1907 
and named for the county. This is the latest find of a 
new mineral in the State, and it is important as a gem 

Boothite. A hydrous copper sulphate, CuS0 4 + 
7H 2 0. Found in green crystals and powder intimately 
associated with chalcanthite in the Alma pyrite mine, at 
Leona Heights, in Alameda county. Discovered in 1903 
and named for Edward Booth, of the University of Cali- 
fornia. It has been found since at Campo Seco. 

Caeaverite. A telluride of gold and silver (Au, 
Ag)Te a . Found as pale bronze yellow masses in the old 
Stanislaus mine, Calaveras county, associated with other 
tellurium minerals. Discovered in 1868 and named for 
the county. It has been found in abundance later at 
Cripple Creek, Colorado. 

Colemanite. A hydrous borate of lime, CaoBoOn + 
5H a O. Found as colorless and whitish monoclinic crys- 
tals in Death Valley, Inyo county. Discovered in 1882 
and named for W. T. Coleman, of San Francisco. Found 
in greater abundance and beautiful crystals during the 
following year in the Calico district, San Bernardino 
county. Colemanite is an important mineral for the 
manufacture of borax. 

Crossite. A silicate of alumina, iron, lime, magne- 
sia, and soda, forming a soda-amphibole. Found in lath- 
shaped crystals of a dark blue color as a constituent of 
some crystalline schists north of Berkeley, in Contra Costa 
county. Discovered in 1894 and named for Whitman T. 
Cross, of the United States Geological Survey. 

Haxksite. A sulphato-carbonate of soda, 4Na 2 S0 4 , 
Na a C0 8 . Found in good hexagonal crystals associated 
with borax at Borax lake, San Bernardino county. Dis- 
covered in 1885 and named for Henry G. Hanks, former 
State Mineralogist. 

Idoixgsite. A hydrous silicate of iron, lime, magne- 
sia, and soda. Found as bronze and brownish-red crys- 
tals in some of the eruptive rocks at Carmel Bay, Mon- 
terey county. Discovered in 1893 and named for J. P. 
Iddings, of Chicago University. Observed subsequently 
as a constituent of rocks from other localities. 

Ionite. A hydrocarbon found as a compact earthy 
brownish-yellow substance in the lignite of lone valley, 
Amador county. Discovered in 1878 and named for the 

Knoxvillite. A hydrous basic sulphate of chro- 

mium, iron, and alumina. Found as greenish-yellow 
plates associated with redingtonite in the old Redington 
cinnabar mine, at Knoxville, Lake county. Discovered 
in 1888 and named for the locality. 

Lawsoxite. A hydrous silicate of lime and alumina, 
H 4 CaAl 2 Si 2 Oio. Found in good orthorhombic crystals 
and plates of a light bluish-gray color in the crystalline 
schists of the Tiburon peninsula, in Marin county. Dis- 
covered in 1895 and named for A. C. Lawson, of the 
University of California. Lawsonite has been observed 
subsequently as a constituent of glaucophane schists and 
gneisses in many other localities. 

Mariposite. A hydrous silicate of alumina, mag- 
nesia, potash, and chromium, forming one of the micas. 
Found as apple-green scales and flakes in the rocks of the 
Mariposa region. Long known as constituent of the 
crystalline schists of the Mother Lode region, but first 
described in 1867 and named for the Mariposa Estate. 

Meloxite. A telluride of nickel, perhaps Ni 2 Te 8 . 
Found in reddish white granular and foliated particles 
in the Melones mine, Calaveras county. Discovered in 
1867 and named for the mine. Probably exists also at 
Boulder, in Colorado. 

Metacixxabarite. Black sulphide of mercury, HgS. 
Found in amorphous masses at the Redington cinnabar 
mine, at Knoxville, Lake county. Discovered in 1872 
and named for its difference from cinnabar. Later 
found in good crystals at the original locality and at 
New Almaden, New Idria, and elsewhere. 

Napalite. A hydrocarbon, C 3 H 4 . Found as a waxy 
bituminous substance of a dark reddish-brown color, as- 
sociated with cinnabar at the Pho?nix mine, in Napa 
county. Discovered in 1888 and named for the county. 

Northlpite. A double carbonate of soda and mag- 
nesia with sodium chloride MgC0 3 ,Xa 2 CO s , NaCl. Found 
in small colorless to brownish octahedral crystals in 
the clay from a boring at Borax lake, San Bernardino 
county. Discovered in 1895 and named for C. H. 

Partzite. A hydrous oxide of antimony mixed with 
other metallic oxides. Found in blackish-green to black 
masses in the Blind Springs district, Mono county. Dis- 
covered in 1865 and named for A. F. W. Parte. Part- 
zite is not a well-defined mineral species. 

Pirssoxite. A hydrous double carbonate of lime 
and soda, CaC0 3 ,Na 2 C0 3 ,2H 2 0. Found in good ortho 
rhombic crystals, colorless and white, associated with 
northupite at Borax lake, in San Bernardino county. 
Discovered in 1896 and named for L. V. Pirsson of Yale 

Posei'xytk. A hydrocarbon, C 2 2H 36 4 . Found in 
plates and nodules of a dirty light green color, asso- 
ciated with cinnabar in the Great Western mine, Lake 
county. Discovered in 1877 and named for the geolo- 
gist, F. Posepny. 

Rei>ix<;toxite. A hydrous sulphate of chrome, iron, 
and alumina. Found in finely fibrous and crystalline 
masses of a pale purple color, associated with knoxvillite 
at the Redington cinnabar mine, in Lake county. Dis- 
covered in 1888 and named for the mine. 

Roscoelite. A silicate of vanadium, aluminum, and 
potassium, forming a vanadium mica. Found in mica- 
ceous masses and scales of a dark clove-brown to 
brownish-green color, intimately associated with gold, 
at Granite creek, near Coloma, in El Dorado county. 
Discovered in 1874 and named for Sir Henry E. Ros- 
coe, of Manchester, England. The mineral was first 
called colomite. It was observed later near Sutter's mill 
and in the Magnolia district, Colorado. 

Soxomaite. A hydrous sulphate of magnesia and 
alumina 3MgS0 4 Al 2 (S0 4 ) 3 + 33H.O. Found as silky 

January 18, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


colorless crystals near the geysers, Sonoma county. Dis- 
covered in 1876 and named for the county. 

Stibioferrite. An impure hydrous oxide of anti- 
mony and iron. Found as a brownish-yellow coating on 
stibnite in Santa Clara county. Discovered in 1873 and 
named stibioferrite from its composition. It is probably 
not a distinct species. 

Sii.I'HOhalite. A sulphato-chloride of soda, 3Na 2 SO.j, 
2NaCl. Found as transparent isometric crystals of a 
greenish-yellow color, implanted on hanksitefrom Borax 
lake, San Bernardino county. Discovered in 1891 and 
named from its composition. 

Tychite. A double carbonate of magnesia and soda 
with sulphate of soda, 2MgC0 3 2Na2, CO s , Na 2 S< U- Found 
as small octahedral crystals among many northupite 
crystals from Borax lake, San Bernadino county. Dis- 
covered in 1905, and named from the Greek word for 

Names have also been given to varieties of well- 
known species and to minerals which were supposed to 
be new. Thus: 

Berxardixite. Supposed to be a new fossil resin 
from San Bernardino county, but proved later to be a 
fungous growth impregnated with resin. Discovered in 
1879 and named for the county. 

Cai.ikorxite. A variety of vesuvianite found in very 
compact green masses, resembling jade; on the south fork 
of Indian creek, about 90 miles from Yreka, Siskiyou 
county. Discovered in 1903 and named from the State. 

KixziTK. A variety of spodumene, a II th la-alumina 
silicate. Found in transparent crystals and cleavage 
pieces of amathystine purple and magenta colors, in the 
tourmaline district of I'ala, San Diego county. Discov- 
ered in 1903 and named for George F. Kunz of New 
York. The mineral is important asa beautiful gem stone. 

Pai.acheitk. Supposed to be a new hydrous sulphate 
of iron and magnesia, but proved later to be l>otryogeu. 
Found in masses of loosely coherent crystals of a brick- 
red color in the Itedington cinnabar mine, at KnoxvIUe, 
Lake county. Discovered in 1908 and named for Charles 
Palache, of Harvard University. 

Tractwixite. Sup|>osed to be a new silicate of chro- 
mium, iron, and calcium, but proved later to be an im- 
pure chrome garnet, uvarovite. Found as green coat- 
ing on chromite in Monterey county. Discovered in 
1873 and named for J. C. Trautwine. 

A CHECK-OFF system whereby it is possible at any 
time to determine the exact numlicr of miners and other 

laborers underground is in use at so large mines. At 

the office there is a carefully designed check-board, large 
enough to be properly spaced with nails at equal dis- 
tances, so that numbered checks can hang in order, and 
the check-clerk can quickly pick oft* any number from 
the board. Kach employee receives a check when he 
reports for work and returns it to the office when the 
day's work is done. One advantage of a careful system 
of this sort is that no man can l>e injured by falls of 
roof or local explosions and be left in the mine without 
his absence being noted. This leads to a prompt investiga- 
tion as to the cause of non-appearance of the miner and 
the sending to him of assistance. A notable feature in 
connection with some recent explosions in coal mines has 
been the inability of the officials to determine thenumber 
of men underground at the time of the explosion ; the 
check-off system would have prevented this uncertainty. 
In coal mining, after the day's work has started the 
■Dperintendent can closely figure how many tons of 
coal the mine will prolwbly produce for the day, by look- 
ing over the Ixwrd and noting the number of men under- 

The Prospector. 

Enquiries sent to this department are answered free of charge, If 
submitted by subscribers who are not In arrears. The full name and 
post-office address of the sender must be given, otherwise no answer 
will be made. Those who are not subscribers must accompany their 
questions with a fee of S3 for each question. Xo assays are made. 

J. W. S. sends Quartzite. 

Dolomitic Limestone was sent by C. D. B., of Yreka 

D. C. F., of Tonopah, New, sends Tripolite or Diato- 
maceous earth. 

Specimens sent by H. C. A., of Wallace, Idaho, have 
not been received. 

W. B. H., of San Francisco, sends specimens Xo. 1, 2, 
and 3 of Soda Rhyollte. 

A specimen of specular Hematite in Epidote aud 
Quartz was sent by A. H. F., of Argenta, Montana. 

Black sand, consisting of Magnetite, Ilmenite, red 
Garnet, and Quartz grains was sent by J. P., of Eureka, 

Specimens 9ent by C. H. L., of Silver City, New 
Mexico, are: No. 1, Obsidian or Pitchstone; No. 2, Clay 
stained by Hematite. 

The two specimens from U. H., of Hawthorne, New, 
are: No. 1, granitic rock stained by Chrysoeolla; No. 2, 
veins of Chrysoeolla and Malachite. 

M. L. M., of San Juan, Porto Rico, sends: No. 2, 
Chalcocite, Bornite, Malachite, and Azurite in an olivine 
basalt; No. 3, Basalt; No. 1, altered basaltic rock. 

The rocks received from J. it., of Coffee, Cal., are: 
No. 1, Talc-Schist; No. 'J, green and brown Chlorite; No. 
8, Serpentine; No. 1, Hornblende-Biotite-Andesite. 

Specimens from Wonder, New, marked H. G. (J., are: 
No. 29 and 30, probably mineralized Ithyolite or Ande- 
site; No. 31, Andesite; No. 32, Biotite in Ithyolite; No. 
83, Diorite. 

Minerals from Beatty, New, marked A. J., are: No. 
1, Chalcocite and Malachite; No. 2, Bornite, Chalcocite, 
and Malachite; No. 3 and 1, Chalcopyrite in granitic 
rock; No. 5, Chalcopyrite and Limonite; No. 6, Pyrite; 
No. 7, Schist. 

C. II. B., of Jalisco, Mexico, sends: No. 1, Meta- 
Andesite; No. 2, Hornblende-Syenite; No. 3, Obsidian; 
No. 4, Andesite; No. 6, (>, 7, and 8, Metamorphics, 
mostly Quartzite; No. 9 and 10, Andesite; No. 11 and 12, 
Rhyollte; No. 13, Quartzite; No. II, Meta- Andesite; 
No. 15, Ithyolite; No. Hi and 17, Andesite. 

The rocks from Iron Mountain, Mich., marked J. H. H., 
are: No. 1, Mica-Schist; No. 2, Pyrite in Mica-Schist; 
No. 3, Slate; No. 1, Slate or Quartzite; No. 5, Chlorite- 
Schist; No. <!, Mica-Chlorite Schist; No. 7, Pyrite in 
Amphibolite; No. 8, Quartzite; No. !», Quartzite; No. 
in, Schist; No. 11, Talcose-Schist; No. 12, Chalcopyrite 
in Quartz; No. 13; Quartzite; No. 11, Chert; No. l~>, 
Quartzite; No. 16, Amphibolite. 

The samples from Joseph, Idaho, marked A, are: No. 
1, specular Hematite; No. 2, Chalcopyrite; No. 3, Horn- 
blende; No. I, Tetrahedrite and Pyrite; No. 5, Calcite; 
No. »i, Magnetite in Diorite; No. 7, Basalt; No. K, Gneiss; 
No. 9, Quartzite; No. 10, Magnetite; No. 11, Pyrite and 
Hematite; No. 12, Diorite; No. 13, Hematite; No. 14, 
Aplite; No. 16, Biotite-Gneiss; No. 1(1, Kpidote; No. 
17, Gneiss; No. 18, Diorite; No. 19, Magnetite; No. 20, 
Magnetite in rock; No. 21, Granite; No. 22, Diorite. 


Mining and Scientific Press. January is, iw. 

Copper Production. 

From present indications the output of copper in the 
Territory of Arizona last year amounted to 260,250,000 
lb. and that Territory took the first place in copper 
output in the United States. This is not due to any in- 
crease in its production, however, but is the result of the 
falling off of 120,000,000 lb. in the production at Butte. 

We estimate the production of copper on the American 
continent in 1907, compared with 1906, as follows (in 









Arizona 260,250,000 

Montana::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::..: 240,000,000 

Michigan 230,000,000 

Utah 98,750,000 

California 21 ' 0o( i'? O ° 

Other States 15,000,000 

Mexico and Canada 150,000,000 

Total production 1,016,000,000 1,172,000,000 

We figure the production in Arizona in 1907, by camps 
and companies, as follows: 

, Production 

1907. 1906. 



( Arizona Copper Co....'..';..'..;::.......... 27,000,000 26,960,000 

Clifton- J shannonCo PF 14,200,000 n ' 964 '«£ 

Morencl (Detroit Co 15,000,000 16,906,000 

Globe Old Dominion 36.000,000 34,400,000 

Jerome United Verde 33,000,000 38,000,000 

Miscellaneous 7,600,000 10,000,000 



™=w.„ /Copper Queen 88,000,000 

Bisbee j California & Arizona 39,550,000 

Total 260,260,000 


Decisions Relating to Mining. 

Specially reported for the Miking and Scientific Press. 

The above totals in each year include a certain amount 
of Nacozari and Greene Consolidated production treated 
by the Copper Queen and Old Dominion in the form of 
concentrates and used for fluxing purposes. Had it not 
been for the unsettled copper situation, which necessi- 
tated restriction of the 1907 output of copper in the Terri- 
tory, Arizona would undoubtedly have reached the 
300,000,000-lb. mark, whereas production fell off 20,- 
000,000. There is now a smelting capacity in the 
Territory sufficient to output considerably in excess of 
300,000,000 lb. per annum. 

Utah has made a notable gain in copper production in 
1907 by reason of developments in the Utah Copper Co., 
Boston Consolidated, and Cactus properties and the 
operation of the new Garfield smelter. That smelter is 
now equipped to output 6,000,000 lb. copper per mouth, 
largely by reason of the treatment of Utah copper and 
Boston Consolidated concentrate. This would indicate 
an output from this smelter alone of 72,000,000 lb. per 
annum. The other smelters in the State are now shut 
down or preparing to shut down, and this fact may have 
some bearing upon Utah copper production in the new 
year, although, with any improvement in copper prices, 
the Utah ores would probably be shipped outside of the 

Increased copper production is to be expected from 
California during 1908 with the enlarged capacity of 
the Mammoth smelter, the new Balaklala smelter, 90 <& 
completed, the Mountain Copper Co. plant reconstructed, 
and the new Bully Hill smelter about ready to blow in. 
A production of about 50,000,000 lb. copper from Cali- 
fornia in 1908 is within reason. Nevada will also be a 
factor shortly, for the Ely camp will be productive by 
April. A production of 50,000,000 lb. from the State 
next year, however, is about the limit of expectations. — 
Boston News Bureau. 

Where blasting was required to be done after the general 
work in the mine ceased, and where it was the custom, 
when one miner left his work before quitting time, for his 
asssistant to fire off his blast, it was held that such an as- 
sistant in firing the blast of his fellow miner was not a 
volunteer, and that in case of injury he was entitled to 

McHenry Coal Co. v. Render, (Ky.) 104 Southwest, 
996, Nov., '07. 

Proof that a mine was not properly ventilated, that the 
air was bad, and that an explosion of gas occurred, was 
held sufficient proof of negligence on the part of the mine 

McHenry Coal Co. v. Render, (Ky.) 104 South, 996, 
Nov., '07. 

Where it appeared that a miner, by reason of an explosion 
of gas was thrown some distance down the entry and 
bruised and was severely burned, a verdict of ?6,000 was 
held not excessive and such verdict could not be set aside 
on appeal because the evidence of the defendant indicated 
that there was no explosion of gas, but that the plaintiff 
was burned by a blast which he exploded. 

McHenry Coal Co. v. Render, (Ky.) 104 Southwest, 
996, Nov., '07. 

The failure of the locator to discover oil and a failure to 
retain possession and prosecute the work, was held fatal to 
the validity of the location under the statute providing that 
the entry of petroleum lands should be governed by the law 
relating to placer claims. 

New England Oil Co. v. Congdon, (Cal.) 92 Pac. 180, 
Oct., '07. 

The mere posting of notice and marking boundaries on 
the ground will not exclude others from a peaceable entry 
where the first locator had made no discovery, and had not 
retained possession and prosecuted the work looking to a 

New England Oil Co. v. Congdon, (Cal.) 92 Pac. 180, 
Oct., '07. 

Where an oil claim was located and the boundaries 
marked, but no discovery was made, and a cabin was con- 
structed without furniture, doors or windows, and no one 
lived in it, and a watchman was employed to watch the 
claim in connection with other lands, but no drilling or 
actually developed work was done nor any steps taken in 
that direction, the land was held subject to re-location. 

New England Oil Co. w. Congdon, (Cal.) 92 Pac. 180, 
Oct., '07. 

Where there was a mining district recorder whose place 
of business was publicly known, it was held essential to a 
valid record of a mining claim that the certificate of loca- 
tion be recorded with the district recorder, as well as with 
the county recorder. 

Ford v. Campbell, (New) 92 Pac. 206, Nov., '07. 

Ix structural materials the total annual production of 
the State of California is now between seven and eight 
million dollars. There are included brick and pottery 
clays, portland cement, lime and limestone, asphaltum, 
macadam, rubble and concrete rocks, paving blocks, 
marble, granite, sandstone, serpentine, slate, glass, sand, 
and soapstone. 

A certificate of location of a mining claim describing it as 
situated about two miles from a certain town, was held not 
to constitute a substantial compliance with the statute 
requiring a description of the location of the claim with 
reference to some natural object or permanent monument. 
Ford v. Campbell, (Nev.) 92 Pac. 206, Nov., '07. 

The recording of the certificate of location of a mining 
claim is not an essential requisite to a valid location. 
Ford v. Campbell, (Nev.) 92 Pac. 206, Nov., '07. 

There is no presumption that subterranean rights under 
lode mining locations were considered and determined in 
an adverse suit in the absence of the record of such suit. 

Lawson v. United States Co., 2S Superior Court Re- 
porter 15, Oct., '07 

January 18, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


The Copper River District, Alaska — //. 

Written for the Mixing and Scientific Press 
By W. M. Bkewek. 

In my previous communication on this subject I dis- 
cussed the transportation problem. In this I shall dis- 
cuss briefly the geology and occurrences of mineral. 

The Copper river itself flows in a southeasterly direc- 
tion, and its chief tributary, the Chitina, flows soutwest- 
erly, the confluence being some distance above the 
Abercrombie rapids. Both of these rivers are navigable 
for light-draught stern-wheel steamers, and during the 
summer of 1907 a steamer made the trip up the Copper 
river from Abercrombie rapids as far as Copper Centre, 
which is a telegraph station on the Valdez-Fairbanks 
trail about 120 miles from Valdez. The same steamer 
also made a trip up the Chitina from its mouth to the 
mouth of the Nizina, a few miles northeasterly from and 
above the mouth of the Lakina. 

Up to the present time the only discoveries of copper 
ore made on the Copper river proper are located near 
Taral at a point above the Abercrombie rapids and on 
the route of the projected line of railroad under construc- 
tion from Cordova. T. W. Blakney located several 
claims on which copper ore outcrops some three years ago, 
and has since been doing the necessary representation 
work with a view to having some of the claims opened 
up sufficiently to be able to ship ore whenever the rail- 
road is completed to Taral. No other discoveries have 
been reported between this point and the Koteina river, a 
branch of the Chitina, several miles distant from Taral to 
the northeast. The first location-- nude in this region are 
on Elliott creek, a branch of the Kotsina and apparently 
the western limit of the mineralized country known to- 
day as the Copper River copper country. 

These occurrences of copper ore were fully described 
by \V. ('. Mendenhall and F. C. Schroder of the United 
States Geological Survey in their report published In 1903. 
Since then the holdings of the Hubbard-Elliott company, 
comprising all of the known occurrences of copper ore on 
Elliott creek, have been examined by several mining 
engineers. These locations, from the l*-st information I 
can obtain, are situated about 21 miles in an air line from 
the mouth of the Kotsina river, which would in all prob- 
ability be the nearest point that the line of a trunk rail- 
road would reach; consequently, the owners of the pro|>- 
erty will have to make arrangements for transjtortation 
between it and the mouth of the Kotsina river. How- 
ever, shipments from the mine need not be delayed until 
the railroad is built to that point, because ore can be 
shipped from there by steamer to the Abercrombie rap- 
ids, to which point it is fully expected that the main line 
of railroad will lie constructed during 1908. Therefore, 
whenever the mining property Is developed to a shipping 
stage and some system of transportation installed from 
Elliott creek to the mouth of the Kotsina ri% f er, ore can 
be shipped to the smelters outside. 

Apparently the mineralized zone extends northeast 
from Elliott creek across the Kotsina, Kushkilina, 
Ch«x-kosna, Lakina, and Nizina rivers, and possibly l>e- 
yond into British territory. Until detailed geological 
examinations have been completed of both the United 
States and British territory, the full extent of mineralized 
country in this portion of Alaska and the Yukon cannot 
be determined. One thing Is certain that when we con- 
sider the known discoveries of copper ore in what is 
known as the Copper River district, as well as in the 
neighborhood of the headwaters of the White, Alsek, and 
Tanana rivers, the superficial area is very considerable, 
greater possibly than the area of nearly any other copper- 
producing region. 

Of course, at present this entire country is made up of 
isolated camp%, as for instance, the Hubbard-Elliott camp 
on Elliott creek, the Gray camp on the Kotsina, the 
McCarthy camp near the headwaters of the Kushkilina, 
the Lynch and Greer camps near the headwaters of the 
Lakina, the Bonanza camp near the headwaters of the 
Nizina river. While a large number of prospectors have 
been attracted to this country ever since 1898, when the 
Hubbard-Elliott party went in, yet the number has not 
been sufficient more than to scratch the ground in the 
immediate vicinity of the most accessible portions, these 
naturally being adjacent to the streams; but gradually 
prospectors are extending their explorations into the ter- 
ritory between the rivers; indeed, during 1907 the 
country lying between the headwaters of the Lakina 
river and the Bonanza mine, a distance of several miles, 
was partially prospected, and several locations of copper 
ore were staked. In some respects this region is an easy 
one to prospect, because the rock formation is well ex- 
posed, the ' timber line ' being low, in fact, you rarely 
find any timber growing above the river valleys, and 
that is scrubby. Glaciers of considerable extent occur at 
the headwaters of all the rivers and the rock formation 
shows evidence that these glaciers are of much less extent 
today than they have been in the past. In fact, it would 
appear as though the glaciers of Alaska and the Yukon 
are gradually becoming smaller. 

The geology in the vicinity of the headwaters of the 
Lakina river is not as complicated as it is nearer the 
const. Generally Bpeaking, I found that the summits of 
the mountains were usually made up of crystalline lime- 
stone and that this was underlain by greenstone, in which 
occurred "intrusive masses and dikes of amygdaloidal 
diabase. < )f course, the limestone has suffered severely 
from erosion, so that frequently it is merely found over- 
lying the igneous rocks in patches. Copper ore is found 
occurring at and near the contact between the limestone 
and the greenstone, as well as in the greenstone itself. 
The character of this ore is bomite with some chalcocite 
and chalcopyrite carrying from 4 to 42 ^> copper, and 
where any quantity of solid chalcocite is found the copper 
contents will reach 70 " r , Other occurrences of ore arc 
those found in the amygdaloidal diabase. This ore is 
native copper, much of it occurring as lumps weighing 
from a few ounces to several pounds, while the rock 
itself is found to contain small particles ol native copper 
scattered through it to such an extent that samples are 
found to assay from 0.5 to .'1.6^ per ton. 

Ik-cause of the limited amount of work that has been 
performed, it is not possible to estimate the commercial 
value of any of the occurrences of ore at the lu-adwatcr-; 
of the Lakina river. It is perfectly safe to say that on 
several mineral claims the prospects promise to develop 
into valuable mines, because the work done shows that 
the orebodies can lie traced on the surface for some dis- 
tance, say, for five or six hundred feet, the width varying 
from a few inches to ■'! or I ft. These conditions apply 
to the occurrences of ore in which bornite, chalcocite, and 
chalcopyrite predominate. As far as the occurrences of 
native copper are concerned, the indications are that 
these may Ik> found to possess great extent, and my 
reason for making this statement is that I observed 
intrusive blankets or sheets of amygdaloidal diabase 
exposed by nature on the hanging-wall side for a vertical 
height of 400 ft. or a horizontal measurement of about 
600 ft. This was in a coulee formed in the mountain-side 
by erosion, where the greenstone hanging-wall had been 
carried away, leaving the sheet of amygdaloidal diabase 
exposed for a width varying from 15 to 45 ft., but the 
thickness of this sheet or blanket had not been determined 
at any |>oint. The strike of this body is nearly east and 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 18, 1908. 

west magnetic, its dip being 30° southerly. The lines of 
strike of other orebodies to which my attention was 
called in this region are usually about the same, but the 
dips are generally more nearly vertical, but inclining 
toward the south. 

No thorough examination of this district of Alaska can 
possibly be made unless the entire season is devoted to 
such work, and then it may be found that too little time 
has been allowed to cover the ground, even from Elliott 
creek to the Bonanza mine, to say nothing of the White, 
Alsek, and Tanana districts. 

The altitude of the river valleys varies from about 1000 
ft., which is the elevation of the Copper River valley 
near the mouth of the Tonsina river, and 2800 or 3000 ft., 
which is the elevation of the Lakina valley near the 
headwaters of that river. The mountain ranges reach 
elevations from about 5000 ft., the summit of the 
Kushkilina range, to some 7000 or 8000 ft. at other sum- 
mits, which are accessible for exploration, while of course 
Mt. McKinley, Wrangel, Hood, and Blackburn reach 
much greater altitudes. 

The Production of Copper. 

By L. C. GltATON 

*Of the 917,805,682 lb. copper produced in 1906 by the 
smelters, 15,132,562 1b. were derived from the re-treat- 
ment of materials which had been subjected to reduction 
in previous years — namely, old slags, tailings, furnace 
linings, and the cleanings from old smelter sites. Of the 
404,496 tons of this material, a great part was slags and 
tailings; consequently of low grade and capable of treat- 
ment only because of metallurgical advances. The 
average yield from this old material was about 1.8$. 
The remainder of the smelter output, 902,673,130 lb. 
copper, was the yield from about 19,743,000 tons of ore, 
the average yield per ton being about 43 lb., or 2.15$. 
The 1,700,000 tons of ore mined and treated primarily 
for values other than copper, furnished a very consider- 
able portion of the total copper production. If these 
ores are left out of consideration, the yield of the 
18,000,000 tons of ore mined expressly for copper was 
close to 50 lb. per ton, or 2.5$. The native copper ores 
of Michigan, which in 1906 yielded only 1.26$, being 
excluded, the remaining copper ores of the country 
yielded an average of about 73 lb. per ton, or 3.65 per 

Copper ores yielded 271, 197 oz. gold, and 15,880,870 oz. 
silver, according to mine reports for 1906. This is an 
average yield for the 18,000,000 tons of copper ores of 
about 0.015 oz. gold, and 0.882 oz. silver per ton. If the 
Michigan ores that do not carry silver, amounting to 
about 8,000,000 tons, are excluded from this calculation, 
the copper ores which actually contained precious met- 
als yielded an average of about 0.027 oz. gold, and 1.588 
oz. silver per ton. 

Pyrite smelting, which has grown rapidly in recent 
years, owing not only to metallurgical advances, but 
to the marked increase in mining of pyritic copper ores 
offers, because of its high requirement of silica flux, an 
advantageous method of treatment for these silic'ious 
gold and silver ores which require or permit smelting. 
Copper is thus fast replacing lead as a collector of the 
precious metals in the smelting of dry ores. In conse- 
quence, the gold and silver product of all domestic ores 
treated in copper smelters was considerably in excess of 
the yield from the copper ores alone. This product in 
1906, according to data partially incomplete, was, gold 
48VJ00 oz.; silver, 21,110,000 oz. The 1,700,000 tons of 

^e^iolloalSurveT ' M " lera ' Uesourc ^ of the United states,' U. S. 

ores other than copper ores which were smelted in cop- 
per furnaces furnished, by difference, about 213,000 oz. 
gold, and 5,226,000 oz. silver, an average of 0. 1 25 oz. 
gold, and 3.07 oz. silver per ton — a decidedly higheraver- 
age than that of the copper ores. 

All this gold and silver was recovered as such only on 
electrolytic refining of the pig copper. A part of the 
output of the Morenci-Metcalf and Bisbee districts in 
Arizona, and of the Uucktown district of Tennessee, and 
small quantities from California, New Mexico, and Mis- 
souri are too low in precious metals to make the electro- 
lytic refining of this copper profitable. With these 
exceptions, practically all the blister copper of the coun- 
try, as well as a noteworthy portion (over 10 $ ) of Lake 
copper, is subjected to this separation by electrolysis. In 
all, about 669,000,000 lb. domestic copper carrying gold 
and silver, and requiring electrolytic refining, were pro- 
duced in 1906. Ores containing sufficient quantities of 
both copper and lead to be classed as copper-lead ores 
supplied 59,371 oz. gold and 6,815,678 oz. silver, accord- 
ing to reports from the mines. Practically all these ores 
were smelted in lead furnaces, and the greater part of the 
precious metals was recovered in lead bullion, copper 
being collected as matte and further treated in copper 

Copper mines in general do not fall in the class of 
"poor man's mines." Ordinarily the ore is not amen- 
able to any simple method of reduction, and is of so low 
a grade as to preclude very extended hauls to existing 
reduction plants. Much money must first be spent in 
extensive development of the orebodies. The company 
must usually expect to build its own smelter or mill, and 
to operate on a large scale to achieve low cost of extrac- 
tion. In consequence of these conditions, most of the 
important copper mines of the United States are in the 
hands of strong companies able to advance the capital 
required at the start. 

In few other industries is the tendency toward centrali- 
ization and combination better illustrated than among 
the copper-producing companies. Fully 720,000,000 lb. 
of the 1906 output was produced by four operators — the 
Amalgamated Copper Co., with its many allies and 
associates; the Calumet & Hecla Mining Co.; W. A. 
Clark; and Phelps, Bodge & Co. With the entrance into 
the producing ranks of the Utah Copper and Boston Con- 
solidated companies, the Ely mines, and the Dairy Farm 
mines, and with the expected increase in production of 
the Cactus and Mammoth mines, this list of four com- 
panies will be augmented by the United States Smelting, 
Penning & Mining Co., the Guggenheim interests, and 
the Newhouse interests. Four of these seven concerns 
either maintain or are closely associated with selling 

Production at the principal mines is on a truly enor- 
mous scale, with ore tonnage and copper output of indi- 
vidual mining units ranging up to more than 2,000,000 
tons and 100,000,000 lb., respectively, with single mill- 
ing plants of a daily capacity up to 8000 tons, and with 
smelting plants turning out annually 90,000,000 to 
175,000,000 lb. copper each. To the magnitude of these 
operations almost as much as to the abundance of her 
natural resources does this country owe her pre-eminence 
as a copper producer, with a record of over half the 
world's production. 

Detonatobs for exploding dynamite consist ordinarily 
of a mixture of mercury fulminate, and potassium nitrate 
or chlorate, placed in a copper capsule; when the cap is 
to be fired with a fuse, the fulminate is covered with 
shellac, collodion, thin copper foil, or paper, and the end 
of the capsule is left open to receive the end of the fuse. 



Bureau of Mines. 

A bill to establish, in the Department of the Interior, 
a Bureau of Mines, was introduced on January 6 before 
the House of Representatives by Mr. W. P. Englebright, 
of California. It reads: 

Section 1. That there is hereby established in the 
Department of the Interior a bureau to be called the 
Bureau of Mines. The chief purpose of this bureau shall 
be: (1) The acquisition and diffusion among the people 
of useful information concerning the mine and quarry 
industries, and the more efficient and safer methods of 
extracting and using the mineral products of the United 
States, its territories and insular possessions, with a view 
to the betterment of these industries, the improvement 
of mine conditions, the prevention of accidents, lessening 
the waste of materials, the improvement of milling and 
reduction of ores and securing a wise conservation of the 
fuel and other mineral resources of the nation; and (2) 
the investigation of materials used in construction, fuels, 
metals, and other mineral materials belonging to, or for 
the use of, the Government of the United States and how 
these can be used most efficiently. 

Sec. 2. The President is authorized to appoint, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Senate, a Director 
of said Bureau, who, under the Secretary of the Interior, 
shall be charged with carrying out the purposes and pro- 
visions of this Act, and who shall receive a salary of six 
thousand dollars per annum. The Director of said 
Bureau, with the approval of the Secretary of the 
Interior, shall appoint for service in the city of Wash- 
ington or elsewhere, the necessary experts and regular 
employees; and by authority of the Secretary of the 
Interior, he may employ such additional temporary ex- 
perts and assistants as may be found necessary for like 

Sec. 3. The Director of said Bureau, with the ap- 
proval of the Secretary of the Interior, shall establish a 
station for the investigation of explosives and other 
matters pertaining to mine accidents, and such addi- 
tional testing stations, laboratories, and offices, and he 
shall conduct such inquiries and Investigations as may 
be required in carrying out the provisions of this Act 
In establishing said laboratories or testing stations or for 
use otherwise in carrying out the provisions of this Act, 
the Secretary of the Interior may accept from any State, 
territorial or municipal government or cor|>oration or 
person, any site, building, equipment, or fund which he 
may deem it proper to accept; provided, such acceptance 
shall be reported to Congress, and shall not beeonsidered 
a* binding the Government of the L'nited States beyond 
the appropriations made by Congress; and the President 
is authorized to transfer to the iKqwrtment of the In- 
terior, for use in carrying out the purposes of this Act, 
any grounds or buildings or equipment belonging to the 
Government, and which he finds unnecessary for other 
public uses. 

Sec. 4. The Director of said Bureau shall conduct, 
free of charge, such tests or investigations as may be 
needed concerning the nature and most efficient methods 
of utilizing materials used in construction, fuels, metals, 
and other mineral materials belonging to or for the use 
of the Government of the United State*, except that in 
cases of extended investigation for any other branch of 
the Government service the cost may be l>orne in part 
or wholly by said branch. He may also conduct for the 
authorities of any State, territory, insular ]>ossession, or 
municipality, corporation, or other party, at cost, under 
regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary of the 
Interior, similar tests or investigation*, especially when 
these are connected with building or construction works 

involving public safety, the improvement of mine condi- 
tions, or prospecting on public lands. In conducting 
inquiries herein authorized, the Director and his author- 
ized assistants are hereby given the same power and 
authority in connection with the collection of statistics 
and other information as that given the Director and 
employees of the Census Bureau. 

Sec. 5. The said Bureau is further authorized to co- 
operate with other branches of the Government service, 
or with the authorities of any State, territory, insular 
possession, or municipality in investigations germane to 
the purposes of this Act, in such manner as to avoid un- 
necessary duplication of work or expenditure; and in 
this work either co-operating party is authorized to pay 
the expenses or salary, or both, of any employee of the 
other party during the continuance of such co-operation. 
All money received from other parties as deposits to 
cover the cost of work by this Bureau shall be covered 
into the Treasury of the United States as part of a special 
fund; and all moneys received as contributions toward 
co-operative work herein provided for shall be covered 
into such special fund. The moneys in this special fund 
are hereby appropriated and made available for such 
purposes until expended, as the Secretary of the Interior 
may direct, for the payment of the cost of such work or 
a share of this cost as per agreement, and for refunds to 
the contributors of amounts paid in by them in excess of 
the cost or their share of the same. 

Sec. 6. In connection with the inquiries hereby 
authorized into the mine and quarry industries and the 
most efficient methods of utilizing mineral products in 
foreign countries, the consular officers of the l'nited 
States, when directed by the Secretary of State, shall 
make for the use of this Bureau such special inquiries 
and reports bearing on these subjects as may l>e re- 
quested; and special examinations into such conditions 
may be made in foreign countries by the technical ex- 
perts of this Bureau when in the opinion of the Secretary 
of the Interior the same may be necessary and proper. 

See. 7. The President may appoint as members of a 
National Advisory Hoard for the investigations of this 
Bureau (1), the heads of such other bureaus of the Gov- 
ernment as conduct extensive construction work or pur- 
chase extensive supplies for the Government, to In? tested 
by this Bureau; and (2) other persons experienced and 
skilled in one or more of the several lines of experi- 
mentation or industry to which the work of this Bureau 
relates, as he may deem advisable. This Board shall 
submit to the President through the Secretary of the 
Interior once each year, or from time to time as occasion 
may require, recommendations concerning the work of 
the Government or the conditions in the country to 
which these investigations relate. The members of this 
Board shall serve without compensation, but shall In? 
reimbursed for expenses incurred in attending its meet- 
ings or Inspecting its work, as may Ik- authorized by the 
Secretary of the Interior. 

Sec. s. The Director of said Bureau shall prepare and 
publish, in editions of sufficient size to meet the demands 
for the same: (1) Annual reports embracing an admin- 
istrative statement, and a summary setting forth the 
nature and extent of mine operations and production, 
the nature, causes, and prevention of mine accidents, 
and other results of inquiries and investigations con- 
ducted under the provisions of this Act; (2) bulletins, 
circulars, and special reports, each embracing the results 
of Inquiries or investigations Into one or mure of the 
subjects covered by the provisions of this Act; the same 
to be published anil distributed free of charge, as 
promptly as possible, among the people interested in 
these industries. 


Mining and Scientific Press. January is, m*. 

Canadian Industrial Disputes Act. 

Written for the Mining and Scientific Pkess 
By Frank A. Ross. 

While the Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation 
Act of 1907, popularly known as the Lemieux Act, is in 
most respects as novel and prudent as President Eliot 
declares it to be, and although it deserves all the good 
things said of it in December McClure's, yet those of us 
that operate under it know that in some of its practical 
and unexpected effects it is very burdensome to the 

The crucial test of any statute comes with an attempt 
to enforce its penal clauses. If this fails with respect to 
all parties, then the statute itself becomes a dead letter; 
but if a penal clause is enforcible as to one party and not 
as to the other, then the statute instantly menaces the 
first party at the hands of the second, and this is pre- 
cisely what happens in the case of the Lemieux Act. It 
is operative as to responsible employers but is practically 
inoperative as against irresponsible employees. Presi- 
dent Eliot, himself, evidently saw this feature of the 
Act since, in his conclusions, he says that it is an inter- 
esting question how the penal clauses of the Act are to be 
enforced, although it would appear from the remarks 
following that he had reference more to legal procedure 
than to punishment. The Lemieux Act is premature. 
Admirably conceived, formulated with cold impartiality, 
its influence over the industrial world will be inversely 
proportional to the degree of immunity from prosecution 
which, in practice, the irresponsible employee will be 
found to enjoy. Stated another way, there is nothing in 
this Act that makes it practically possible to penalize 
men that own nothing and that are constantly changing 
their residences. There is nothing in its mandatory 
strike-clauses to frighten the nomadic miner, for every 
mine-manager knows that when he wishes to quit work, 
he simply quits and that is all there is to it. He has no 
need to 'strike' for he is full of plausible excuses, born of 
a cosmopolitan experience, and his 'inalienable rights' are 
strongly safeguarded. 

All this was clearly illustrated during the late unpleas- 
antness at Crow's Nest Pass and, only a few days ago, in 
the Boundary country of British Columbia. In the lat- 
ter district, the practical effect of the Lemieux Act was 
to prevent all reference to wages by the managers, before 
shutting down the numerous copper mines and smelting 
plants in their charge. It had been rumored that the 
men would reject any proposal involving a return to the 
old scale notwithstanding that the miners of Butte, Mon- 
tana, had already done so on November 1, in strict 
accordance with their agreements which were based 
upon eighteen-cent copper. The men of the Boundary 
claimed that they, themselves, had signed no such agree- 
ment, although it was well known that the Boundary 
scale depended entirely upon that of Butte and it was a 
matter of common belief that both hinged upon the price 
of copper. 

By the terms of the Lemieux Act, therefore, had any 
attempt been made by the managers to close down their 
plants after a proposition to reduce had been rejected and 
before a Commission under the Act had heard all the 
evidence in the case, it would have laid each of the com- 
panies liable to a maximum fine of $1000 per day, and 
they were all thoroughly responsible. There was noth- 
ing to be done, therefore, except carefully to avoid all 
reference to wages and the companies, confronted by the 
alternative of indefinite delay incident to official inves- 
tigation or of a complete shut-down pending efforts for 
better terms, chose the latter. Within a few hours, every 
wheel in the district had stopped, immense plants were 

boarded up and thousands of men, over-confident of their 
power, suddenly found themselves without employment. 

The fate of the Boundary country made a deep impres- 
sion upon the men of Rossland, for on November 26, by 
a referendum vote, they decided to accept the old scale 
and so announced their decision to the managers 
although the latter had made no move beyond inti- 
mating unofficially that under the scale then existing all 
work would stop on December 1. Fear of the Lemieux 
Act thus brought about two diametrically opposite 
results, in the one case paralyzing all business and in the 
other, a few miles away, adding to it, through a return 
of confidence and a removal of suspense. 

But in the Similkameen division of British Columbia 
this same fear of consequences to responsible employers 
brought about still another condition of affairs for, all 
official discussion of wages being barred, the men of this 
section ignored the wise procedure of the Rossland 
miners and, relying upon the 30-day clause for another 
month of high pay, refused to return to the scale now 
made general by the Rossland vote and thereby imposed 
an unjust loss upon their employers whom they knew to 
be helpless, since a shut-down, as in the Boundary case, 
was inadvisable. 

These examples, in contra-distinetion to those cited by 
President Eliot, will serve to show the other side of the 
Lemieux Act; and while they certainly indicate a weak- 
ness somewhere it may be doubted whether the weak- 
ness lies in the Act itself rather than in the absence of 
complementary, or preparatory, legislation necessary to 
give the Act full force and effect. 

With this possibility in mind, the Industrial Disputes 
Investigation Act of 1907 was, in the beginning of this 
article, characterized as premature. No one who has 
ever been party to a serious industrial dispute will hes- 
itate to advocate legislation that will render organized 
labor equally responsible with its employers, legally and 
financially; nor will he for a moment doubt that what is 
most needed to complete the usefulness of the Act in 
question is another act, or series of acts, compelling 
organized labor to incorporate, to own property, to main- 
tain a guarantee fund as indemnity against loss to the em- 
ployer from ill advised or willful acts of employees or 
their accredited representatives. Stated otherwise, it is 
high time for politicians to cease dodging this issue and for 
irresponsible trade unions to perfect their organizations 
to such an extent that each individual member thereof 
may go into court with clean hands, equally responsible 
with his employer, in every way. 

Nor is this at all impracticable or difficult. Combina- 
tions of labor are henceforth as inevitable as combina- 
tions of capital; but it must never be forgotten that, as 
the late John Marshall said: " It is not safe to trust to 
human cupidity when it has the opportunity to aggran - 
dize itself at the expense of others." 

To require labor organizations to incorporate, there- 
fore, would result in immediate improvement in their 
internal discipline; and each member, being made to 
feel his personal responsibility in the acts of his repre- 
sentatives, would soon learn to chose his leaders for their 
business ability and integrity alone and not for oratorical 
powers or physical prowess. When this happens, as it 
must, and when labor leader meets business manager on 
an equal footing, each representing responsible interests 
and each capable of understanding the other, then will 
all industrial disputes begin to solve themselves almost 
automatically if held in check by laws as prudent and 
comprehensive as the Lemieux Act. But without this 
equality of legal and financial responsibility it is useless 
to pile statute on statute for, as Kipling says, it is only 
when the pocket book is touched that ' things happen.' 

January 18, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 



Specially Reported for the Mining and Scientific Press. 

John £. Greenawalt, Denver, Colo. 

ORES— No. 873,309; 

No. 373,3(9 

No. 873,323 

The herein described chloridizing process which consists 
in Introducing the heated ore into a chloridizing chamber, 
passing the ore through said chamber and into and through 
a cooling zone, and simultaneously passing a stream of 
chloridizing gas through the ore. A chloridizing process 
which consists of chloridizing the ore by means of sodium 
chloride by heating in a suitable furnace and then introduc- 
ing the ore while still in the heated condition into a closed 
chamber and finally passing a stream of chloridizing gas 
through the ore. 

STAMP-MILL.— No. 873,323; Francis I. Matthews, Oak- 
land, Cal., assignor to Oakland Stamp Mill Co., Oakland, 
Cal., a Corporation. 

In an ore crushing mill of the character described, a 
guided rising and falling stamp stem, collars adjustably 
fixed upon the stem, a sleeve located between the collars 
through which the stem is loosely tumable, said sleeve hav- 
ing an offset horizontally channeled box, a segmental bow 
spring, a crank shaft and connection between the crank 
and the centre of said spring, links connected with the ends 
of the spring, a flexible yielding band extending between 
the said links and loosely through the channel of the box, a 
fixed guide, a transversely movable casing carried thereby, 
through which casing the stamp stem passes, a clutch 
mechanism carried by the casing, a spirally grooved sleeve 
fixed to the stamp stem, and corresponding lugs actuated 
by the clutch mechanism and engaging the grooved sleeve. 

ORE-CONCENTRATOR.— No. 874,864; (lyases S. James, 
Newark, X. J., assignor to James Ore Concentrator Co., a 
Corporation of Xew Jersey. 

An endwise reciprocatoryoreconcentrating table having a 
concentrating portion flexibly joined along a line diagonal 
to the line of motion of the table and a slime portion, the 
concentrating portion being adapted to concentrate the 
pulp and the slime portion being adapted to receive the 
slime from the pulp and having an inclined ledge extending 
obliquely thereacross, provided with a face inclined upward 
toward the tail of the table and oblique to the line of motion 
thereof, combined with means for adjusting said concentrat- 
ing portion angularly with respect to the slime portion. 

MINER'S PROSPECTING TOOL.— No. 874,730; Domi- 
nlk Bolderl, Oakland, California. 

The herein described prospecting tool comprising a head 
having a tapering central socket, a handle removably fitted 
thereto and provided with cavities, and bosses on the head 
having squared ends, each boss being provided with a 
socket extending longitudinally from its end to the central 
socket, a detachable tool-point or member and a tang se- 
cured to the Inner end of the tool and adapted to slide into 
a longitudinal socket, the tang being of a length greater 
than the socket and arranged to extend therethrough and 
into a cavity in the handle. 

ROCK-DRILL.— No. 874,455; Frederick V. W. Swanton 
and Burt Price, Braamfontain, Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

No. 874,455 

f xa *r r 

No. 873,748 

In a rock-drill, a bit stock having undercut grooving on 
the face, triangular cutting means located in the grooved 
face and having an Interlocking relation with each other 
and means for applying pressure to the underside of such 
cutting means to lock the same in position. 

ORE-FEEDING MECHANISM.— No. 873,748.— Mar- 
shal Henderson, Doe Run., Mo., assignor of one-third to 
Ulysses Hawk, Doe Run, Missouri. 

In feeding mechanism of the character set forth the com- 
bination with a downwardly and outwardly inclined table 
having a substantially upright axis of rotation, of a cir- 
cular series of upstanding teeth carried by the central high- 
est portion of the table, a vertically movable spout located 
above the table and engaged and operated by the teeth, and 
means for rotating the table. 

METHOD OF 8MELTING ORES.— No. 874,336; John 
C. Hardie, Helena, Montana. 

A step in the reduction of a mass of ore in a chamber which 
consists in causing a direct blast of atmospheric air contain- 
ing steam to enter directly into a gas generating chainljer 
and todirect to theore a carbon dioxide gas formed from the 
admixing in the upper portion of said generating chamber 
of a blast with a carbon monoxide gas formed by passing a 
blast of fluid containing air through an incandescent body 
of fuel. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 18, 1908. 

A Mine Signal System. 

The bell-line used for signaling in shafts is a crude affair; 
a miner is never absolutely sure, when signaling from a 
deep level, say the 1,000-ft., that the signal has been 
received as intended. Yet the bell-line must be retained 
for emergency use, for instance, for signaling from the cage, 
while inspecting the shaft or in case of accident, while men 
are on the cage; also in case the other system of signaling is 
temporarily damaged. But the method of rope-signaling is 
too slow and clumsy for even shallow shafts where fast 
hoisting is being done. In consequence, electric bell 
systems and electric flash systems of signaling are now 
generally used at mines. In some mines these are simply 
push-buttons and an electric switch in the lighting system 
of the mine to make and break the circuit. 

These are too crude affairs for work in wet shafts, for 
water soon gets into the splicings of the wiring system and 
short-circuits result, with their attendant vexatious delays. 
Consequently, improved electric signaling systems combin- 
ing the bell and the flash systems have been invented for 
this purpose. The Richmond Mine Signal System is one of 
these; it is used at the Ahmeek and the Mohawk mines in 
Keweenaw county, Michigan. At the Ahmeek mine the 
method of operation is by means of signal-boxes or sema- 
phores in parallel throughout the mine, one signal-box 
being placed at every level or station from whence it is 
desired to signal. The depressing of a heavily constructed 
push-button, projecting from the front of the signal-box, 
operates the system. Through the construction of this 
push noticeable sparking is prevented. The signal-box 
contains a semaphore lens, a small electric lamp, and an 
audible signal; the whole is protected by a hood from wall- 
drippings and falling rock. 

In the ore-house or on the dump there is a suitable bell 
which operates in unison with the signal underground and 
serves to notify the top-man that the skip is coming either 
with ore or waste rock. At the collar of the shaft there is 
also provision for a local circuit. The switch in this circuit 
operates a solenoid gong in the hoist-house, termed the 
'surface gong.' The surface gong is controlled from the 
landing station as well as from the collar of the shaft. The 
mine system, distinct and separate from that of the surface, 
is necessary owing to the use of balanced skips. 

The equipment consists of two semaphores, one on each 
side of the hoisting drum and in close proximity to the 
chalk marks on the rim of the drum. A relay switchboard 
for testing all lines is placed handy to the engineer's sta- 
tion. Suspended in front of him are the mine and surface 
gongs, which are operated by solenoids. At his hand is 
also a signal-box like that used underground; with this he 
can signal back when so desired. This ability to signal 
back to the underground operator is a great advantage. 
When the man below depresses the button, the call comes 
in at the hoist-house; the receiving mechanism then oper- 
ates a relay and flashes back to the sender the identical 
signal that he has given. This is purely automatic and it 
is impossible to receive a back signal unless the call is 
received in the hoist-house. The underground operator 
watches his signal-box to see that his calls are correctly 
transmitted. In case of a mistake in pushing, he can in- 
stantly nullify the previous signal by a proper code. The 
engineer receives the signal from below in the following 
manner: With the pressing of the button on his signal-box 
by the man below, the relay in the engine-house energizes the 
solenoid gong, and sets a red light glowing in each semaphore 
on the rims of the drum. Releasing this button underground 
drops the plunger, puts out the red light, and causes a 
green light to take its place. This constitutes ' one bell.' 
The green lens shows the hoist-operator that all is in work- 
ing order; the green light stays on until a call is given. 

All signal-boxes on levels work in unison and show men 
on other levels when the system is in use and they govern 
themselves accordingly. The wires are placed in a specially 
prepared iron conduit, ? r in diam., which protects the wires 
from water and abrasion. Three wires, not over No. 14 in 
size, are used. 

At the Mohawk No. 5 shaft an improvement, designed 

by the inventor, consists of a small, compact, pocket tele- 
phone, which every mine captain and shift-boss carries in 
his pocket. This is about the size of a tobacco box. The 
telephone has a plug and cord attached. Every signal-box 
is provided with a hole underneath the box; by inserting 
the plug into this socket, connection is made with ' central ' 
(the hoisting engineer) ; central can then, if it is desired, 
connect the underground system with the surface telephone 
lines; then the person underground can talk with any of 
the departments of the company at surface. The method 
of calling a man underground is through the engineer and 
his signal-box. All telephone troubles are confined to the 
telephone sets; another set can be issued while the broken 
one is being repaired. 

The patent rights to this system are controlled by The 
Richmond Co. , of Oshkosk, Wisconsin. 

Commercial Paragraphs. 

W. B. Hammond, 29 Broadway, New York, has succeded 
Herman Nieter as sales agent for the Hammond Iron Works 
of Warren, Pennsylvania. 

Robekt W. Hunt & Co., inspecting and consulting en- 
gineers, have established a branch office and chemical 
laboratory at St. Louis, Mo., under the charge of Charles 
W. Gennett, Jr. 

The Elspass Engineering & Mining Machinery Co. 
of Denver, recently shipped a complete mill, including Els- 
pass mill, Pierce amalgamators, boiler, engine, and full 
equipment to Round Mountain, Nevada. 

The American Mill Works, of Aurora, 111., have 
issued a new and attractive bulletin (No. 104) , describing 
the construction of their centrifugal pumps and explain- 
ing the varied adaptations of this useful piece of machinery. 

The New York Engineering Co. has recently secured 
a contract from F. B. Vrooman for a steam driven gold 
dredge to operate on the Hootalinqua river, in the Yukon 
Territory. This dredge will have a capacity of 2000 yards per 
day, and it is expected that it will be in operation by the 
early part of the summer. This company makes a specialty 
of building gold dredges, and has been successful in secur- 
ing many contracts of late. 

Catalogues Received. 

The Indianapolis Switch & Frog Co. of Springfield, 
Ohio, has issued a catalogue describing its manufactures 
which include crossings, frogs, switches, stands, and acces- 

The Deister Concentrator Co., of Fort Wayne, 
Indiana, has issued a catalogue entitled ' The Deister Ore 
Concentrator No. 2.' The concentrator described is adapted 
for handling both fine and coarse feeds. 

The Massachusetts Institute ok Technology issues 
the 'Catalogue' for December, 1907, containing lists of 
the officers and students, with a statement of the require- 
ments for admission, and a description of the courses of 

The Vulcan Iron Works of Wilkes-Barre, Pa., has 
issued a well illustrated catalogue describing its elevating 
and conveying machinery and general colliery equipment, 
including hoisting engines, locomotives, boilers, hoisting 
crabs, cages, and screens. 

Chalmers & Williams of Chicago now have ready for 
distribution ' Section L ' of their general catalogue. It de- 
scribes the ' Gold and Silver Mill Machinery ' which this 
firm manufactures, including the Kennedy gyratory 
crusher, overhead crawls, ore-bin gates, bucket elevators, 
and revolving screens. 

The special three-months course for mining men at the 
School of Mines of the University of Washington, at Seattle, 
begins this winter on Jan. 6. There are no charges for tui- 
tion, the only cost being for materials actually used and for 
books. The equipment in stamp-milling, concentrating, 
assaying, etc., is complete. 

Whole Ho. 2479. TSL^ 1 - 

" Science has no enemy save the ignorant." 

Single Copies, Tea Cents. 



Telephone Kearney 4777. Cable Address: Pertusola. 



Philip Abqai.i- 
Leonard 8. Austin. 
Fbancis L. Bosqci. 


Donald F. Campbell. 
J. Pabkk i'ii.ismv,. 


J. R. FlNLAY. 

F. Lynwood Garrison. 
II. C. Hoovkb. 


Tab Kit F. Kkmi'. 

I 'II Aid. KS S. I' V I.MKK. 



United Statee and Mexico *3 

Canada $4 

All other Countries In Postal Union One Guinea or lb 

EDOAR RICKARD Business Manager. 


New York— 600 Fifth Avenue. Denver- 430 McPhee Building. 
Chicago— 884 Monadnock Block. Telephone: Harrison 636. 
London— Edward Walker, Salisbury House, B. C. 


Entered at the San FranciMco Fotlofflce at Becond-Ctatt Matter. 


Editorial : Page. 

Notes 107 

Prospecting for. a Meteorite 108 

Professional Customs 108 

General Mining News Ill 

Special Correspondence 116 


Johannesburg, Transvaal 

Guanajuato, Mexico 

Butte, Montana 
Salt Lake, Utah 
Denver, Colorado 

Concentrates 122 

Discussion : 

I'seof Brush as Fuel In Roasting... A rlhur V. Xahl 123 

Iron Screen in Zinc-Boxes fames S. Colbath 125 

Cyanldatlon in Nevada Lochiel M. King 123 

Unities : 

Puddling a Wet Shaft /A /try Bourtin 127 

Mining in Panama Scott Turner 130 

Progress in Southeastern Alaska C. II'. lIT-iT/Af 133 

The Shipment of .Supplies and Freight by Rail 133 

Ore Testing at Halt Lake Ernest Gayford 134 

Mineral Resources of the I'nited States 138 

Mining and Metallurgical Patents 137 

Decisions Relating lo Mining 128 

Departments : 

Personal 110 

Obituary 110 

Market Reports 110 

Commercial Paragraphs 110 


ENGINEERING PROBLEMS are finding solution 
every day in mines, but it is rarely that a lucid 
account of them is forthcoming. To Mr. Henry Boursin 
we owe an excellent description of the manner in which 
a shaft was sunk through bad ground by resort to pud- 
dling. Only experienced mine superintendents can 
appreciate the nature of the difficulties overcome and 
the skill required for this uncertain work. 

* from the United States in 1907 were worth close to 
200 million dollars, as compared to 63 millions in 1897, 
and lo t millions in 1887. This affords an eloquent com- 
mentary on the growth of an "infant industry" under 
the kindly protection of a high tariff. Of the total 
exports of domestic merchandise, iron and steel manu- 
factures formed 5.8 per cent in 1807, as against 10.8 per 
cent in 1907. Machinery constituted one-half of this 
class of export, the total value of machinery exported 
being $87,500,000. 

QA.NAMA has gained vastly in importance by reason 
*^ of the great waterway now under construction 
across the isthmus, and this Central American State has 
lately become of more interest to the world at large than 
at any period since the day when Balboa " stood lone 
upon a peak in Darien." The mineral resources of 
Panama are largely unexplored, mainly because trans- 
port is lacking in the interior, and the tropical vegeta- 
tion makes prospecting almost impracticable. Any fresh 
information is welcome, and when it is conveyed in a 
plain straightforward manner, it Is particularly desirable. 
For these reasons the article by Mr. Scott Turner should 
prove useful. 

Increased activity at Cripple Creek, and to the 
numerous new leases granted on mines in that district by 
reason of an influx of miners from Nevada and Utah. 
This is one manifestation of the fact that the depression 
in the prices of the base metals has tended to enhance 
the attractiveness of gold mining. Unquestionably a 
profitable gold mine is the most desirable of all enterprises 
today, for the owner of it can turn his product into coin 
by sending the metal to the nearest mint, so that he is 
independent of banks, and even of smelters, if his ore l>e 
docile to stamp-milling or cyanidation. He pays for his 
lalior and supplies with the metallic product of the 
mine, and this product has a fixed value, in terms of the 
monetary unit, while being actually enhanced ;is relates 
to the amount of it exchanged in the purchases of labor 
or machinery required for the operation of the mine. 
We expect to see an intensified interest in gold mining, 


Mining and Scientific Press. January 25, i**. 

and a notable stimulus given to the metallurgy of refrac- 
tory gold ores. The hunger for gold is more acute today 
than at any time in human history. 

CYANIDATION as applied to the silicious ores of 
Nevada is sure to gain in importance during the 
current year, therefore we are glad to publish the inter- 
esting and comprehensive letter of Mr. Lochiel M. King. 
He advocates dry crushing and roasting of the ore, 
instead of wet crushing and amalgamation, before 
cyanide treatment; and in support of his contention Mr. 
King quotes freely from a number of tests made on 
Goldfleld ores. In regard to the presence of gold as a 
telluride, we are compelled to accept the evidence quoted 
by Mr. King, which is not necessarily contradictory to 
the statement of Mr. Edgar A. Collins; the first of these 
gentlemen refers to the Mohawk ore, while the second 
wrote concerning the ore produced from the Combina- 
tion mine. This is not the first time that two neighbor- 
ing ore deposits have exhibited an important difference 
in their mineralogical character. As to filters, it is note- 
worthy that the Merrill filter-press, so successful in the 
Homestake slime plant, is to be adopted in the new mill 
of the Goldfleld Consolidated Mines Company. 

Prospecting for a Meteorite. 

IN the desert of northeastern Arizona, near the Canyon 
Diablo, a branch of the great gorge of the Colorado, 
there is a crater-like depression of mysterious origin. 
Travelers have invented explanations, and scientific men 
propounded theories explanatory of this curious hole. It 
is circular in form, nearly three-quarters of a mile in 
diameter at the top, about a quarter of a mile across at 
the bottom, and 600 feet deep. The country consists of 
horizontal strata of sandstone and limestone; on the bor- 
der of the depression these rocks have been shattered, 
and the particles of quartz in the sandstone have been 
partly fused. The material ejected from this excavation 
lies scattered over the surrounding desert. Small 
masses of native iron have been found in the talus 
within the pit, and these have the appearance of meteoric 
fragments. Indeed, Mr. George P. Merrill, curator of 
the National Museum, made an investigation of the 
curious occurrence, and suggested that it may have 
originated from the impact of an immense meteorite. 
Others apparently shared this view, for a company was 
formed to prospect for a body of iron big enough to con- 
stitute a profitable mine. Holes were drilled through the 
floor of the pit and, after penetrating 600 feet of debris, 
the drill reached solid rock. No masses of iron were 
discovered. The enterprise collapsed, and the facts 
ascertained warrant a new theory. Another geologist, 
who has recently visited the locality, suggests that the 
depression is really what it appears at first sight to be, 
namely, a crater. It is true, no volcanic rock occurs 
adjacent, but this may be explained on the supposition 
that an explosion of steam blew out the rock and 
scattered the fragments over the neighboring country. 
The presence of sedimentary rock under the debris raises 

a difficulty, but it is suggested that the drill-holes neces- 
sarily explored only a small portion of the area under- 
neath, and small pa&sages may have existed by which 
the superheated steam reached a horizon at which the 
sudden relaxation of pressure led to a violent explosion. 
It is a significant fact that some of the strata at the rim 
of the crater are bent upward, indicating the action of 
force from below, instead of impact from above. While 
the meteorite story appears more wonderful than that of 
crater formation by the explosive force of superheated 
thermal waters, the latter would be quite as remarkable 
a manifestation of nature's unrest. 

Professional Customs. 

THE questions offered in good faith by a young min- 
ing engineer two months ago have now been 
answered by no less than 25 mining engineers of varied 
experience. Our young friend has got all the illumina- 
tion he needs and if, in his future career, he errs in the 
special matters discussed, it will not be for lack of coun- 
cilors. To some of the cynics the discussion may have 
seemed unnecessary, for the replies to the ten questions 
are fairly obvious. Nevertheless, a good deal of charac- 
ter is to be read between the lines and if most of the 
answers indicate a decided honesty of purpose, it is also 
significant that none of those whose methods are con- 
trary to established rules, dared to avow them in print 
The comparatively simple matters discussed may not 
appear of monumental importance, but we venture to 
hope that the consensus of professional opinions will be 
beneficial to the younger engineers. The older men are 
beyond the ductile stage and the best they can do is to 
train their sons to observe a code better than their own, 
for unless we advance, why move at all? 

The three chief points touched upon in this discussion 
of professional customs have been (1) the nature of the 
agreement with the client, (2) the character of the expen- 
ditures to be debited, and (3) the nice question as to 
incidental personal speculation. It is not possible often 
to choose your client; the choice is usually on the other 
side. Engineers have to take business men and specu- 
lators much as they find them. Consequently, any man 
of experience can recall contracts that were broken and 
reports that were never paid for. But such mishaps are 
less common nowadays than they were twenty years ago; 
in part, by reason of the greater publicity incidental to 
dishonorable conduct and, in part, because of the larger 
amount of money spent in preliminary investigations. 
Whether a young engineer can get a definite agreement 
with his client or not, he can at least obtain an exchange 
of telegrams or letters, sufficient to constitute a contract. 
Two bits of advice may be offered in this connection; 
never undertake work for a personal friend without a 
definite agreement in writing, for a misunderstanding 
with a friend is worse than the loss of a fee; and, secondly, 
never make an arrangement with a director, as such; 
let it be with the individual or the company. If things 
go wrong, a weak man— not to mention a dishonorable 
one — will waive responsibility and pass it on to his com- 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


pany, and the other directors may repudiate the transac- 
tion. Therefore, either make the director personally 
responsible or else his company, with the proper endorse- 
ment of the officials empowered to act for the said com- 
pany. By so doing, you may avoid the experience of 
falling between two stools. Of course, we could give the 
advice not to do business with the man you cannot trust, 
but that is putting the smell before the automobile; every 
client is presumed to be honest until proved otherwise. 
Backsight would be better than foresight, if it were not 
back-sight. So the advice must be modified by saying: 
Have nothing to do with people known to be tricky, as 
long as a client of a better class is available. But beggars 
cannot be choosers and if the only client on the horizon is 
a spoofer, get him to advance the amount of your ex- 
penses, at least, and exact some I legal assurance for the 
fee itself. If he really wants your professional advice, 
he can be made to pay for it. Luckily, men themselves 
tricky often know enough to set a high value upon an 
honest opinion. So much for that. 

Now, as to traveling expenses and incidentals. The 
question as to the propriety of traveling second-class and 
charging for first-class accommodations, may have 
seemed ingenuous, but it has the merit of going to the 
root of the matter. Of course, no engineer should charge 
a cent more than he spends and in traveling he should 
put his client to exactly the same expense as he would 
himself, if the journey were made on his own recog- 
nizances. Engineers travel first-class simply because 
time and health are alike conserved by so doing; more- 
over, as has been suggested, by traveling first-class they 
are apt to meet other |>eople, such as fellow engineers, 
possessed of information useful for the purposes of the par- 
ticular investigation or engineering work to lie under- 
taken at the end of the journey. It is not necessary to 
itemize every petty expenditure, but an engineer should 
be prepared to give satisfaction as to the manner in 
which the client's money was spent. Many engineers 
count the money in their pockets when they start on a 
professional journey and count the balance remaining 
when they return, debiting their client with the differ- 
ence. If careful note is made of any expense not prop- 
erly debitable to the client, this method is fair, for the 
client should pay any costs arising from the incidents of 
the Journey, that is, expenses not incurred by the 
engineer when at home. But such a net result ought 
to be checked by a statement, not only for the satisfac- 
tion of the client, but of the engineer himself. Customs 
differ in this matter and, naturally, much will depend 
upon the standing of the engineer and the importance of 
the work undertaken. Good sense, not to mention good 
judgment, is needed. A man who makes a fool of him- 
self or proves tricky in these smaller affairs is not likely 
to win a reputation for integrity or trustworthiness. We 
know of an engineer who examined a mine in Australia 
recently and spent eight months of time, besides £10,000 
in expenses, not including his fee, and yet the result of 
the work was deemed satisfactory to the company that 
footed the bills; but an untried man that had taken half 
as long and spent one-tenth of the money in expenses, 

would have been severely criticised, simply because such 
a performance on his part would have been difficult to 
justify. Be true to yourself, do not juggle with your 
sense of honor, and you are likely to conserve the inter- 
ests of your employer. 

This is particularly true of the next problem, namely, 
that relating to speculation in the shares of the mine you 
examine, the taking of options, and the acceptance of 
incidental engagements for other people when visiting a 
district for a specific client. To young men in doubt as 
to these points, we say, unhesitatingly : No. Go to a 
mining camp with a single purpose, accomplish it to the 
best of your ability, and return home to write your report. 
Listen not to the lure of the share market or the 
promptings of the promoter. Speculating in the shares 
of mines with which you are in any way connected is 
unprofessional, though professional men do it. An 
engineer ought no more to dabble in stocks than a 
broker. Both do it, but many wrongs cannot make a 
right. Whatever the ethics of the problem, there can l>e 
no question of the expediency as it affects young men. 
A seasoned man may take a glass of brandy after his 
dinner, a stripling is spoiling a perfect alimentary system 
by doing so. That way lies intoxication. To young 
engineers the stimulant of a share gamble is the most 
insidious peril that they face in the early years of their 
career. It has spoilt many fine fellows; it has ruined 
twenty times as many good engineers as it has enriched. 
And as to the taking of options and dealing in mines while 
under engagement to do a specific bit of work, that also 
la best eliminated from the program. It leads to com- 
plications, it may cause a division of duty, and at best it 
is no part of a young engineer's prerogative. A simple 
way of avoiding wrongdoing is never to do an act the 
correctness of which you yourself question. When you 
are young you will decide against yourself, if honorable; 
as men grow older their sense of nicety in such matters 
is apt to be dulled by contact with the business world, 
in which right and wrong are divided not by a 
line but by a delmtable tract large enough for the 
mano'uvres of a cavalry regiment. " Hut," says the 
alert young man who wants to be rich and sueeessfu, 
deeming the two synonymous, "if I observe all these 
fine points of the game, I can never make money 
or utilize my opjwrtunities." To which we reply that 
tricky, or self-seeking, or disloyal young engineers are 
soon rated at their proper worth — less than nothing — 
and that while some of them have been known to 
succeed in the winning of wealth, such instances are 
exceptional and in their final history are pitiable, while 
on the contrary most such men lose the confidence of 
their clients and usually change their occupation. Virtue 
may not always l>e rewarded and dishonesty may occa- 
sionally flaunt its winnings — it is not for us to sermonize 
— but it is not necessary to be a Methuselah to see that 
among a l>ody of educated scientific men such as that 
of mining engineers and metallurgists, any success that 
involves loss of self-res|>ect and the absence of goodwill 
from others is as a Dead Sea apple, as a sawdust doll, 
as grit between the teeth. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 25, 1908. 


Mark L. Requa has gone to New York. 

Mark R. Lamb is now at Guadalajara, Mexico. 

Frank R. Short is now at Carson City, Nevada. 

R. H. Robertson has returned from South Africa. 

G A. Denny is on his way from London to Mexico. 

B. M. Newcomb, of San Francisco, is at Mexico City. 

E. M. Hamilton is now at the Butters Salvador mines. 

T. H. Jenks is traveling in Sonora and Sinaloa, Mexico. 

Benjamin T. Loeb has opened an office in the City of 

A. A. Heer is manager of the Little Florence mine at 

Emile R. Abadie has an office in the Pacific Bdg., San 

Ben S. Revett visited Goldfield on his way from San 
Francisco to Denver. 

Fred. B. Reece is with the Homestake Mining Co., at 
Lead, South Dakota. 

M. J. Heney, of Seattle, the railroad builder of Alaska, 
is at the St. Francis hotel. 

Charles G. Yale has ceased to be statistician to the 
California Mining Bureau. 

George B. Putnam has returned to Pilares de Nacozari, 
Sonora, Mexico, from Denver. 

Charles C. Gates is to be superintendent of the 
Giroux mines at Ely, Nevada. 

J. B. Higgins, lately on the Simmer & Jack mine, at Jo- 
hannesburg, is at Reno, Nevada. 

H. DeC. Richards has returned to San Francisco from 
Orleans Bar, in Siskiyou county. 

Robert H. Richards is paying a professional visit to 
Great Falls and Anaconda, Montana. 

Curtis H. Lindley has changed his office from the St. 
Mungo to the Mills Bdg., San Francisco. 

Wager Bradford, lately at Johannesburg, is here for a 
few days, preparatory to returning to South Africa. 
oT. L. Greenough, on his return from Arizona, was in 
San Francisco, on his way to the west coast of Mexico. 

Howard A. Poillon, recently superintendent of the 
McCracken Hill mines, in Arizona, is here for a few days. 

J. C. Niven and Lyttleton Price have opened an 
office as mining engineers in the Dooly Bdg., Salt Lake City. 

W. Rowland Cox has resigned as assistant general 
superintendent for the American Smelters Securities Co., in 
charge of mines in Mexico, in order to engage in private 

S. H. Ball is in the Congo Free State. A party under 
his command had a big fight with natives lately on the 
concession near the Kasai river; more than a hundred of 
the attacking party were killed. 

Willard S. Morse, member of the executive committee 
of the American Smelting & Refining Co., has established 
headquarters at Salt Lake City, and is to have general 
supervision over all of the American smelting enterprises 
in Utah, Montana, and Nevada. 


Henry Burrow Vercoe died on December 17, 1907, at 
St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex, England, after a long and 
serious illness. He was the eldest son of the late Captain 
John Vercoe, of Bodmin, Cornwall, a well known mining 
engineer in the early days. For many years Mr. Vercoe 
was actively engaged in mining in various parts of the 
United Kingdom, and for twelve years prior to his retire- 
ment he had been heavily interested in gold and copper 
properties in California. 

Latest Market Reports. 

local metal prices— Jan. 23. 

Antimony 12@16c Quicksilver (flask) _ 846^0 

Casting Copper 17%@18%c Spelter _ 6%@ 7%c 

Pig Lead 3.85® 4.80cTln 33®34%c 


Cabled from London. 

Jan. 16. Jan. 23. 

£. s. d. t. h. d. 

O.mpBlrd 13 6 014 9 

Kloro 1 2 6 11 3exdlv. 

Ksperan/.a 1 7 6 

Dolores • SO 17 6 

Orovllle Dredging 13 12 3 ex dlv. 

Strait lis Independence 3 3 4 

Tomboy 1 7 6 17 6 

(By courtesy of W. P. Bonbrlght & Co., 24 Broad St., New York.) 


San Francisco, Jan. 23. 

Atlanta I 40 Laguna 1-00 

Belmont '8 Manhattan Con_ 22 

Columbia Mtn 27 Midway 72 

Combination Fraction 79 Mlzpab Extension 

Daisy 1-22% Mohawk \2M 

Falrvlew Eagle 55 Montana Tonopah 1-82% 

Florence 4.90 Nevada HUls 3.10 

Gold Bar (Bullfrog) 36 Red Top 

Goldfield Con Sandstorm 26 

Goldfield of Nevada 6.80 SUver Pick 35 

Gold Kewanas 55 8t. Ives 5S 

Great Bend 24 Tonopah Extension 1.S5 

Jim Butler 37 Tonopah of Nevada 4.66 

Jumbo Tramp Con 19 

Jumbo Extension 67 West End S3 

(By courtesy of W. C. Ralston, 353 Bush St.) 

Adventure . 




Closing prices. 
Jan. 2t. 

Closing prices. 
Jan. 23. 

Michigan 12 

Mohawk 55 

Nevada Con„ 10% 

Amalgamated 49% North Butte 60S 

Arcadian 5'., Old Dominion. 34% 

Atlantic 13% Osceola 87 


Balaklala 3% 

Bingham Con. 

Parrot 13% 

Phcenlx 1 

Boston Con 14% Qulncy 87 

Butte Coalition 19 

Calumet & Arizona 112 

Calumet & Hecla 655 

Raven _ 

Rhode Island 

Santa Fe„ 2% 

Centennial 26% Shannon 12% 

Superior 4 Pittsburg 14 

Tamarack 89 

Trinity 15% 

United Copper com 6% 

Utah Copper, 25% 

Victoria 5 

Winona 6!4 

Wolverine 126 

Con. Mercur 39 

Copper Range 62% 

Daly-West 8% 

Franklin 9'i 

Granby 90 

Greene-Cananea, ctf 8% 

Isle Royale 24% 

Mass 4 

Commercial Paragraphs. 

C. O. Bartlett & Snow Co., of Cleveland, Ohio, report 
increased inquiries and sales for their dryers and elevating 

The Allis-Chalmers Co.'s Bulletin No. 2027, entitled 
•The Hydro-electric Plant at Trinity River, California,' 
contains information on an interesting power transmission 
system. This plant is one of those which has been con- 
structed with an eye to the future rather than the present 
needs of the communities which it serves. It is situated in 
the central part of Trinity county, California, two miles 
below the town of Junction City, where Canyon creek, 
from which the water used for power is obtained, flows into 
the Trinity river, having a drainage area of 52 square miles. 
The dam, which is small, serves merely for diverting the 
water. Alternating sections of ditch and open flumes, with 
a total length of 5250 ft. and a tunnel 1821 ft. long are com- 
prised in the system. An effective head of 600 ft., or work- 
ing pressure of 260 lb. per sq. in., is obtained from two pen- 
stocks, each 1165 ft. long. This power-house is equipped 
with Allis-Chalmers electrical machinery, consisting of two 
three-phase, 25 cycle generators, each 750 kw., 500 r.p.m., 
2200 v., seven step-up transformers, and auxiliary appara- 
tus. The description of the entire plant is quite complete 
and will be found of interest by engineers and students- 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press 


General Mining News. 


Many prospectors have outfitted to prospect next season 
for quartz veins in the Knik Arm region; heretofore this 
district has been prospected chiefly for placer mines. — — 
The Ready Bullion Copper Co. has moved an air-compressor 
to its mine at Lynx creek and intends to drive an adit. 

Last season Hatcher & Came found several quartz 

veins at Willow Creek, about 25 miles north of Knik Arm. 
Some of the ore is said to carry $200 to $968 gold per ton: 
another vein that they intend to develop this year is said 

to carry $5 gold per ton. Bartholf Bros, have found a 

vein of gold ore and expect to erect a small stamp-mill 

next summer. It is said that James Girdwood secured 

200 lb. gold at his placer mines on Crow creek near the 

Alaska Central railroad. Late arrivals from the Cache 

Creek district, at the base of Mt. McKinley, report that a 
very rich pay-streak has been found on the south bench. 

Fifty tons of Matanuska coal will be sledded to Knik 

Arm during the winter, for the purpose of a test by the 

Government. Reports from Eagle River indicate that 

a promising lode has been found there. It has been devel- 
oped by surface cuts at six places, all of which are said 

to have good ore. Tailing dumped into the sea by the 

Topkok Ditch Co. has caused the water to recede so far 
that by sinking shafts from the top of the tailing pile it 
has been possible to get pay-gravel that formerly was 
beneath the sea. William O'Brien has found good gravel 
in this manner; Louis Lane and Ernie Blanck have begun 

drilling at the same place. Near Nome the known 

extent of the third beach line has been increased one-half 
mile by its discovery by W. West on his claim west of the 
Humboldt claim. This is considered an important dis- 
covery. It is reported that N. Butler and J. Plein have 

reached better gravel at Dry creek than that formerly 

worked on the ground. Carllss Bros, are drilling for 

coal near Slnook river on Seward peninsula. At the 

Sllsco antimony mine at Manilla creek, 25 miles from 
Nome, an adit has been driven 300 ft. into the mountain; 
recently the owners found a gold-bearing vein that carries, 
it is said, $25 to $3o per ton, in addition to the antimony. 

Joe Kennedy has found a copper-bearing lode on 

Brooks mountain. The second beach line has been found 

on the California group of claims, 3'4 miles west of Nome. 

Peter Esch is developing a large body of iron ore near 

Sinook river. 



Timbers are being prepared at the Savage mine for tim- 
bering the new shaft. B. M. Pattison has resigned as 

superintendent for the Denn-Arizona and Shattuck-Arizona 

copper companies; S. A. Parnell will take his place. 

It Is stated that an English syndicate is negotiating with 
the Arizona-Apache company for the purchase of the Foran 
group of claims in the Catallna district. — At the Mayflower 
mine in Johnson district an inclined shaft 65 ft. deep has 
been sunk; it is announced that the company has decided 
to sink a vertical shaft on the hanging-wall side of the 
vein, and that a contract will soon be let for the first 300 
ft. of this shaft. J. D. Sullivan of San Francisco is presi- 
dent of the company. 


The Arizona Commercial Co. has announced that it will 
soon resume shipping ore from the Black Hawk mine to 
the Old Dominion and Shannon smelters, and probably to 
the smelters at Douglas. Recent developments on the 500- 
ft. level of the mine indicate continuance of the vein to 
considerable depth. A general sample of ore exposed in a 
winze east of the shaft carried 10^ copper, 4 oz. silver, and 
0.02 oz. gold per ton. The new three-compartment shaft on 
the Eureka claim will be sunk to a depth of 430 ft. 


The cost of producing copper at the Shannon property, 
it is stated, has been reduced over two cents per pound 
in the last two months, through the installation of new 
machinery and other innovations. N. L. Amster is presi- 
dent of the Shannon company. 


Part of the machinery for a 150-ton mill has been re- 
ceived at the Fortuna mine; it is hoped to have the plant 
completed in three or four months. F. W. Bithell is 


A Los Angeles company is working the Jim Blaine mine, 
near White Hills; a good strike of silver ore was made 

there recently. At the Victor mine the ore has been 

given a thorough test In the new mill, and it is thought 

advisable to start the tube-mill and cyanide plant. J. E. 

Rose is preparing to mine the bars and bank of the Colo- 
rado river at a point north of White Hills. At the Ex- 
pansion mine in the Union Pass district a large force of 

men is working. A mill is to be erected soon. A shaft 

is being sunk at the Billy Bryan mine. Foster & Mur- 
phy have a large force of men at the Atlantic and Pacific 
mines near Thumb Butte, in the Union Pass district. 


The Keystone drills at the Ray copper mine have, it is 
said, brought to light some fine ore. Seven carloads of 
coal have been received by the company to keep up the 


A Tucson publication announces that there is no truth 
In the statement recently made In local papers that the 
Mansfield company Is sinking a shaft to the 550-ft. level in 
the Sweet mine and is mining ore on the 250-ft. level. It 
appears that at the time no work was being done at the 
property unless by the watchman in charge. 


It Is said that the owners of the Octave mine are plan- 
ning to Increase the size of the mill to 120 stamps, and 
that there is sufficient ore blocked out in the mine to 
supply such a plant for four years. On the 1600-ft. level 
an orebody 4 ft. wide has been found in a cross vein; it 
is quartz earning much sulphide and streaked with gold. 
At the 1100-ft. level of the Joker mine there has been found 
an orebody that averages $33 gold per ton. The 40-stamp mill 
and 250-ton cyanide plant are running day and night. As 
the result of two weeks' run, the mill has yielded 1213 oz. 
of bullion. The Black Mountain Copper Co. has pur- 
chased a hoisting plant and air-compressor; it is planning 
to sink the 135-ft. shaft several hundred feet deeper. The 

vein carries gold and copper. At the Snoozer mine the 

burning of 90 cords of wood nearly set fire to the buildings. 

The Interior Mining & Trust Co. has between 50 and 60 
men employed at its property in the Black Rock district: 
the 40-stamp mill is producing $10,000 worth of bullion 

weekly. At the I'nida mine a large orebody carrying 

gold and copper has been found at a depth of 300 ft. in the 
new perpendicular working shaft; George Margaretis is 

general manager. The Haynes Copper Co. has received 

five carloads of lumber for the construction of a power- 
house and gallows frame. At the Binghamton mine at 

Copper Mountain I. T. Stoddard has been directing the lay- 
ing out of a site for a 500-ton smelting plant and the build- 
ing of a new road from Humboldt to the new townsite of 

Stoddard. Some high-grade ore is being taken out of the 

Cardinal mine; it carries gold, silver, and lead. 


Geo. W. Norton and the Mathis brothers, it is reported. 
have made a rich strike about three miles east of Mohawk 
station. In sinking a 10-ft. shaft for assessment work 
they secured five tons of ore which, it is said, carries be- 
tween 100 and 200 oz. silver per ton. A road is now belnp; 
constructed from the railroad to the property, so that ore 
may be shipped to a smelter. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 25, 1908. 



The mill at the Defender mine, about 12 miles east of 
Jackson, is crushing ore which carries about $10 per ton, 
and the tailing is being saved for further treatment. The 
Defender and Tom & Dick mines have come into the pos- 
session of the Amador Gold M. & M. Co., which is largely 
controlled in Boston; arrangements are being made for 
vigorous development. Large bodies of pyrite-bearing 
ore below the water level carry sufficient gold and silver to 
make shipment to smelters profitable. 


Work will be commenced soon in building a road to the 
diamond mine, and when completed the mine will be pros- 
pected. The owners propose installing a Keystone drilling 
plant to determine the extent of the supposed diamond- 
bearing pipe. The Steifer Mining Co.'s mine near Ma- 

galia is filled with water, and operations have been stopped 
in the mine until the company can complete a power-plant 
to pump the water from the mine. P. B. Steifer is super- 


The employees at the Melones mine, about 65 men, a 
large majority of whom are non-English speaking aliens, 

went on a strike Dec. 10 for a nine-hour work day. It 

is reported that a dredge will be constructed on the Cala- 
veras river at the mouth of Chili gulch. 


(Special Correspondence). — J. V. McConnell is develop- 
ing his group of six claims, 18 miles easterly from Big 
Pine; there are several shafts and an adit 60 ft. long. The 
lode is 2 to 4V-> ft. wide and is exposed at intervals for 
the length of six claims; it is at a contact between 
porphyry and granite. The ore from all the openings 
varies between 5 and 30% lead and $66.50 and $148 gold 
and silver per ton. Colorado parties are pushing devel- 
opment work in a very systematic manner at Chrysopolis. 

R. H. Blake is developing his silver-lead mine near the 

Montazuma mine; the lode is found larger as work pro- 
gresses. Joe Wright, in doing his assessment work on 

his silver-lead property, has found the silver increasing 
as depth is attained. Systematic work will be com- 
menced in the spring at the Priscilla Hill gold mine. 

J. W. Tracy intends to erect a 10-stamp mill and concen- 
trators at his mine on the west side of Gold mountain; 
the mine is developed by a 285-ft. and a 275-ft. shaft con- 
nected by a drift 280 ft. long. The ore in the bottom of 
the shafts is 6 ft. wide and carries $20 gold and silver per 
ton. This property produced much high-grade silver ore in 

the early days. A number of prospectors left recently 

for Deep Spring valley and most of them are reporting 
good finds. Johnson & Epperly have an 8-ft. lode with a 
10-in. streak of high-grade gold ore. 

Big Pine, Jan. 18. 


A nugget of gold worth $40 has been exhibited in Alturas 
by a miner from the Mountain Sheep group of claims; 
there is 5 ft. depth of snow at the property now. 


The vein being developed in driving the lower adit of 
the Ancho mine is proving wider than where first opened; 

the 10-stamp mill is running regularly. At the Niagara 

mine near Deer creek, five stamps are crushing ore from 

the shaft; this shaft is now 325 feet deep. At the Dewey 

mine Matt and Dave Waite have been taking out ore that 

contains $16 gold per ton; the vein is 10 to 12 in. wide. 

Prospectors recently located some promising quartz veins 
in the French Corral district and will proceed with their 
development. Another prospector exhibits a piece of quartz, 
float that is very rich in gold. 


More machinery has been installed at the Dairy Farm 

mine. The dredge at Cash Rock is to be in working 

order by March 1. Forty men are working at the Slope 

mine near Forest Hill. J. B. Patterson has started a 

new adit at his mine at Boulder Ridge near Penryn. 

At the Herman mine 20 men will be employed during the 
winter to finish the upraise and stope ore; the 10-stamp 

mill is running regularly.- At the Beilevue mine driving 

has begun on the 400-ft. level. Preparations have been 

made for sinking a shaft at the Hathaway mine. At the 

Orpheum mine the adit has been cleaned and retimbered. 


The Orange Blossom Mining Co. expects to install a 

stamp-mill at its property near Bagdad. C. Ferguson has 

bought eight mining claims 3% miles west of Klinefelter 
station, and he proposes to commence work on them at 

once. B. A. Jennings on Jan. 19 brought to Hart a sack 

of rich ore from the new strike at the Big Chief mine; 
every piece fairly glistened with free gold. Seventeen 
lessees are working on adjacent properties. A water-line 
is being laid from Malapai springs, four miles distant; 
telephone wires connecting with the Western Union wires 
at Barnwell, have been strung. 


It is reported that on the 1100-ft. level of the Midas 


Map of Southwestern Colorado. 

mine the vein has been uncovered for a distance of 200 ft 
and that it is 18 in. wide. Sinking to the 1200 ft. level is 
now in progress. 


The Sierra Buttes mine and mill have been closed by a 
strike of the miners, who demand recognition of their 
union. E. J. Olsen has a lease on the mine and will pro- 
ceed to work it if the miners agree to accept 25c. per day- 
less until May 1. The Dead River Mining Co. has de- 
cided to resume development at the Wyoming mine in the 
Alleghany district; the lode is the one that created local 
excitement in November, as it was discovered in driving 
an adit to develop the Deep Blue gravel mine at Smith's 
Flat. S. M. Weiland is superintendent. 


It is announced that work at the Bully Choop mine will 
probably be resumed as early in the spring as the melting 
of the snow will permit; dissention among the stockholders 
new perpendicular working shaft; George Margaretis is 


While no mill is dropping its stamps at Stent, 16 men 
are working at the Jumper mine, eight at the Santa Ysabel 

and six at the Mendonca mine. At the App mine 140 

men are employed. Experts have estimated that the 

water in the Dutch mine is S50 ft. deep. 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 




(Special Correspondence). — The Creole and Argentine 
properties on Leavenworth mountain have been taken 
under bond and lease by Wm. Gibson, one of the pioneer 
operators. Mr. Gibson has started a new adit to cut 
under the old workings at a depth of 100 ft. In the 
breast there is showing a 2-in. streak of high-grade silver- 
lead ore that carries 149 oz. silver per ton. Heavy ship- 
ments are being made from the Cram vein, intersected 
through the Doric adit, 2400 ft. from the portal. The ore 
is of a smelting grade and the first-class mills $134 per 
ton in gold, silver, and copper. Stoping is in progress 
and a streak of ore is being followed that measures from 
18 In. to 3 ft wide. The ground is being operated under 

lease by Gileen & Ecklund. A rich strike has been 

made at the Hansbrough mine, Columbia mountain. In 
sinking prospect holes for the proving up of the ground 
a 6-in. streak of 400 oz. silver ore has been exposed. The 
ore carries considerable gray copper and glance. The adit 
is to be extended for the securing of additional depth, and 

the objective should be reached within 100 ft. Work 

will be resumed in a few days on the Morning Glory adit 
on Saxon mountain. During the past several weeks a force 
of men has been engaged in cleaning out the workings 
and reducing the grade of the adit. It is understood that 
a compressor plant is to be Installed. J. F. Puchert of 

Idaho Springs is superintendent. The Linn Con. M. & 

M. Co. is employing a force of men in the construction of 
its new 50-ton mill. The building has been enclosed for 
some time, and a portion of the machinery has arrived. 
The balance has been shipped and should be here shortly. 
An aerial tramway Is being constructed from the sixth 
level of the Mineral Chief workings, the terminus of which 
is at the mill bins. This tram will be 3000 ft. long. Frank 

Graham is in charge of operations. The Raymond adit 

on Griffith mountain is being driven steadily forward, and 
according to surveys another vein should be Intersected 
within the next few feet. Joseph Raymond of Georgetown 

Is directing the work. The Lincoln adit on Lincoln 

mountain, which was started to cut the Virginia City shaft 
workings at the 500-ft. station, is being advanced one to 
two feet per day. Within 90 days the objective will be 
reached, at which time the mine will be drained of Its large 

bodies of water. Enlarged operations have been put 

under way upon the Smuggler on Brown mountain. The 
third and fourth levels are being extended to the west and 
streaks of ore are being followed which are from 8 to 18 
In. wide. A number of lessees are at work and steady 
shipments are being maintained. G. A. Huffman is mana- 
ger of the property. Louis Just, leasing on the Frost- 
berg, is carrying a stope on a streak of $80 ore that is 18 

in. wide. At the Seven-Thirty mine Joseph Bbner is 

employing a force of men in stoping upon an 18-ln. streak 
of 240-oz. silver ore. Shipments are being made weekly. 
The Star property situated up Geneva gulch, is mak- 
ing a fine showing. Drifting is in progress upon a 6-in. 
streak of smelting ore that carries 140 oz. silver and 0.5 
oz. gold per ton. Another adit has Just been started for 
the gaining of greater depth. A force of men Is now 
being employed in catching up a number of caves and in 
cleaning out the workings. John O'Dea Is In charge of the 
work. Steady shipments are being made from the Poor- 
man mine In the Freeland district. This property Is being 
operated by McKenzie Bros, and returns on the last ship- 
ment of 502 oz. silver per ton were received in settlement. 

Stoping is in progress upon a 12-ln. streak of mineral. 

The Rough and Ready adit in the same district, Is being 
driven rapidly; It is being run on the vein, and In the 
breast there Is exposed a 3-ft. body of mineralized quartz. 

A vigorous campaign of development Is being waged 

on the holdings of the Atlantic M. & M. Co., situated In 
the Atlantic district. An adit tunnel has been started 
which will Intersect the veins at great depth. A 6-In. 
streak of lead ore is showing which carries 52 oz. silver 
per ton and 55% lead. The Tam O'Shanter group is 

being developed In a systematic manner. The adit, in 300 
ft., is being advanced and another vein will be reached in 

another 30 ft. -Bill' Young, the father of the district, 

is busily engaged in breaking ore on the lower level of the 
Smuggler. The ore carries $200 per ton in gold and silver. 

The Tyler adit has been advanced 300 ft. The last 

vein intersected shows a streak of heavy lead ore 8 in. 
wide. Drifting is now in progress for the proving up of 
the ground. 

Georgetown, Jan. 18. 


(Special Correspondence). — The United Rico Mines Co. 
held their annual meeting at Denver, on Jan. 14, and elected 
the following directors: David H. Moffatt, A. B. Roeder, 
Samuel Newhouse, Leopold Zimmermann, M. H. Hauser, 
Harry P. Scott, John E. Searles, Maurice P. Blumenthal, 
and Carl M. Owen. Resolutions were adopted commend- 
ing the consulting engineer, H. A. Shipman, and the assist- 
ant general manager, A. Sheard, for the energy and fidelity 
which they had devoted to the interests of the company. 
The president's report and treasurer's report were pre- 
sented, and they showed that the company was in a most 
satisfactory condition. In due course a financial state- 
ment will be sent to the stockholders. The president's re- 
port called attention to the fact that the showing from 
the first month's operations of the Pro Patria mill was 
excellent, and that shipments of both crude ore and concen- 
trate had begun. Each week the company issues a state- 
ment In the local paper giving an account of progress. 

Rico, Jan. 15. 


Development work at the Snowstorm mine near Red 
river was resumed early in the month; the intention of the 
management is to sink a winze near the face of the main 
adit. The Dixie Royal Mining Co. is commencing opera- 
tions on its group of placer and quartz claims, three miles 
below the town of Crooked Creek. A sawmill is being 
shipped to the property; lumber will be sawed this winter 
for the erection of a large mill in the spring. The ore con- 
sists of a porphyry dike 100 ft. wide that is said to carry 
$3.60 gold per ton; along one wall of the dike there is a vein 
lh in. wide that is said to assay £100 gold per ton, while on 
the other side of the dike a <]uartz vein averaging 6 ft. wide 

is said to carry &io gold per ton. Scores of prospectors, it 

Is reported, are hastening to a new camp near the head of 
the Middle Fork of the Clearwater river; they are attracted 
by a statement that B. C. Sweatt has there found a vein 12 

ft. wide that carries £i4 gold per ton. The prospect of the 

building during this year of a large power plant, near the 
mining district along the Ten Mile creek between Orogrande 
and Buffalo Hump, has stimulated renewed activity there. 



The Nevada Legislature on Jan. 16 passed a resolution 
asking that the Federal troops be permitted to remain in 
Goldfleld until the organization of a State constabulary 
or other police force sufficient to maintain law and order 
and suppress any domestic violence that may occur. Presi- 
dent Roosevelt replied the following day that he will 
accede to the request, assuming that there will be all pos- 
sible expedition In providing this police force. The char- 
ter of the Nevada Miners' Union, Incorporated, was filed 
with the County Clerk on Jan. 18. This is the union that 
is intended to displace the Western Federation In the 
Goldfleld district, and has the moral support of the oper- 
ators' association. None but American citizens arc eligible. 
A portion of section three of the charter defines the pur- 
poses of the union as follows: "To secure the best wages 
possible for Its members. To regulate the scale of wanes 
between Its members as well as between its members and 
other persons and corporations, and to make all necessary 
contracts to execute and carry out the same. And, as 
directed by Its by-laws, to visit and comfort the sick, bury 
the dead, and care for the widows and orphans. This 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 25, 1908. 

corporation is not organized for profit and shall have no 
capital stock. A candidate for membership shall be a 
citizen of the United States or shall have declared his 
intention to become such." 

The output of the Goldfield mines is very limited under 
present conditions; most of the working mines are simply 
developing their ore reserves. The Western Ore Purchas- 
ing Co. Is receiving small lots of ore from the Florence 
Annex mine and from the Mohawk-Combination dump. 
The Combination mill is running at full capacity, treating 
80 tons of ore per day, which is all taken from the Com- 
bination mine. Within 60 days the Nevada-California 

Power Co. will have completed its parallel power-line from 

Bishop to Goldfield; 40 men are at work on the line. 

The Florence-Gem lease has developed a 4-ft. vein of ship- 
ping ore which carries a 6-in. streak of ore that is plastered 

over with gold. The Nancy Donaldson mine in the Red 

Mountain district, which produced high-grade ore two 

years ago, is to be developed on an elaborate scale. The 

Diamondfleld Red Mountain Mining Co. is sinking a shaft 
on its property; the ore developed by it carries from a 

few dollars to $664 per ton. At the Idol's Eye claim in 

the heart of Goldfield a well-defined body of ore has been 

found. A new district is that of Marlview, six miles 

from Thorne. The Treasure Hill Mining Co. has 75 tons 

of high-grade ore ready for shipment from its mine near 

Silver Peak. About 40 tons of ore from the Valcalde 

mine are being crushed daily; it yields $17 per ton. C. L. 
Knight is superintendent.— — The Original Rawhide Min- 
ing Co. has about 50 tons of high-grade ore ready for ship- 
ment; the shaft is now 100 ft. deep. 


The New York-Searchlight Mines Co. is advertising for 
bids on 300 ft. of cross-cutting in its Waterspout mine, near 
Searchlight. The company will do the hoisting and to that 

end will install a 15-hp. hoist. F. C. Perew has gone to 

Denver, Colo., to purchase a large mill for the Blossom 

mine in the northern part of the Searchlight district. At 

the Colorado mine two large electric pumps, a 25-hp. hoist 
and a 50-hp. engine have been installed; vigorous develop- 
ment of the mine is shortly to begin. The Nevada- 
Eldorado Mines Co., operating at Eldorado canyon, has 
developed down to a depth of 375 ft. a strong orebody of 
excellent milling grade. Steady development has com- 
menced at the Silver Dollar mine near Nob Hill; the mine 
has recently yielded some ore earrying 30% copper and 

much silver. A 40-hp. hoist has been ordered for the 

Lodi shaft of the Philadelphia-Searchlight mine; a large 

body of low-grade ore is being systematically developed. 

At the Blue Point mine there has been found an orebody 4 
ft. wide which assays 2 to 20% copper; more energetic devel- 
opment is being planned. A large body of ore that pans 

well in gold was found in doing the assessment work on the 
Florence group of claims. The ore is a heavy red-stained 

quartz; it is wider than the shaft at a depth of 30 ft. 

A. J. Weeks and Walter Maxwell are driving an adit at the 
Alice mine to develop a lode that is 12 ft. wide and said to 

assay $5 per ton. Smith & Bowman have installed a 

small hoist at the Shoshone mine, near Summit Springs, 
and have arranged to have ore milled by the New Era Co.; 
the ore they are now taking out is expected to yield between 

$12 and $15 per ton. A carload of ore recently shipped 

by the Boston-Pioche Mining Co. from the Yuba East 
claim is estimated to contain a value of $110 per ton; ship- 
ping upon an extensive scale will be postponed until the 
shaft now being sunk is connected with the ore-shoot. 


The 5-stamp mill at the Wheeler mine, which has hereto- 
fore been running for one shift per day only, is to be ope- 
rated continuously hereafter; large bodies of ore are blocked 

out in the mine. Two shafts on the property of the Yer- 

ington Copper Mountain Co. are said to be in good ore; the 
Lydia shaft has an 18-in. vein extending from the top to 

the bottom. At the Mason Valley mine an adit is being 

driven to cut the lode at considerable depth. It is intended 
to resume operations on a large scale at an early date; the 

new power plant is completed. The Wilson Gold Mines 

Co. has found a new body of rich ore in its mine in the 
Mountain View-district; a contract has been let for driving 
a 100-ft. adit and at the same time the main shaft will be 

continued down. At the Black Horse mine near Pine 

Grove an ore-shoot containing gold visible to the unaided 

eye has been found. Wm. Richards and others have 

found on the Red Bird claim two well-defined veins that 

assay well in gold. The McConnell shaft is still being 

sunk and is in the garnet-bearing limestone capping of the 

orebody; six men are working in it. On the 560-ft. level 

of the Ludwig mine an orebody averaging 12% copper has 
been found. 


The ore shipments over the Tonopah & Goldfield railroad 
for the week ending Jan. 16, as reported by the Western 
Ore Purchasing Co., aggregated 366 tons, divided as fol- 
lows: Jim Butler, 175 tons; Tonopah Extension, 88; Mid- 
way, 103. The Tonopah Co. sent 2850 tons, the Belmont 
company 300 tons and the Montana-Tonopah 1100 tons to 
the mills, making the total shipments for the week 4616. 
The total output of the Tonopah mines was 4616 tons, of 


* **/ MAS? m 
I si w( hL 


Map of Eastern Nevada. 

an estimated value (the shipping ore being valued at $50 

per ton and the milling ore at $20 per ton) of $103.000. 

On the lower levels of the Midway and Montana-Tonopah 
mines, work is being done under the direction of Mark 
B. Kerr to study the extent of the dacite intrusion that 
has given so much trouble in Tonopah mines. In the 
Midway mine the edge of one of the dacite tongues is 
being followed below the 800-ft. level; at the 900 ft. level 
the adjoining quartz body will be prospected, but sinking 

will be continued. At the Tonopah Extension mine ore 

is being extracted on all levels above the 600 ft.; the north 
cross-cut on the 1050-ft. level is progressing satisfactorily. 

Work is being pushed on all levels in the Jim Butler 

mine; the mill-dump is growing rapidly and the bins are 

kept full of high-grade shipping ore. At the West End 

Consolidated mine the customary quantities of high-grade 
ore are being extracted; exploration is proceeding on the 
western extension of the 400-ft. level. — The clean-up of the 
Sunnyside mill in the Round Mountain district for Decem- 
ber was $20,330.20; James McDonald is superintendent. 


On the evening of Jan. 18, A. D. Bailey, Fred McDonald, 
and Pete Brown, the three miners who had been impris- 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


oned In the Alpha shaft of the Giroux mines for 45 days, 
were rescued; the entombed men had been working several 
hours In digging their way to freedom. E. A. Harring- 
ton is developing the Columbia gold mine which is owned 
by W. D. Campbell; a small body of good milling ore has 

oeen found. Lessees in the Black Horse district are 

sacking ore for shipment; some of this ore carries $800 

to $900 per ton. On Jan. 10 tracklayers reached the 

Veteran mine with the last rail of the ore line. 

The management of the reduction plant which is being 
built by the Nevada Consolidated and Cumberland Ely 
companies has announced that work on the plant at 
McGill will proceed rapidly during this year; at least half 
of the great smelter and concentrator will be completed as 
soon as possible. Two units of the concentrating plant 
will be put into commission early, instead of one as pre- 
viously planned. 



The developments in the Magdalena district during 1907 
were of more importance than in any previous year. The 
Graphic company has exposed ore on the seventh, eighth, 
and ninth levels; the ore-shoot is about 400 ft. long and on 
the ninth level is 105 ft. wide. The ore is principally zinc 
sulphide, occasionally merging into zinc-lead sulphides, 
which require mechanical separation. Home of the ore car- 
ries 40% zinc, but most of it is low-grade, requiring concen- 
tration. The company has been experimenting with several 
milling processes and it is generally understood that it will 

soon install a concentrating plant. At the Tri-Bullion 

mine a 2o'J-ton concentrating plant has been installed; a 
large tonnage of both zinc sulphide and zinc carbonate ore 
has been developed in the Kelly mine. The Mine Devel- 
opment Co. commenced shipping oxidized lead ore in Sep- 
tember, but suspended about Dec. 1. It is now pushing 
the development of several mines along the Tip Top adit. 
The workings are all being driven in oxidized lead ore which 

contains about $1 gold per ton. William Martin has been 

shipping lead carbonate ore that carried 8 oz. gold per ton. 


(Special Correspondence). — A new and important strike 
has been made in the First Thought mine, on the 200-ft. 

level. Fresh capital has been obtained for development 

of the Chief ft Butte mine and the working force will be 
Increased. The products arc bornite and azurlte, and the 
value of the ore in copper is better than ordinarily found 

near the surface. There is considerable ore in reserve. 

A new adit has been started on the Trophy mine. The 

Katie mine on Toulon mountain Is producing good copper- 
gold ore. Work has been resumed at the Sure Thing 

mine, near Orient. In Deer Trail camp considerable 

activity prevails; the Rosalie company is getting out tung- 
sten ore of good quality. The Germania Mining Co. is 

operating the Seal and Queen claims under bond and is 
ready to ship a carload of ore which carries 170 oz. silver 
per ton. The company is employing 23 men on these 
claims and getting considerable development work done. 

The old Deer Trail mine Is being oi>erated under lease; 

a carload of ore was recently shipped. The Togo mine 

is producing copper ore in small quantities. In Che- 

welah district a 3-ft. vein of copper carbonate has been 
cut in the lower workings of the Copper Jack mine. In 
the Jay Gould mine a drift on the 2<»0-ft. level has been 
driven 48 ft. in galena and copper concentrating ore; a 
cross-cut has been started on the lower level. 

At the United Copper mine, on the 400-ft. level the vein 
has oeen followed over 200 ft. There are 150 tons of ore 
on the dump. A late report stated that 18 in. of gray 
copper had widened farther on to the full width of the 
drift. 6 ft.; an assay ran 16.3% copier, 150 oz. silver per 
ton. and a small value in gold. The working force has 
been increased from 15 to 30 men, and Ave more teams 
have been engaged, to increase the haulage and shipment 
of ore. 

Republic, Jan. 17. 



The enlargement of the lead plant at Trail now makes 
it unnecessary to ship any St. Eugene lead concentrate 

to Europe. During the past five months the Granby 

Consolidated M. & S. Co. has added to its smelting plant 
a new line of coke and ore-bins 800 ft. long, and a new 
structural dust-chamber. In a short time it will be smelt- 
ing 3200 tons of ore per day. It has plenty of coke on 
hand and can get all the men it wants at reasonable 
wages; unless something unforeseen happens it expects 

to treat its normal amount of ore every month. The 

200-ton mill at the Blue Bell mine near Nelson is nearly 
completed; in a short time the company will resume the 

development of its ore-bodies. The Elmore Oil Process 

Co. is erecting a small mill for the reduction of ore near 

Golden. At the Little Bertha mine a concentrating plant 

may be erected; the mine is to be operated to its full 

capacity. The Providence Mining Co. is advertising for 

bids for an issue of $50,000 in bonds. Hedley Miners' 

Union No. 161, it is understood, has accepted the lower 
wage scale which went into effect on Jan. 1, being that 

now in force in Phoenix, with some exceptions. A 

4000-ft. adit for the Krao mine at Ainsworth is proposed. 

Sand from near Quesnel, tested in New York, gave 

3 oz. platinum per ton; its working will be profitable if it 
can be concentrated. Work at the Slocan Bell mine 

has opened some small ore-shoots. The shaft at the 

Orphan Boy mine near Kamloops is being deepened to 

100 ft. Delay In the arrival of tramway fixtures has 

prevented ore shipments from the Eureka mine in Star 

gulch. At the Kokomo mine an orebody 6 in. wide has 

been found. 


During 1907 the mines of the Cobalt district shipped 
14,040 tons of ore, valued at between $10,000,000 and 
$12,000,000. The following are the shipments in pounds 
from the various mines: Buffalo, 2,208,820; City of Cobalt, 
101,280; Coniagas, 4.79S.710; Cobalt Central, 101,360; Colo- 
nial, 74,250; Drummond, 108,920; Foster, 611, S06; Green- 
Meehan, 196.780; Hudson Bay, 243,170; Imperial Cobalt, 
37.530; Kerr Lake, 644,800; King Edward, 62,250; La Rose, 
5,706,875; McKinley-Darragh, 1,407,935; Nipissing, 4,788,- 
249: Nova Scotia. 493.000; O'Brien, 2,666,360; Red Rock, 
91,443; Rlght-of Way, 258.220; Silver Leaf, 93,618; Silver 
Queen, 957.157; Tretheway, 1,710,438; Townslte. 234. 27S; 
Temlskaming, 430.611; University, 61,388. Total. 28,081,010 


News of three rich strikes in the Peel River and Sulphur 
Dome districts has reached Dawson. Indians have brought 
to Dawson from Peel river samples of decomposed rock 

abounding with gold. At Haggard creek In the Sulphur 

Dome district placer ground yielding from 60c. to over $3 
coarse gold ]>er pan has been found. The alluvium along 
the creek has all been staked and will be thoroughly ex- 
plored before spring. It is also reported that rich 

placer ground has been found near the head of the White 
river, where many Yukon prospectors are spending the 

A rush of prospectors has followed the discovery of rich 
gravel on Black Hills creek, a branch of Stewart river; 
the alluvium has been staked from Sixty above to the 
mouth of the stream, 33 miles, the last claim being No. 
164. Stampeders are staking the tributaries. The valley 
of Black Hills creek Is not proved ground, but rich gravel 
has been found on No. 112 below, No. 7 below. Discovery, 
No. 11 above, No. 23 above, and a few other claims: over 

100 men are working enthusiastically in the valley. On 

the left fork of Little Branch creek near Dawson. 5c. to 
$1.40 per panful of gravel have been secured. A strike has 
been made by Tom Babcock, Al Lobley, and Nathaniel 
Mercer on No. 10 claim; the alluvium has been tested by 
a cross-cut 22 ft. long and rich gravel is present through- 
out it. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 25, 1908. 

Special Correspondence. 


Engineers and Capitalization of Mines.— A Suggestion to the Insti- 
tution.— Tanganyika Concessions.— The Frecheville Report.— 
Australian Smelting Corporation.— De Beers and the Diamond 
In your issue of November 2, Mr. T. H. Leggett deals 
with a subject that is of considerable interest to English 
mining engineers. His letter was written with the pur- 
pose of showing that the engineers on the Rand have no 
voice iu the capitalization of the mining companies, and 
he mentions that as a rule the engineer is never asked 
by London promoters for his opinion as to what capital- 
ization a particular mine will stand. It is this point 
that I wish to enlarge upon. In London, mining en- 
gineers may be divided into two groups. In the first 
group there are such firms as John Taylor & Sons and 
Bewick, Moreing & Co., who not only send their en- 
gineers to inspect properties, but also form companies 
and raise capital to work them. The other, and larger, 
group consists of those who are purely engineers, who 
are deputed by financial houses either to examine mines 
or to manage them. Sometimes these engineers give 
their services entirely to one financial group, as is the 
case with the engineers employed by the South African 
houses, and in other cases the engineers enjoy an inde- 
pendent consulting practice. 

The grievance, sometimes expressed, but more often 
not, of this second group of engineers is that, as Mr. 
Leggett says, they are never consulted about the capital- 
ization of the companies formed to acquire particular 
mines. The consequence is that many a time a mining 
engineer who has reported favorably on a mine or who 
has been manager of a mine, finds that his report or 
work is used against him when the mine has proved un- 
equal to the task of recouping shareholders for the capital 
sunk in the company. He naturally knows that his ex- 
perience of mining has not been fully used for the benefit 
of the shareholders, but as yet he has no redress. The 
financiers and the Stock Exchange are too strong for 
him. Unless he deports himself as the ' City ' requires, 
he is of no use. Pessimistically speaking, he is a mere 
hewer of wood and drawer of water. As a rule he says 
to himself: " I have come to the City to do business and 
I must make up my mind to pocket my own feelings 
and do as the City does." It is not only that the nom- 
inal capital of the company is placed at far too high a 
figure, but that the underwriters and Stock Exchange 
further inflate the price of the shares. The directors of 
such companies generally plead ignorance of the reason 
why such inflation has taken place and of the identity 
of the inflaters, but their protestations are usually in- 

How engineers are to combat this incubus of over- 
capitalization and inflation is not quite clear, as the 
financiers occupy the citadel so strongly. But it is 
obvious that until the engineers are allowed to give their 
opinion on the subject, mining as directed from the city 
of London will not be as sound a business as it should be. 
Eventually I hope that engineers as a body, through the 
Institution of Mining & Metallurgy, will take some steps, 
slow but sure, toward making the engineers' opinion on 
the money value of a mine of greater weight among 
investors and shareholders. 1 put forward this sugges- 
tion to the Institution in all seriousness, for this, as much 
as anything, will elevate the profession and increase its 
dignity and influence. 

A week or two ago I sent some information concern- 

ing the great copper deposits in northern Rhodesia, 
owned by the Tanganyika Concessions Limited, and I 
mentioned that everybody was looking forward to Mr. 
R. J. Frecheville's report. Your readers will remember 
that the earliest information about these deposits waa 
received with scepticism on account of the unusually 
glowing nature of the reports. Subsequent information 
went far to confirm the first news. Recently Mr. R. J. 
Frecheville went out for the Consolidated Mines Selec- 
tion Co., so as to advise his company on the desirability 
of taking up an interest, and I said that, for myself, I 
would accept Mr. Frecheville's views as conclusive. It 
appears, however, that there is very little chance of his 
report being made public. The position is somewhat 
humorous. Seeing that he was sent out at considerable 
expense by the Consolidated Mines Selection Co., his 
report will not be handed over to anybody else without 
the payment of a considerable fee. As a matter of fact, 
the amount asked is £4000. This amount, neither the 
Tanganyika Concessions, nor the Union Miniere Co. of 
Brussels, which is working in conjunction with the Tan- 
ganyika Concessions, is inclined to give, which is a pity. 
In the meantime it is interesting to note that the ar- 
rangements for smelting the ore are proceeding apace, 
and that Mr. Allan Gibb, the metallurgist, speaks very 
confidently. Mr. Gibb is a Royal School of Mines man 
and son of the late Thomas Gibb, who was for many 
years with the Broughton Copper Co. of Lancashire. 
Until recently Mr. Allan Gibb has been engaged in 
copper smelting in Queensland. 

The troubles of the Australian Smelting Corporation 
are by no means over. A few weeks ago I gave some 
information, at the time when the first annual report was 
issued, and I sketched the history of this undertaking. 
The directors have issued a circular to the shareholders 
stating that the negotiations for the sale of new shares 
have fallen through and that there is no alternative but to 
reconstruct the company and assess the shareholders. It 
appears that the immediate reason for this crisis is the 
opposition on the part of some of the shareholders to the 
policy of the directors, and that in consequence the calls 
on £20,000 worth of shares cannot be collected. Legal 
proceedings are being taken by the board to enforce the 
payment of these calls, but the action will not come on for 
yet a while, and in the meantime the funds of the com- 
pany are exhausted and progress in erecting the smelter 
at Port Kembla is interrupted. In order to raise further 
funds, negotiations were opened with certain parties in 
Australia whereby a block of ~fc preference shares would 
be taken up. Unfortunately, however, the price of met- 
als has fallen to such an extent that these people in Aus- 
tralia have changed their minds and withdrawn from the 
negotiations. It is impossible to create any more debent- 
ures, as the legal limit has already been reached. The 
directors have, therefore, no option but to ask the present 
shareholders to put up further funds in order to keep the 
company going. There are 140,000 shares, and a 5s. 
assessment will bring in £35,000, supposing that every- 
body takes up his quota. But as there are already some 
20,000 recalcitrant shares, and as there is further discon- 
tent among shareholders, it is difficult to say how much 
money will be subscribed. The outcome of these propo- 
sals will be awaited with interest. 

The London market has been paying a good deal of 
attention to De Beers and other diamond companies' 
shares during the last month or two, owing to various 
happenings. It is customary for the De Beers company 
to pay an interim dividend on the deferred shares at 
about this time. It came as a surprise, therefore, to find 
that no such dividend is to be paid this year. All sorts 
of rumors have been disseminated in explanation of the 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


event. Approaching exhaustion, competition of other 
producers, decrease in the demand, and other reasons are 
freely mentioned, but nobody outside the control knows 
the whole truth. The De Beers company makes up 
accounts yearly to June 30. The last report, for the year 
1906-7, showed gross receipts £6,570,000 and dividends 
£2,550,000, both being an increase over the previous year. 
The directors state that the production and profits so far 
during the current financial year (beginning July 1, 1907) 
show no falling off, but that owing to the slackening of the 
demand they consider it best to make no disbursement in 
the way of interim dividend, preferring to keep large 
suras of money on hand. I believe that the American 
financial stringency has a good deal to do with this 
slackening of the sale of diamonds. It is probable, also, 
that the large output of the Premier mine is affecting the 
De Beers considerably. It is interesting to note that an 
agreement has been arrived at between these two compa- 
nies for controlling the disposal of their products. Noth- 
ing is said in the recent reports about the present pro- 
ductiveness or the future prospects of the I)e Beers mines, 
but it is well known that the yield per load has been 
decreasing, and that the output of blue ground has been 
increased in order to maintain the output. At the pres- 
ent time the intention of the directors is to curtail the 
production to make it commensurate with the demand. 
Another worry that the directors have is the increasing 
pressure of taxation both in Cape Colony and in England. 
The taxes have been materially increased in Cape Colony 
and amount to something like £300,000 a year. In Eng- 
land the courts have recently held that the company, 
though registered in Cape Colony and oj>eratmg there, is 
liable for the English income tax of hft on the whole of 
its profits; this materially affects the profits. 

Johannesburg, Transvaal. 

Decline in Shirt Values. — A Companion. — Tht Figures for Novem- 
ber. — Better Supply of Kaffir Labor. — labor Problem nof Solved. 
— A Slope-Drill Competition. c v 

In looking over some old papers the other day, the 
writer came across a price list of shares of the Band, 
dated October 13, 1902. A comparison of the prices pre- 
vailing today, with the values in 1902, shows what an 
awful shrinkage has taken place in the values of Trans- 
vaal shares during the past five years. Just after the 
war optimism ran riot, and it seemed possible to float 
any piece of land in the Transvaal as a gold mine. A 
few far-seeing hard-headed men warned the public that 
prices were entirely too high, and that a collapse was 
inevitable. But a veritable craze for ' deep levels ' was 
raging, and people seemed to think it would be ]x>ssible 
to follow the reef to the centre of the earth and make it 
pay all the way down. 

But the prices of today show what a collapse has taken 
place. I pick out a few stocks at random, giving their 
prices five years ago and today: 

J'rlce Oct. 13, '02. Price Dec. 12, '07. 

Mine. t «. d. £ •. d. 

Rand Mine* 11 9 5 4 

Harnato 3 6 10 

Jupiter 3 10 12 6 

Albu 8 6 9 0- 19 3 

Anglian Mining 12 9 16 

Cinderella Deep 3 1 15 

French Hand 3 13 6 16 

Kandfonteln 3 4 9 1 10 3 

simmer Kaat 3 19 9 6 

Koblnson Central 4 b 6 6 

Wit Deep 4 18 3 10 6 

A striking feature about this depreciation is the fact 
that shares like Band mines, which were spoken of as 

safe as the bank of England should have tumbled so dis- 
astrously. The ' safe' shares have had the same fate as 
the highly speculative ones, and in only one case, that of 
the Bobinson Central Deep, is the valuation higher today 
than in 1902. Jupiters show the awakening of the pub- 
lic as far as the 'deep deeps' are concerned. While the 
' deep level' fever was raging, this mine, which strikes 
the reef at about 4000 ft., was valued by the public at 
70s., but in these days of reflection it stands at only 12s. 
6d., a figure quite high enough. A few people here and 
there who have saved something from the wreck, are 
buying up some of the sounder shares on the Band, as 
they declare that at the present prices they can get a good 
return for the money invested. 

The performance of the mines for the month of No- 
vember is highly creditable. In a month of 30 days the 
output shows only 3752 oz. less than for October, which 
had one day more. The total yield was 549,801 oz., valued 
at £2,335,406. During November three companies pro- 
duced over 20,000 oz., while there were twenty yielding 


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Map of the African Gold fields. 

10,000 oz. and over. On account of losing a la rge nu oi- 
lier of Chinese coolies during November, the Simmer* 
Jack mine, which generally heads the list, gave way to 
the Bobinson company, which pnxluced 26,300 oz., the 
output of the Simmer & Jack being 21,210 oz. The third 
producer was the Robinson Deep, with 20,621 ounces. 

As regards native lalxir, there were 10,990 natives 
distributed during November, while 7091 departed, 
showing a net gain of 8899. There are now 107,556 
Kaftirs at work on the Band, probably the highest num- 
ber on record. During November there were 4610 Chi- 
nese laborers lost by repatriation, death, etc., and there 
are now 37,72n indentured lalxirers in the Transvaal 
available for work on the mines. So far the replacement 
of Chinese by Kaffirs has been most satisfactory and as 
yet no trouble has been experienced in procuring suffi- 
cient labor. Of course Het Volk, the Boer party, is jubi- 
lant over this fact, and are never tired of rubbing it in 
that the importation of coolies was unnecessary. Hut 
they are crowing too soon. At present there is one of 
the worst depressions ever known in South Africa, and 
the natives are forced by the economic situation to 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 25, 1908. 

come to work. If prosperity ever returns, the supply 
of Kaffirs for the mines will fall off automatically. 

The men who see the future clearly, such as mine man- 
agers, consulting engineers, and technical newspaper 
men, realize that the labor problem is by no means 
solved, but that we shall be " up a tree" if we don't look 
ahead. For this reason every effort is being made to find 
out the best small rock-drill to replace hand labor. There 
are many on the market, and in order to prove which is 
the best, South African Mines has started a competition, 
which is being patronized by all the small stope-drills on 
the market. This well known technical journal has shown 
the most commendable public spirit in this vital question of 
the finding a suitable power-drill for the small stopes of the 
Rand, and if it succeeds, the labor problem will be partly 
solved. It is because of the unsuitable underground con- 
ditions that so much hand-labor is necessary on the 
Rand. The extension of labor-saving devices, with the 
probable increased use of white labor, might yet solve 
the difficulties of the mining industry of the Transvaal. 

Guanajuato, Mexico. 

The Consolidated Co.— Description of the Mill.— Composition of the 
Ore. — Good Results. — The Mineral Development Co. — A Deep 
Shaft.— San Mafias.— The Pinguico and Peregrina Mines. 

The Guanajuato Consolidated Mining & Milling Co., 
controlled and managed by the MacDonald brothers, is 
mining and milling 300 tons of ore per 24 
hr. A one-mile cross-cut equipped with 
facilities for electric haulage affords access 
to the main orebodies. The present active 
workings are all below the main haulage 
level, and the electric hoists used in lifting 
the ore from the lower levels are installed 
at under-ground stations. At the portal 
of the main cross-cut are the electrically 
driven air-compressors, crushing plant, 
and sorting tables. The ore, after being 
crushed to 1-in. size, is hauled to the mill 
in self-dumping cars by electric locomo- 
tives, the distance being 2800 ft. The 
mill has 80 stamps, 1250 lb. each, crush- 
ing the ore in cyanide solution, discharging 
from the mortars through 50-mesh screens. 
This is followed by cone-sizing, the slime 
passing to settlers, the heavier material to 
Wilfley and Standard tables. The table 
tailing passes to Frue vanners, the tailing 
from the latter to cone classifiers, in which the sand and 
slime are separated. 

The sand is conveyed to leaching-vats and the slime to 
pulp-thickening vats. In the latter the slime is thick- 
ened to 68 % moisture and sent to the leaching-vats where 
the pulp undergoes agitation for 24 hr. by mechanical 
agitators and centrifugal pumps, a stronger cyanide solu- 
tion in the meantime being added. After settling six 
hours the enriched solution is decanted and passed to 
clarifying vats, thence to the precipitating room. The 
same material, from which the solution has been drawn, 
is again agitated in wash-water and the dissolved metals 
again drawn off. The company has installed a Ridgway 
filter-press, which is intended to handle the final slime 
that now discharges into the creek. This is of Austra- 
lian design and has been successfully used in Australian 
mills. The machine is being tried, with the intention of 
adding others of the same kind if this one proves success- 
ful. The sand undergoes four days treatment in one set 
of vats and is then transferred to other vats in which it 
receives from eight to nine days additional treatment. 
The concentrate from the tables and vanners, which is 

sent to the smelters, carries about 50% iron sulphide and 
5 % silica. The ores carry about 85 % silica, 4 to 5 % iron, 
having a total value of P25 per ton, 10 % of which is gold 
and 90$ silver. The extraction is stated as 90% of the 
silver and 97 to 98% of the gold. By the use of filter- 
presses it is anticipated that even a higher extraction will 
be reached, especially as to the silver. 

For sand treatment the solution is 0.035% cyanide, 
this stage terminating with a weak solution containing 
0.01% cyanide and a final water-wash. In the slime 
treatment eight solution washes and two to three water- 
washes are given, the strength of solution being 1 % cya- 
nide. Lime to the amount of 1 % is added to the pulp in 
the batteries and another 1 % to the sand when it is trans- 
ferred from the upper to the lower vats. The same 
amount of lime is also added to the slime when charging. 
To the slime is also added 0.15% of lead acetate and to 
the sand 0.05%. Ten tons of solution is used to one ton 
of ore; and seven tons of solution to one ton of ore is 
passed to the precipitating room. The consumption of 
zinc amounts to 1.37 lb. per ton of ore treated. The con- 
sumption of cyanide is 2.86 lb. per ton of ore. Bernard 
and Joseph MacDonald are concerned in the active 
management of the property. W. B. Timins is mining 
engineer and surveyor; Parish MacDonald, mill superin- 
tendent; R. Vaughn, superintendent of cyanide plant. 

The Mineral Development Co., organized by mining 
men and engineers of New York, Philadelphia, and else- 


where is sinking a prospecting shaft on the Nueva Luz, 
adjoining the Valenciana, near Guanajuato. The shaft 
is three-compartment, 8 by 17 ft., is equipped with a 
double-drum electric hoist and an Ingersoll-Rand air- 
compressor. The depth already attained is 1000 ft. and 
the plan is to sink to a depth of 3000 ft., with the idea of 
cross-cutting from various stations to the Veta Madre. 
This company has a concession from the Mexican govern- 
ment whereby it is to receive a subsidy for depth attained 
below the 500-m. level. H. H. Miller, one of the stock- 
holders, is the company's manager. The San Gregorio 

Mining & Railway Co. was organized in New York to 
take over the San Gregorio mine and a local railway that 
starts at Marfil. This company purposes reopening the 

mine and prospecting other property. The Mexican 

Milling A- Transportation Co. is to build a standard-gauge 
railroad 36 miles long to afford transportation to practi- 
cally all the mines and mills of the Guanajuato district. 
This is one of the Guanajuato companies of which Geo. 
W. Bryant is general manager. 

The Sau Matias mill of the Mexican Milling <& Trans- 
portation Co. has 40 stamps crushing the ore in cyanide 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


solution through 35-mesh Tyler slotted screens. This is 
followed by concentration over Wilfley tables, the mid- 
dling passing to Frue vanners and the tailing to cement 
slime plates. The coarse tailing is re-ground in a 1 4-ft. 
tube-mill, the product of the latter passing to the cyanide 
plant, where the sand and slime are separately treated, 
the slime being treated in connection with agitation and 
Butters vacuum filters. The mill has a capacity of 5000 
tons per month. C. E. Rhodes is superintendent of the 

San Matias mill and the San Prospero mine. The 

Pinguico mine and mill of the Guanajuato Development 
Co. are situated four miles from Guanajuato, on the 
rhyolite bluffs overlooking the valley and plain. What 
is now the principal Pinguico shaft is 800 ft. deep. It 
sinks in the foot-wall, the ore being opened by Ave levels 
running northward on the vein. These levels are 73, 
103, 125, 145, and 185 m. respectively from the surface 
and they represent 1200 m. of drifts on the vein. The 
levels are all connected by raises and winzes every 
50 feet. 

The principal ore-shoot is stated to be 10 m. wide, 
the value of the ore averaging 2000 gm. silver and 20 
gm. gold per ton. The vein matter is soft, requiring tim- 
bering. As the work proceeds north the vein becomes 
narrower and the ore hard, there being rich streaks 2 m. 
wide, assaying as high as 20 kg. silver and 200 gm. gold. 
This shaft is equipped with an Ingersoll-Rand com- 
pressor, electrically driven; a 150-hp. electric hoist, 
machine shop, sampling room, ore-bins, and a railroad 
track from the bins to the mill. A second shaft, 175 m. 
deep, situated a short distance from the one already de- 
scribed, is to become the main working shaft. The 
40-stamp mill, which treats the Pinguico ores, is alxiut 
one mile from the mine and is o|<eruted by electric 
motors. In addition to the eight 5-stamp batteries the 
equipment comprises two Chilean mills, one Hryan mill, 
Wiltley tables, Dorr classifiers, 30 stations of cement 
slimers, and cyaniding equipment. With the machinery 
and devices named, the ore is crushed, classified, concen- 
trated, the coarse re-ground, the Band and slime sepa- 
rated and cyanided. It. L. Armit is general su|>erin- 
tendent of the Pinguico mine anil mill; G. M. Henderson 
being the mill foreman. 

The Peregrina mine and mill, one of the numerous 
properties controlled by Mr. Bryant and associates is 
about seven miles from Guanajuato. With 120 stamps 
in operation, the plant treats between 100 and 500 tons of 
ore per day. The Peregrina ores carry gold and silver in 
a gangue which in some parts of the mine is hard quartz 
and in others a decomposed material. In the former the 
precious metals are associated largely with pyrite; in the 
oxidized material much of the gold is in a free state and 
the silver a chloride. The mine is opened through a 
main haulage adit, 350 m. long, intersecting the series of 
parallel veins. The ore now being produced is hoisted by 
electric motors to the main haulage level. The milling 
method here does not differ radically from the general 
practice of the district. The table product, resulting 
from concentrating the heavy material from the bat- 
teries, amounts to about two tons per day. The table 
middling is re-ground in a tube-mill; the lighter slime, 
overflowing from cone-classiflers, goes to slime-collector?. 
The re-ground product from the tube-mill passes to cone- 
classiflers, in which a serration ■>{ sand from slime is 
made. The usual method of leaching the sand in large 
steel vats and cyaniding the slime in agitating vats fol- 
lows. Butters Alters are employed in drawing the solu- 
tion from the flocculent slime material; Blaisdell 
excavators and belt-conveyors are used in discharging 
the sand after leaching. J. J. Hollister is manager of 
this property. 

Butte, Montana. 

The Smoke Suits. — An Injunction Unlikely. — local Conditions 
Unchanged.— The Great Falls Smelter. — Schwab and the 
Corry Claims. — Rapid Shaft Sinking. — Easf Butte. 

The modifications made in the smelter smoke injunc- 
tion suit by Oliver Crane, Master in Chancery of the 
Federal Court, are much more favorable to the Amal- 
gamated Copper Co. than the findings in the original 
draft were, and it is claimed that if Judge Hunt approves 
the findings he may well and consistently refuse to issue 
an injunction to close the Washoe smelter at Anaconda. 
The Master finds that no permanent injury has been done 
the land by the arsenical fumes from the smelter, and 
that if the smelter were closed for one year all the land 
would become free of the accumulations, for since Sep- 
tember, 1903, when the big stack was completed and put 
in use, the precipitation in nowise damaged the land. 
There is a possibility that the present suspension of the 
Washoe smelter may therefore give the land time to 
absorb the accumulated noxious substance and solve the 
question of a permanent injunction. The findings on the 
question of no permanent damage to the land is em- 
phatic. Judge Hunt is not likely to be able to consider 
the findings and give a decision within the year. 

The condition of the copper market does not encour- 
age the hope that there will be an early resumption of 
mining by the Amalgamated Copper Co. in the mines 
that have been closed for several months. While general 
business conditions ap|>ear to be improving there is 
nothing to justify an increase in production. The Bos- 
ton A- Montana Co., the only subsidiary of the Amalga- 
mated that is mining, has not yet reached its oj>erating 
capacity, although it was announced at the time of the 
suspension of the other mines that the Boston & Mon- 
tana would be worked to full capacity, and would pro- 
duce the same amount of copper as the other mines had 
been producing. The North Butte is shipping a limited 
quantity of ore to the Clark reduction works, but the 
Butte Coalition is not mining any ore at all. "The 
reduction works have l>een handling some of the North 
Butte ore, and additional converters being installed will 
make it possible for them to handle more ore, but the 
entire capacity of the smelter is not great enough for the 
North Butte normal output, let alone that of the North 
Butte and Clark mines together," said A. C. Carson, 
general manager of the North Butte. At the Great 
Falls smelter of the Boston & Montana Co. the half-time 
system is being worked, due to the desire of the Amal- 
gamated to give employment to as many men as possible. 
Men are allowed to work only half time, and in that 
way twice the numl>er usually employed are given work. 

It is understood that the Davis-Daly Kstates people arc 
negotiating with an English syndicate for the placing of 
a lot of Davis-Daly stock, by which the company treas- 
ury will receive $1,400,000 cash at once, and $600,000 in 

deferred installments. It is learned that before the 

financial panic a representative of Charles Schwab was 
negotiating for the acquisition of the Corry group of 
copper claims in the district east of Butte, on the main 
range. The Corrys own a hundred or more claims in 
that district, and several claims have been opened suf- 
ficiently to disclose fine copper veins. Schwab offered 
$1,000,000 for the property, agreeing to pay $250,000 in 
cash, and give stock for the balance in a company to be 
organized. The Corrys declined the otl'er, but it is 
understood that negotiations have not been abandoned, 
though they have l>cen deferred. 

The Butte-Ballaklava Copper Co., which capitalized 
six acres of ground for $0,000,000, is sinking a new shaft 
and also opening the old one on the Burke claim. In 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 25, 1908. 

the old workings, at a depth of 510 ft., it has opened a 
vein which the management claims to be the Edith May 
vein of the North Butte Co. The vein there is 28J ft. 
wide. A cross-cut is being run north from the shaft, and 
has also intersected another vein. It is claimed that 
picked samples of the ore assays 18$ copper, 30 oz. sil- 
ver, and $1.20 gold. It is the intention of the company 
to drift east and west on the vein, the west drift to be 
carried 500 ft. to connect with the new shaft. The new 
shaft is down 300 ft., and fair progress is being made 
with the temporary plant. The company intends to 
install a new plant, and the equipment will include an 
electric plant for the operation of compressor and 
pumps. The record for shaft-sinking in the Butte dis- 
trict probably belongs to the Pilot-Butte Mining Co., 
which sank a four-compartment shaft 250 ft. in two 
months. The shaft on the Pilot is now 515 ft. deep, and 
a station is being cut at the 500. At the 500 in the Elm 
Orlu, an adjoining property, a big vein of copper-silver 
ore has been opened by W. A. Clark, and on the 700-ft. 
level a big body of copper glance has just been found. 

Salt Lake, Utah. 

A Mine-Owners Association. — The Yampa Smeller. — Another Con- 
solidation. — Dividends. — Shipments From Tintic. — Lower 
Mammoth Co. — Less Demand for Coke. — Boston Consolidated. 
— The Mascotte Adit. — Smelter Fumes. 

The mine-owners have effected an organization which 
is to be known as the Utah Mine Operators Association. 
The president is John Bern, of the Consolidated Mercur 
Gold Mines Co.; Thomas Kearns, manager of the Silver 
King Mining Co., is first vice-president; W. F. Snyder, 
manager of the National Bevelopment Co., second vice- 
president; Harry S. Joseph, manager of the Silver Shield 
Mining Co., secretary; C. E. Loose, manager of the 
Grand Central Mining Co., treasurer, who, with Lafayette 
Hanchett, W. C. Alexander, George \V. Riter, and 
Ernest Bamberger, comprise the executive committee. 
Various sub-committees have been named, and the 
organization has settled down to business. About 00 </ c 
of the operating mines of the State are represented in 
the organization, which was affected amid much enthu- 
siasm, as the mine-owners are unanimously of the 
opinion that the existing custom smelting companies 
operating in the vicinity of Salt Lake have made them 
victims of arbitrary smelting rates. The new organiza- 
tion has already placed itself on record as favoring the 
independent smelter movement launched in this city 
recently, and passed a resolution urging upon Congress 
to establish a government assay-office at Salt Lake City. 

The management of the Yampa Smelting Co., operat- 
ing a plant in Bingham canyon, has announced the 
intention of installing a two-stand converter plant, which 
will make this company entirely independent of all 
other local smelters. Heretofore the Yampa company 
has shipped its matte to the United States Smelting Co. 

for converting. The Tintic Mining & Development 

Co., of which the Yampa Smelting Co. is a subsidiary, 
will shortly begin work on its Tintic properties after a 
shut-down covering many years. Recent developments 
made in the Colorado and other mines has demonstrated 
that the Tintic property is well situated. It is the inten- 
tion to sink the shaft to a depth of 1500 ft., and extend 

intervening levels. Negotiations are pending for a 

consolidation of the properties owned jointly by the 
Nevada Utah Mines & Smelters Co. and the Ohio Ken- 
tucky Co. at Pioche, Nevada. Representatives of both 
companies are now in the East for a conference on the 

Two Utah mining companies have posted dividends 

within the past week, namely, the Mammoth, for 

$40,000, and the Utah (of Fish Springs), for $3000. 

Ore shipments from Tintic last week were reduced to 46 
carloads, the smallest in eight years, the shippers and 
amounts being: Centennial Eureka, 38; Tintic Iron, 5; 
Eureka Hill, 3 carloads. 

At the annual meeting of shareholders of the Lower 
Mammoth Mining Co., operating in the Tintic district, 
a new board of directors was chosen consisting of A. C. 
Ellis, J. J. Stewart, John Bern, W. S. McCornick, M. P. 
Braffett, H. G. Williams, and E. C. Coffin. The mine 
superintendent recommends that the shaft, which is now 
down 1200 ft., be sunk to the 2000-ft. level, it being esti- 
mated that the orebody will be caught on its dip at about 
1900 ft. The financial statement shows that the company 
sold ore to the amount of $123,467 in 1907, and that 
$57,000 was disbursed in dividends. It is estimated that 
the ore in reserve is double that extracted last year. 

Owing to the shutting down of so many smelters and 
mines throughout the West during the past few months, 
there has been a great falling off in the demand for fuel, 
with the result that some of the coal companies have 
begun to curtail work. Some mines have been closed 
entirely, but as yet there has been no great reduction in 
the number of miners employed; however, in numerous 
instances, the men are working only about two-thirds 
time. The closing of the smelters in Montana and in the 
Salt Lake valley greatly reduced the demand for coke. 

The Boston Consolidated has placed its new surface 
tramway in commission. It transports the ore to the 
new concentrator at Garfield. The starting of the tram- 
way has been delayed by the accident to the pumping 
plant which resulted in the death of L. H. Wheeler, 

superintendent of construction. The Mascotte adit of 

the Balton & Lark mine which is to be utilized in the 
future by the Ohio Copper Co., has been pushed ahead 
to a point within 600 ft. of being directly under the 
vertical shaft with which it will connect. The adit is 
now draining the mineralized zone of the Ohio and work 
is about to be resumed in the shaft. For several weeks 
the adit has been driven through a well mineralized 
region, with encouraging assays for gold. The construc- 
tion of the new mill is going forward steadily. The 
company recently cleared up its financial obligations 
and is now prepared to round out its enterprise as 

The smelter of the United States Smelting Co. is still 
being operated; and while the plant may go down for a 
time, it is claimed that the company is getting ready to 
go into court to show that if granted a modified decree, 
as was the case with the American Smelting <£ Refining 
Co., as regards its Murray plant, it will be possible to 
keep within the law; and that such devices have been 
installed to control the fumes that there is little danger 
of damage being done to vegetation. Negotiations have 
been resumed with the farmers with the object of getting 
them, for a consideration, to sign smoke easements on 
their lauds as they did with the American Smelting & 
Refining Co. last year. The shutting down of the Utah 
Consolidated and Bingham Consolidated plants and the 
dismissal of so many men has had a salutary effect on 
the farmers and they are not nearly so hostile as they 
were a few weeks ago. Nevertheless, some of them are 
hard to pacify. The most recent smoke agitation 
started has been the filing of claims against the Yampa 
Smelting Co., operating in Bingham canyon, by the 
owners of farms ten miles distant from the works. The 
Yampa management, however, will fight the cases to 
the bitter end if they are taken into court. It is ridicu- 
lous to suppose that the fumes from this plant ever get 
down into the Salt Lake vallev. 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


Denver, Colorado. 

Land Frauds. — Water Famine. — The Portland and Mr. Burns. — 
Activity at Aspen.— Mining at Boulder.— Leasing Successful at 
Cripple Creek. 

The Federal grand jury returned an indictment charg- 
ing W. R. Mason and Joseph Vanderweide with con- 
spiracy to assassinate Joseph A. Walker, the secret ser- 
vice agent, whom Vanderweide shot and killed at the 
Hesperus mine near Durango last November. Indict- 
ments were also returned against E. M. Biggs and W. 
\V. Nossman on the charge of conspiracy to obtain 8000 
acres of government land by illegal methods for the 
benefit of the New Mexico Lumber Co. This indictment 
is similar in import to the ones recently quashed by 
Judge R. E. Lewis, when he rendered his decision 
upholding the ' dummy entry ' system. The govern- 
ment prosecution has been greatly hampered by the loss 
of Walker, who was the chief witness in these cases. 

The City of Colorado Springs has given notice to all 
the industrial plants outside the city limits that by April 
at the latest they must obtain their water supply from 
outside sources. This will affect the big reduction plants 
especially. It was only after much consideration that the 
City adqpted this course. Colorado Springs is growing 
so rapidly that in case of a serious fire under the present 
conditions the water-supply would tie inadequate and the 
City would be liable for damages. 

The latest development in the struggle for the control 
of the Portland Gold Mining company is the demand of 
J. F. Burns, made to the State Commissioner of Mines, 
that Deputy Inspector McCarty lie removed from office. 
Inattention to duty and an unfair report about the Port- 
land mine are the charges. 

The Aspen district is showing renewed activity in 
prospecting and development work. The Smuggler and 
Durant mines have kept their pumps going and a small 
number of miners at work ever since the shut-down on 
IK cember 7. These mines are now increasing their work- 
ing force and are ready to start as soon as the market 
warrants. The machinery necessary to complete the 
mill at the Ruby mine is on its way. Everything is 
being made ready for exteasive ojierations on this prop- 
erty in the spring. The Balarat-Smuggler mine at 
Boulder is being re-opened by H. S. Vaughn and asso- 
ciates of Denver. The property has l>een purchased for 
$100,000. This mine has been idle for several years, 
although it was once a famous producer of lead-silver 
ore. Men are now at work clearing out the mine and 
repairing the buildings. The Empire Zinc plant at 
Canon City has been closed until the market for spelter 

The Gold Sovereign Mining & Tunnel Co. of Cripple 
Creek is getting affairs badly mixed up. Litigation is 
now threatened by the Franklin Mining Co. of Denver. 
The deposed Rapp management gave a three-year lease 
to this company. The stockholders rescinded the acts of 
the Rapp management at their recent meeting and the 
new board of directors has given a two-year lease to the 
Colorado State Investment Co. In its endeavor to escape 
from poor management, the comjmny seems about to be 
involved in litigation which may prove worse. The 
success attending the leasing system in the Cripple Creek 
district has made the lessees particular. They hesitate 
to take a lease that does not show ore in plain view. On 
the other hand, the owners are increasing the royalties. 
The El Paso Consolidated is finding itself in this diffi- 
culty. The lessees who have l>een awarded blocks of 
ground are for the most |>art ready to give up their 
leases because of the poor showings and the almost pro- 

hibitive royalties. Every mine in Cripple Creek is now 
operating with a full force of men, and it is the first time 
in many months that idle miners could be found in this 
district. The great influx of miners from Nevada has 
caused the executive committee of the Mine Operators' 
Association to be very watchful and they are now per- 
sonally examining and passing on all applications for 
recommendation cards. 

Dividends of record paid by mines of the Cripple Creek 
district amounted to $1,129,145, with an additional esti- 
mated earning of close companies of $250,000 for the 
year 1907. The production for the year was 608,459 
tons, valued at $13,148,152, bringing the total value to 
the beginning of 1908 to $2:52,793,443. After the fire at 
the Golden Cycle mill, the output of the low-grade prop- 
erties suffered, but December showed a large improve- 
ment, there being a net gain over November of nearly 

A Part of Colorado. 

6000 tons, and a profit of $100,000. With the new treat- 
ment charges from the smelters, and the resumption of 
the Golden Cycle mill the new year opens cheerfully. 
The number of men employed is at high-water mark, 
and the payroll for December was the largest in many 
months; there is a surplus of labor, although much new 
development work is under way, and many of the new 
comers are turning their attention to leasing. The Eagle 
Ore Co. is employing two shifts of millmen, handling an 
average of 800 tons per day. The record for an s-hr. 
run at this sampler was broken on the 7th, when 510 
t<m- of ore were handled. The Taylor & Brunton sam- 
pler is operating steadily on one shift, with frequent over- 
time runs. The Stratum's Independence, Ltd., Co.'s 

cyanide plant is under cover, and machinery is arriving 
daily, a very businesslike; activity prevailing; a trial 
run will probably be made in March, depending on 
the prompt arrival of machinery. The Cresson prop- 
erty on Raven hill reports a strike of high-grade ore, 
from which shipments returned $10.50 |ht lb. on several 
hundred pounds; the strike is of interest also owing to 
the unusual character of the formation, being in granite 
in a region noted for its phonolite and porphyry. The 
Cresson lias some large ore-shoots, and the new one 
appears to l>e as persistent as the others. 


Mining and Scientific Press. January 25, m*. 


Most of these are In reply to questions received by mall. Our 
readers are Invited to ask questions and give Information dealing 
with the practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 

A fresh world's record for vertical shaft-sinking 
with hand labor was created in July, 1907, at No. 2 
shaft of the Brakpan Mines Co., Transvaal; the shaft 
was sunk 204 ft. during the month. 

The most practical method for examining the quality 
of finished concrete work is by sampling the material by 
taking out a core with what is known as a shot-drill. 
With a small hand-power outfit, a hole can be bored into 
the concrete very rapidly, a core removed, analyzed, and 
the character of the mixture accurately determined; the 
holes can be easily filled and do not injure the strength or 
appearance of the work. 

A method for the extraction of petroleum from bore- 
holes that is used by the Galician Carpathian Petroleum 
Co. at Kryg, in Galicia, consists of passing a continuous 
band of rope through the borehole; this absorbs the oil, 
and the saturated portion of the rope is then compressed 
between cylinders or rolls at the surface. The hemp- 
band employed is similar to a mine-cage cable, covered 
with a fibrous material to make it permeable to liquid. 
It is in three sections, jointed by stitching with shoe- 
makers' waxed thread, which facilitates repairs. It is 
80 mm. wide and 8 mm. thick. At Kryg, owing to local 
circumstances, the apparatus is worked by hand. The 
amount of oil poured into the tank by compressing the 
rope is about 415 gm. per current metre. It is said that 
the method can be utilized for acid-solutions, brine, or 
even drainage of mines. 

To prevent the occasional occurrence of fire in air-com- 
pressor cylinders, due to oxidation of the oil used in 
lubricating, these cylinders should be cleaned frequently. 
This may be done by filling the oil-cup with soap-suds 
made of one part of soft soap to fifteen parts of water; 
the compressor may work a few hours, during which the 
solution should be liberally fed; then open the receiver 
blow-off and drain off the accumulation of oil and water. 
Care should be taken to feed with oil a half hour before 
shutting down, so that the parts may not be subject to 
rust. The intervals at which this cleaning process should 
be repeated depend on the service of the compressor. If 
on a light load and running for 8 to 10 hr. per day, once 
every month or two will be sufficient; but if running at 
full capacity for 24 hr. per day, about once every week or 
two is necessary. 

The commercial value of asbestos is determined by the 
strength of the fibre and by its length. Common varie- 
ties from localities in the United States are usually brittle, 
being easily broken in the fingers, while the best quality 
of Canadian chrysotile asbestos is tough and can be bro- 
ken only with difficulty. If of the latter quality, a large 
deposit 20 miles from a railroad in the United States 
would have commercial value if occurring under average 
conditions as to mining and hauling to the railroad; but 
the 20-mile wagon-haul would prohibit the profitable 
working of a deposit of medium quality. The market 
quotations are for prepared asbestos. The preparation is 
expensive and requires a costly plant. Although asbestos 
occurs in many places in the United States, very little 
has been mined. The Hance Asbestos Co. in 1905 and 
1906 worked a deposit at the bottom of the Grand Can- 
yon in Arizona, and the American Asbestos Co. produced 
in 1906 a small amount of amphibole asbestos from its 

mines near Chestnut Fork postoffice, in Virginia. Can- 
ada yields by far the largest proportion of the world's 
production of chrysotile asbestos. The principal deposits 
are at Black Lake, Thetford, Templeton, Danville, and 
East Broughton, in Quebec. Italy, Russia, and South 
Africa produce some asbestos, but all of it is inferior to 
the Canadian. 

A particle of placer gold, if flaky in shape, may be 
exceedingly light in weight and yet be readily seen 
against the black iron of a gold-pan. Near the mouth of the 
Torio river on the Pacific coast of the Isthmus of Panama, 
there is a deposit of beach gravel several acres in extent, 
which contains many exceedingly fine colors of gold. 
They are distributed with comparative uniformity; each 
panful of gravel yields about 200, as has been determined 
by occasional counting. About 1200 colors were weighed 
and found to aggregate only two cents in value; at this 
rate 60,000 colors would be required to make one dollar. 
The display of this flaky gold in the pan might lead the 
unwary prospector to think he had found a valu- 
able placer deposit; in truth, the gravel probably 
contains a value of only 40c. per cu. yd., and on account 
of limited size, character of the gold grains, and other 
conditions, cannot be profitably worked. 

Benzine is used at the Komata Reefs mine, in New 
Zealand, in the place of the usual blacksmith forge for 
drill-sharpening. The storage-tank is situated in the 
mouth of a disused adit, about 100 ft. above the smithy, 
and this head gives ample pressure. The furnace, which 
is rectangular in shape, is in outside measurements about 
32 in. long, 12 in. high, and 6 in. wide. It is made of 
cast-iron plates lined with ordinary firebrick. A Cary 
burner is placed at one end of the furnace and the blast is 
directed longitudinally through its centre; an opening at 
the other end is fitted with a 1 J-in. pipe for carrying off 
the products of combustion. The furnace takes 18 drills 
on each side; they are introduced through slots and 
supported on light iron stands. The cold steel is put in 
at the end farthest removed from the burner and is grad- 
ually moved toward the other end as the heated drills are 
taken out. An average of 2700 drills sharpened during 
two shifts with three men on each shift has been attained. 
Either a 1J or 2-in. burner is used and the benzine-con- 
sumption is approximately 1 gal. per hr. This furnace 
has given no trouble although it has been running nearly 
two years. 

A simple method by which the presence of tungsten in 
a rock may be determined is as follows: The ore should 
be ground to a fine powder; when it is of low-grade mate- 
rial the tungsten mineral should first be concentrated by 
washing away the lighter portion, as in panning gold ore, 
which is not difficult as the tungsten minerals are all 
heavy; then the concentrate can be dried and ground 
until fine. Some of the powder is then placed in a test- 
tube, hydrochloric acid is added, and the contents of the 
tube are boiled for a short time. If scheelite is present 
it will be sufficiently decomposed in one or two minutes, 
but wolframite and hubnerite may require boiling for 
five or ten minutes. If tungsten is present it is liberated 
as a yellow precipitate of tungstic acid. Frequently the 
precipitate assumes an olive-green color. Even when a 
yellow precipitate is present it cannot be relied upon as a 
test for tungsten as it sometimes consists of ferric chloride. 
Having boiled the contents of the tube for a few minutes, 
remove from the source of heat and add a little granu- 
lated tin, or a piece of tin-foil rolled up; this immediately 
commences to dissolve, and if tungsten be present the 
solution will within a minute or two assume a beautiful 
deep blue color. 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 



Readers of the Mining and Scientific Press are Invited to use 
this department for the discussion of technical and other matters 
pertaining to mining and metallurgy. 

Use of Brush as Fuel in Roasting. 
The Editor : 

Sir — The photograph illustrates a load of brush fagots 
or monojos, as the Mexicans call them. To a great 
extent we have substituted these for first-class wood in 
firing our boilers, and are using them entirely as fuel in 
our hand reverberatory roasting furnaces. Our first- 

Unloading Fagots at tht Roaster of the Progrtsso Mining Company. 

class wood costs about I»ll per cord of 3.621 cu. m., 
delivered in the hacienda, and we effect a saving of about 
20 fc in cost of fuel by using the fagots in roasting. 
Besides effecting this saving, the source of our fuel supply 



J6 JCftno 







Box tor Fagots. 

is greatly increased, as there is a heavy growth of Uno <\c 
Goto, Palo Arco, and various other kinds of brush in the 
immediate vicinity of the hacienda. It is advantageous 
also to clear the ground and give the grass a letter chance 

to grow, giving the freight mules more freedom in graz- 
ing, besides being a safeguard against fires, which are 
rather frequent. 

The brush can be burnt very green and gives a 
long flame, and is not as likely to burn out the grate-bars 
as is the case with the first-class wood, which makes very 
hot coals. The fagots are made as follows: Two pieces 
of fibre plant, such as heniquen or datil, are placed in the 
slots in the box, which is shown in the drawing. Then 
two short rawhide ropes, with iron rings on the ends, are 
laid across the slots. The brush is then jammed into the 
box and cinched at both ends (with the rawhide ropes) 
into compact fagots, and tied firmly with the fibre leaf. 
It is pulled out of the box, the ropes taken off, and is 
ready for use. 

These fagots are made by contract at two centavos 
apiece, and we have 50 men employed at this work. 
Since the drawing was made, we have made a slight 
change in the design of the box, by using 2-in. planks, 
instead of 1 J-in., and re-enforcing the boxes with 1 by 4- 
in. strips of wood, instead of with iron straps. Size of 
box inside is 9 in. wide by 12 in. high and 5 ft. long. 

Arthur C. Nahi.. 

Triunfo, Baja California, December 23. 

Iron Screen in Zinc-Boxes. 

The Editor : 

Sir — It will probably create some surprise among cya- 
nide men to be told that iron screens in zinc-boxes are det- 
rimental in as much as they facilitate solution of zinc 
l>oth by cyanide and caustic soda. Some time ago I at- 
tempted to form sodium-zincate by dissolving zinc 
shaving in caustic soda. The action was not as rapid as 
I wished and expected, and on consulting Bloxam I found 
that contact with iron increased the rapidity of action. 
A simple test demonstrated this to my entire satisfac- 
tion. The action was increased a hundred fold. 

The question instantly occurred to me : " Why use 
iron screens in zinc-boxes? There is always more or less 
caustic soda present." I have since run parallel boxes 
with and without iron screens. Conditions were main- 
tained as nearly identical as possible with that excep- 
tion. The results show a saving in free cyanide, as well as 
zinc. Average analyses over a considerable period show 
as 0.08 lb. cyanide and 0.05 lb. zinc per ton of solution in 
favor of new iron screens. It remains to find a satisfac- 
tory substitute. I used for the test burlap, perforated 
zinc sheet, and cocoa matting. None of these are satis- 
factory for permanent use. Perforated fibre-board would 
probably fill the bill. 

The idea may not have a wide application, but where 
solutions contain as high as 0.1 to 0. 125jfe free cyanide, 
it is well worth considering. I quote E. M. Hamilton 
in saying: "The principle has been proven beyond 


James S. Colbath. 
Torres, Mexico, November 16. 

Cyanidation in Nevada. 

The Editor: 

Sir — The article by Mr. R. S. Browne in your issue of 
November 30 brings up a subject of extreme interest at 
this time when smelter rates have been raised so high 
and settlements deferred so long as practically to pro- 
hibit the shipment of ore, and it is to be hoi*Hl that those 
metallurgists who have studied the Ooldfleld ores will 
publish such data as they may have, that methods (if 
treatment will Ik- brought forward and compared, to the 
end that properly designed mills may he erected and 
Independence from the smelters established. 
In furt/ierance of this idea I am pleased to give some 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 25, 1908. 

data on tests recently concluded on ores furnished me by 
the Goldfleld Con. Mines Co. and to outline the method 
of treatment that appeals to me as most economical. 

The ore was the characteristic sulphide ore of the 
Mohawk vein, being very silicious and carrying about 
Sfc sulphides finely disseminated throughout the matrix. 
These sulphides, besides the iron pyrite, contained tel- 
lurium in appreciable quantity, arsenic, and traces of 
copper. [Since writing the above I see that Mr. E. A. 
Collins questions the presence of tellurium. I can state 
for his information that in these samples the tellurium 
was determined positively by chemical analysis. Also 
that on a notable shipment of Bonanza ore the analysis 
showed 2.42% tellurium and 2.00% gold indicating the 
mineral calaverite, and I have reason to believe that the 
greater part of the gold in the low-grade sulphide ore is 
present as a telluride.] 

Former tests upon the oxidized ores had given 94 % 
extraction by simple fine grinding and agitation (as 
shown in a former article in your issue of August 25, 
1906), and with this idea in view a portion of the ore was 
ground to 150 mesh, properly neutralized and agitated 
with 0.25% KCN solution. The extraction, however, was 
so poor that further efforts in this direction were aban- 

A series of tests was then made using what Mr. 
Browne has seen fit to term the Nevada wet method, 
that is, the ore was ground to 40 mesh, amalgamated and 
then concentrated, the tailing was re-ground to 150 mesh, 
again concentrated, and passed to agitators with 0.25% 
KCN solution. 

The results of these tests varied considerably and 
depended upon most careful and perfect 'concentration. 
The best results obtained by this method showed a final 
extraction of 92 % on ore assaying 2.5 oz. gold, worth 
$51.67 per ton, distributed as follows : 

-Per ton of ore.- 






By amalgamation 0.108 

By first concentration on 40 mesh ob- 
tained 6.43$ worth S398.07 per ton of 
concentrate, equal to 25.60 

By second concentration on 150 mesh 
obtained 2.5$ concentrate worth 8188.07 
per ton of concentrate, equal to 4.70 

By cyanldatlon 15,08 

Cyanide consumption 2.6 lb. per ton. Residue assay, 4.13. 

The difficulty of getting regularly the perfect concen- 
tration so necessary to the success of this process, led to 
tests by roasting. A number of tests were made crush- 
ing to 10 mesh, roasting, and leaching. These showed 
extractions as high as 87.5% with a cyanide consump- 
tion of 1.6 lb. per ton. The ore in roasting lost 13% by 

The next tests were to re-grind to 30 mesh after roast- 
ing at 10 mesh and then amalgamating, concentrating 
any heavy oxides, and leaching the tailing with cyanide 
solution. Some of these tests gave good results, the best 
extractions being as follows: 

Hoasted heading assayed 2 82 oz. gold, worth S5&29. 

-—10 mesh.— > 
Extracted. % 

By amalgamation §18.40 31.56 

" concentration 3,24 5,56 

" cyanldatlon 32.50 56.80 

Total extraction 93T92 

Residues assay 84.13 on the 10 mesh, and 11.66 on the 30 mesh. 

These were given four days leaching. 

Another test without amalgamation and concentration, 
but re-grinding the roasted 10 mesh to 30 -mesh, gave* 
equally good results by direct cynanidation, the extrac- 
tion being 97.2 per cent. 

While these tests as regards extraction were all that 
could be desired, considerable trouble in leaching was 

^-30 mesh.^ 



r r 







encountered. The slime formed in re-grinding caused 
extremely slow percolation and a tendency to channel, 
and many of the tests showed great irregularity from 
this cause. It was evident that in practice it would be 
necessary to separate slime from sand and as this would 
complicate the plant, further tests were made by re- 
grinding the roasted 10-mesh ore to slime or to pass 80, 
100, and 150-mesh screen, agitating in 0.25% KCN solu- 
tion for 12 hours and obtaining the following extrac- 

Ground to 80 mesh 95.8 % 

" 100 " 97.6" 

" 150 " 96.4" 

KCN consumption being 2.0 lb. per ton of ore. 

These last results were so regular and so satisfactory 
that unless mechanical difficulties, high costs, or other 
objections were found, I should consider it by all odds 
the best method of treatment. 

Let us then consider the mechanical arrangement 
necessary for such a method of treatment and see if there 
are any well founded objections too serious to overcome. 
Such a scheme of treatment involves: 

1. Coarse crushing in breakers. 

2. Drying the ore. (This may not be necessary when 
grinding to 10 mesh.) 

3. Dry crushing to 10 mesh. 

4. Roasting. 

5. Re-grinding to 100 mesh. 

6. Agitating. 

7. Filtering solutions. 

The bugaboo of dry crushing and the prejudices against 
it are readily excusable if one considers the many 
attempts with the old jarring rolls and the endless trouble 
with screens and elevators, not to speak of the dust nui- 
sance. But improvement in dry-grinding machinery 
has kept pace with other metallurgical improvemente, 
and as we have taken from the cement works the tube- 
mill, so may we find there our intermediate grinder. I 
refer to a new class of ball-mill called the kominuter 
manufactured by F. L. Smidth & Co. This mill has 
been successfully used in many of our new cement plants. 
Their large capacity per horsepower consumed cannot be 
equalled by the best of our stamp-mills crushing wet to the 
same mesh, and, being self-contained, the dust is almost 
negligible and easily controlled. In one large cement 
plant in which these mills have been used for three years 
the costs for the year 1906 were $0.0107 per bbl. of 880 
lb. taking a feed of hard clinker passing n-in. ring and 
grinding to pass a 20-mesh screen. 

In a personal communication from Mr. John Tait 
Milliken, superintendent of the Golden Cycle mill, at 
Colorado Springs, where four of these machines were 
installed, he informs me that during the time they ran 
prior to the fire they obtained a "capacity of 17,000 lb. 
per hour for each mill when fed with a product that had 
been reduced by rolls to pass through an opening H in. 
diam." (revolving screen J-in. steel plate). These were 
No. 66 kominuters and "were equipped with a diagonal 
slotted screen, size of opening %j by * in. No. 8 steel 
plate. This opening gave a product varying in size 
from J-in. cubes to the finest slimes and when discharg- 
ing this product at the above-mentioned tonnage, the 
consumption of power was 50 hp. at a speed of 22 
r.p.m., the ball consumption being fourteen 5-in. forged 
steel balls weighing about 19.5 lb. each per day of 24 
hours." Mr. Milliken estimates that "1 man per shift 
can operate and carefully watch 6 or more of these 
kominuters," and that the liners will last about 2 years. 
Mr. R. N. Diggles, metallurgist, who visited the Golden 
Cycle mill just prior to its destruction, tells me that they 
gave no difficulty from dust. 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


With these facte before us, may we not stop and con- 
sider before rejecting dry crushing? 

The next step in our scheme is roasting. In the past, 
roasting has had two main objections, high costs due to 
expense for fuel and labor, and unreliability as regards 
the product, for cyanidation, above all other processes, 
requires a perfect roast. The prejudice against roasting 
is probably due more to imperfect roasting furnaces and 
the many resultant failures in the past than to any other 
cause. Many of the furnaces that gave most satisfactory 
results for smelting failed utterly when tried at the 
cyanide plant. But there are one or two furnaces that 
have been perfected in Australia and which are now 
rapidly finding favor in this country and Mexico. I 
refer to the Edwards and Meiton furnaces. 

On samples of roasted concentrate taken from the 
Edwards furnace at the Eagle-Shawmut mine, in Cali- 
fornia, the roasts were so perfect that less than a pound 
of lime was required to neutralize the acidity. This 
concentrate before roasting carried :\hfc sulphur and 
after roasting the calcines contained less than 0.25^ sul- 
phur. This was accomplished in a 57 by 6 ft. tilting 
furnace roasting 9 tons per 24 hours and using 13J gal. 
fuel-oil j>er ton of concentrate. 

At the Golden Cycle mill four of these furnaces of the 
Duplex style were operating most satisfactorily and four 
additional ones, I understand, are to l>e added to replace 
other types formerly used. Mr. Millikeu favors me 
with the following data: " Each furnace has an effective 
hearth-area of 1 11 by 13 ft. The average sulphur content 
of ore fed to furnace is 1.8 <i . Each of these furnaces had 
an average capacity for the month of July of 1(17 tons 
per day of 24 hours, and required 280 11). lignite coal 
per ton of ore roasting down to 0. 1 1 Jfc insoluble sul- 
phur, and 0.15 56 soluble sulphur. For the four fur- 
naces the consumption of power was 15 hp. and re- 
quired the services of one man |>er shift of eight hours 
for firing. So far as we can see from our period of 
operations the repair should not exceed, under ordinary 
conditions, five cents per ton." 

The Merton furnace has also been quite successful in 
Australia, but I have no data in regard to it However, 
I imagine that the dust lost in a Merton would greatly 
exceed that of an Edwards, in which it i- almost neg- 
ligible. Certainly the Edwards shows up well and 
answers all our requirements. 

We have still to consider the cost of fuel. I take it 
that California oil is the cheapest fuel delivered at Gold- 
field, and though I have heard it stated that oil could 
not be obtained at any price, I have secured <|uotations 
on a two-year contract basis, delivered in carload lots 
f.o.b. Goldfiekl, and guaranteeing deliveries at the rate 
of 150 bbl. per day at $2.75 |xr barrel. Taking the heat 
values of lignite coal as used at the Golden Cycle mill, 
this would mean one-third of a barrel of oil per ton of 
ore. This is slightly in excess of the amount used at the 
Eagle-Shawmut on heavy concentrate with the small 
furnace. Assuming this to be correct, the fuel cost 
would be about 90c. per ton of ore; 35c. additional 
should easily cover power, labor, and re{>airs, or a cost 
of $1.25 per ton for roasting — which can hardly be con- 
sidered prohibitive. 

From the roasters, after cooling, it will l>e necessary to 
re-grind to 100 mesh. For this the choice of machines 
probably lies l>etween the tube-mill and grinding pans of 
the Wheeler type. Metallurgists are divided as to which 
is the most suitable for re-grinding roasted ore. Austra- 
lian practice seems to favor the pan, but this is probably 
due to the desire to amalgamate while grinding in order 
to eliminate the coarse gold. This brings up the question 
of Viator: " How to treat ores carrying some coarse gold 

as well as fine gold," as discussed in recent issues of the 
Mixing and Scientific Press. 

In the discussion on the 'Treatment of Desert Ores,' 
Mining and Scientific Press, August 25, 1906, I then 
advocated the elimination of amalgamation from the 
scheme of treatment whenever it was found necessary to 
fine-grind the ore to obtain the maximum profitable 
extraction and, to prove my contention, I gave the 
results of some tests conducted at that time. Since then I 
have had occasion to test the same thing on many ores 
and have as yet found no instance where I could not 
obtain just as high an extraction by fine-grinding to 100 
or 150 mesh and direct cyanidation, as the total extrac- 
tion obtained by both amalgamating and cyaniding. To 
give a particular example: Last summer I was working 
on a very rebellious ore containing coarse gold as well as 
fine gold. The ore consisted of a gangue of quartz con- 
taining about hfc arseno-pyrite and considerable arseni- 
ous oxide. It resisted all attempts at treatment raw, 
including amalgamation, concentration, and cyaniding. 
Roasting was therefore decided upon. After roasting 
at 10 mesh it was leached for four days, washed, then 
re-ground to 00 mesh, amalgamated, and concentrated to 
save any heavy oxides containing value. In this ore 
some of the gold particles were so coarse that they could 
Ik? picked up with pincers, but they resisted amalgama- 
tion (due to a coating on the gold) and it was found to 
give a higher extraction when amalgamation followed 
rather than preceded cyanidation. 

By this method the ore as-saying 3.07 oz. gold per ton 
gave a final extraction of 96.1 J6, the residue assaying 
0.15 oz. worth $3.10 with a cyanide consumption of % 
lb. per ton of ore. 

Another test without amalgamation and concentra- 
tion, but re-grinding the roasted 10-mesh ore to 100 
mesh and agitating for 12 hours with 0.25 56 cyanide 
solution gave an extraction of 98.8 f c , the residue assay- 
ing 0.045 oz. gold worth $0.92, with a cyanide consump- 
tion of 0.4 pounds. 

It would seem to me, from these and many other tests, 
that amalgamation is only an added expense if fine- 
grinding is to Ik- resorted to, and this l>eing so the tulw- 
mill offers more advantages than the pan, especially for 
large installations. 1 should take my cooled ore, feed 
direct to my tube-mill with full strength cyanide solu- 
tion, and in the great majority of cases it would l>e 
unnecessary to grind finer than 100 mesh to obtain a 
maximum extraction. 

This brings us to the agitators. Of the many means 
and appliances for agitating slime nothing appeals to me, 
for cheapness and simplicity, so much as the air-lift 
pump set in a conical-bottom vat. Under these condi- 
tions the air-lift is working at its maximum efficiency, 
that is, the down-take is practically equal to the up-take. 
This system is too well known to require description and 
has been successfuly installed to agitate not only slime 
but heavy concentrate finely ground. It presents the ad- 
vantages of having no moving parts and requiring a 
minimum of power. 

From the agitators we come to the subject of filters. 
At present the vacuum-filters seem to find favor in 
America and Mexico, though Mr. C. \V. Merrill has 
accomplished wonders with filter-presses at the Home- 

There are several good vacuum-filters on the market, 
such as the Moore, Mutters, Kelly, and Ridgway, all of 
which do excellent work and would answer our require- 
ments. Hut these filters have one serious drawback. As 
cloth is the filtering material used by them, at the com- 
mencement of each charge the filtrate is turbid and in 
many instances this turbidity persists all through the 


Mining and Scien tific Press. January 25, ims. 

operations owing to the presence of a small hole in one 
or more of the filter-cloths. Also an incrustation of car- 
bonate of lime accumulates on these filter-cloths and this 
progressively impairs their permeability. For efficient 
working, therefore, a subsidiary filter has to be used to 
clarify the solution, and the cloths have to be periodically 
pickled in acid to remove the lime incrustation. 

A machine to which these objections do not apply, and 
which appeals to me strongly on account of its simple 
effectiveness and low first cost is the invention of Mr. 
Bertram Hunt. In its simplest form this consists of an 
annular chamber, which can be made of concrete, the 
top of which constitutes the filter surface. This filter 
surface is Hunt's well-known triangular-slat-sand filter, 
carefully screened coarse sand being used. The inner and 
outer peripheral walls of the filter are continued three 
inches above the surface of the filter and constitute 
tracks on which a carriage revolves. This carriage has 
a scraper in front which removes the residue and is fol- 
lowed by a distributor for clean sand and one for the 
slime. Pipes distributing wash solutions and wash-water 
follow the carriage round the circle at proper distances. 
In operation, the pulp is preferably first roughly classi- 
fied so that a portion of the sand in it is separated in a 
clean condition and this clean fine sand is fed onto the 
filter surface by the first distributor immediately behind 
the scraper and the slimy balance of the pulp follows 
from the second distributor. In this manner the slime 
is always distributed over a filter surface of fine clean 
sand which is continuously renewed and removed. This, 
being a continuous machine, requires little or no attention 
after it has once been adjusted as to feed of pulp and 
speed of carriage, and a small part of the time of one 
man is all that would be required. A machine 16 ft. in 
diameter has a rated capacity of 50 tons in 24 hours and 
requires less than 1 hp. to drive and 4 hp. to maintain 
the vacuum. The machine complete can be installed for 
a small fraction of the cost of a machine of intermittent 
type of equal capacity and has the advantage that sand 
and slime can be treated together on the same machine 
and at a less cost for repairs, labor, and power. 

This completes our process except the precipitation and 
refining of the bullion, and in this I would follow the 
usual custom of zinc-box precipitation. 

Let us now make a rough comparison of the dry and 
wet methods. From the data given, I believe it will be 
admitted that dry-crushing in kominuters to 10 mesh 
will be as cheap, if not cheaper, than wet-crushing with 
stamps, and when it is considered that one of these mills 
complete, with feeders, liners, and balls, costs less than 
$4500 f.o.b. factory, the comparison with the stamp-mill 
and its high cost of erection is still more in its favor. As 
against the cost of roasting we have the cost of concen- 
tration and the additional cost of marketing the concen- 
trate. According to my tests 58% of the assay-value 
could be saved by a series of reductions and concentra- 
tions (and this, owing to the careful adjustments necessary 
and the close attention required, is not always obtainable 
in the every-day working of the mill). Of the 58% the 
smelters will pay but $19.50 per ounce of the gold con- 
tained as against $20.67 per ounce if shipped as bullion. 
This is equivalent to 95% of the value, that is, 5% of 
the 58 % must be deducted from the total recovery of 
92%, which reduces it to 89.1 %, a total difference in the 
extraction as compared with the method I propose of 
8.5%, which on $50 ore amounts to $4.25 per ton. To 
this must be added a freight and treatment charge of at 
least $35 per ton on 8.9% of concentrate, amounting to 
$3.10 per ton of ore, or a total charge against the wet 
method of about $7.35 above the actual cost of treating 
the ore. As against this the principal additional cost 

by the dry method is the cost of $1.25 for roasting. 
There is also to be considered the greater capacity of 
tube-mills grinding 13% less weight (loss in roasting) on 
material made softer by roasting. 

In advocating a process against which such strong 
prejudices have been entertained, I have felt it incum- 
bent upon me to go quite fully into details. 

Lochiel M. Kin<;. 

San Francisco, December 16. 

Copper Production.— The American Smelting & 
Refining Co. and its affiliated concerns, the American 
Smelters Securities Co. and the Guggenheim Exploration 
Co., is a growing factor in the copper world. This is 
apparent from the following figures of production by the 
American company's smelters during the past three 

vears: Refined copper. 
Year Short tons. Lb. 

190 - 47,3li0 94,600,000 

1906 ""' ...42,906 86^10,000 

i905!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!.'.".'"'.'.'.!!!!!!"Z"!" ^ m 72,952,000 

This copper production has come from custom ore. 
Had it not been for the reverses to the mining industry 
in the last quarter of the year the copper output of the 
Smelters trust would have been well above the 100,000,000- 
lb. mark. The production of copper from the American 
company's smelting plants during 1908 should be materi- 
ally increased, as this year it will get the full benefit of the 
production from its big Garfield smelter in Utah. This 
is the only copper smelter now operating in the State, 
and is now turning out copper at the rate of about 72,000,000 
lb. per annum, much of it from the treatment of the 
Utah Copper Co.'s concentrates. The copper production 
of the American Smelting & Refining Co. is sold in part 
by the United Metals Selling Co., but the major portion 
is sold by the American Smelters Securities Co. direct to 
the trade. — Boston News Bureau. 

Magnemte Mines of Calitornia.— The only State 
in the Union thus far producing magnesite in commer- 
cial quantities is California, whose output is about 4000 
tons per year. This comes chiefly from the group of 
veins four miles northeast cf Porterville in Tulare 
county, which are being worked by the Willamette 
Pulp & Paper Co. The veins occur in a brown serpen- 
tine. The American Magnesite Co. in 1906 worked a 
deposit 32 miles southeast of Livermore. The veins 
stand out prominently and as they are almost dazzlingly 
white, they can be seen from the higher hills, miles 
away. One outcrop is 40 ft. wide and traceable through 
a distance of several hundred feet. Mining is carried on 
by means of an open-cut. The Walters magnesite mine 
on the east side of Pope valley in Napa county has made 
no production for several years, but with improved 
transportation facilities might become an important 
source of this mineral. The veins stand up boldly and 
can be seen from any part of the valley not hidden by 
hills. One vein at its widest exposure is 10 ft. thick, of 
which about 5 ft. is solid white magnesite. In another 
vein 18 in. to 5 ft. of clear magnesite is exposed. Three 
of the veins can be definitely traced for distances of 140, 
250, and 230 ft., respectively. Besides the mines men- 
tioned there are in California several dozen known mag- 
nesite deposits, but most of them are too far distant from 
railroad lines to be profitably worked. 

Prospecting at the Napa Consolidated quicksilver 
mine ui 1906 was carried on largely by boring with the 
Calyx drill. Forty-one holes were bored; the results 
were unsatisfactory as a whole although some indicated 
good orebodies and it was proposed to prove these indi- 
cations by further development. 

January 26, 190*. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


Puddling a Wet Shaft. 

Written for the Mining and Scientific Press 
By Henry Boiksin. 

The following account of how one mine manager 
puddled a wet shaft is submitted as being of interest to 
those who have similar work to do. 

The Willow River Mining Co. is operating a drift- 
gravel mine near the head of Willow river, six miles 
from the town of Barkerville, in Cariboo district, British 
Columbia. The pay-gravel in this mine is on, and near, 
the bedrock in the deep channel of the present stream. 
The depth to bedrock being 107 ft., and the surface gradi- 
ent of the valley very flat, the mine is worked through 
a shaft. 

In the autumn of 1905, this three-compartment shaft, 
7 by 16 ft. in the clear, had been sunk 91 ft. through 
gravel, and a few feet into rock; and two tunnels had 
been run out at that level to exploit the channel. Of 
course, the bedrock was lost in these tunnels, and, by 
sinking two blind shafts, or winzes, was found at 13 ft. 
in the deeper one; but the quantity of water encountered 
made it impracticable to determine exactly the depth of 
the channel by this means. That the main shaft was 
not deep enough for a drift therefrom to bottom the 
channel, was the inexplicable error of a former manager, 
who had drilled the ground with an American well rig 
to ascertain the position and depth of the channel, and 
sunk the shaft, presumably, on the data obtained in drill- 
ing. The error having been discovered, it became neces- 
sary to sink the shaft deeper, and, the depth of the 
channel not being known, the additional depth of shaft 
decided on was 25 feet. 

The equipment at this shaft includes two 18-in. Cor- 
nish pumps, driven by a 28-ft. overshot water-wheel, 
with 7-ft. breast, and, on November 14, when the work 
to be described was begun, they were on the maximum 
(8-ft.) stroke, and running 10 strokes per minute, that is, 
raising approximately 2000 gal. per minute. 

With half the inflow stated, deepening the shaft with- 
out puddling would have been exceedingly slow and 
costly, but with the puui|>s working nearly to their 
capacity, the shaft could not have been deepened at all 
without puddling. There was one of two things to do, 
namely, either resort to puddling, or cease underground 
work until the cold weather of winter had materially 
lessened the inflow of water. Therefore the pump com- 
partments were puddled and the centre compartment 
sunk dry, as shown in the accompanying plan and 

The first preparatory work was to overhaul the pumps 
so as to avoid, as much as possible, delays caused by 
repairs during puddling and sinking. Then the weight 
of the pumps was put on the shaft-timbers by yokes 
placed under the flanges of the pump-column, so that 
the rock beneath the pumjw would have the least i>o*si- 
ble weight to support. 

The underground force was then apportioned into two 
shifts instead of three, working from 7 a. m. to 11 p. m., 
to enable the manager personally to direct that part of 
the work requiring the most care. The men were loyal — 
none more so — but this was the first puddling any of 
them had ever done; and, as there seemed to be only one 
man who believed it could be done there and then, it was 
up to him to see that it was done exactly as he wanted 
it; hence, with the exception of time for lunch and sup- 
per the manager was down in the hole from about 8 a. m. 
to 11 i*. m. until sinking began. 

The rock was favorable, being Caril>oo schist, com- 
pact, and medium hard; that token from the sides to 
make room for the troughs, and the first four feet of 

sinking, was gadded almost entirely, powder being used 
only when streaks or bunches too hard to gad were 
encountered, and not more than i t in. to a shot. Of 
course, the amount of powder was increased as it became 
safe to use it. The under edges of the two-inch plank- 
ing, placed horizontaly to enclose the improvised sumps 
and help retain the puddling, were carefully filled, as 
were all joints. The planking was nailed to posts spiked 
to the bottom sets. The sawed lagging completing the 
partitions were 'sniped' to one inch thickness on the 
points, and a neat mat of burlap nailed on the tips. 

It is impossible to clean all the sediment from the bot- 
tom of a sump containing 18 to 24 in. of water, and the 
lagging were ' sniped ' so as to be driven to the solid 
rock, and then nailed to the planking. The bottoms and 
sides of all puddling spaces were lined with burlap — 
after the crevices between the rock and lagging, below 
the troughs, had been calked with the same material. 
All rock was removed from the clay used in puddling, 
which was the most tenacious that could be found; it was 
put in dry (there being no lack of water where it was 
placed ! ) and was vigorously worked to an even con- 
sistence, and as thick as possible, mainly by tramping. 
This part of it was hard fast work, so as to stop the water 
as quickly as possible when once begun. The clay was 
sent down in gunny-sacks for convenience and quickness 
in placing it. A gate was made to fit the outlet of the 
troughs conveying water to the pumps, so as to divert 
all the water to one pump when necessary. 

The puddling, and preparation for it, consumed 22 
days, exclusive of delays; the labor cost was #851.75; 
the numl>er of underground men varied from six to nine; 
wages per man, from $3.75 to $4.25 perday. The black- 
smith and two hoist-men received $4 per day each. As 
the centre compartment was sunk, puddling and small 
troughs were put in 16 ft. below the first troughs to 
catch the splash and spray coming from high in the 
shaft, and to intercept the water should a leak develop 
in the puddling above. 

The water was lifted from the lower troughs by an 
Kdson diaphragm hand-pump. When the bottom was 
reached, in 23 days, there was still too much water for 
one 18-in. pump to handle, so a drift was run out 52 ft. 
toward the channel; this occupied 17J days, by which 
time the water had decreased so that one pump could 
take it all. The men were then (February 5) put at work 
enlarging the sump to full siw and raising in the shaft. 
On February 7 one shift distinguished itself by sending 
up 11« buckets of muck, and the other shifts did nearly 
as well about this time. 

When the sump sets had been put in and lagged, a set 
nine feet higher was put in and lagged with five and six- 
inch poles. The bottom of the sump was then cleaned, 
and boxes for the pumps to stand in were placed by 
plumbing from the pump-bobs, and braced down to pre- 
vent floating. A tight platform was then put on top of 
the 9-ft. set, and raising continued under No. 1 pump. 
All the water was diverted to No. 2, and No. 1 was 
disconnected, overhauled, and made ready for lowering. 

The rock was broken out under No. 1 on February 17,. 
and the lowering of that pump and making the pump- 
column and spear-rod connections, etc., occupied seven 
shifts. With No. 1 taking all the water on the ti-ft. 
stroke, No. 2 was disconnected, overhauled, and made 
ready for lowering, and the men Itegan taking out rock 
under No. 2, timbering as they raised. On March 2, 
No. 2 pump had bein lowered, all connections made, the 
shaft timbered, and both pumps were working slowly on 
the 4-ft. stroke. The shaft-sinking and raising, and 
pump- work occupied 49 days exclusive of delays; the 
labor-cost was $228ti.H7. The lal>or of the whole job cos', 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 26, 1908. 

therefore, $3138.62. The cost of explosives, candles, 
timbers, lagging, and management, would give the total. 
The drilling was by hand, there being no machine-drill 

One day while sinking was in progress a little dirty 
water was seen coming from one of the improvised 
sumps, and one shift of three men put in the shift find- 
ing and stopping the leak; with this exception the pud- 
dling stood as tight as a bottle, and the only water getting 
into the little trough was from the splash and spray from 
high in the shaft. 

The men worked in undershirts during the latter part 
of the shaft-sinking, while driving the tunnel, and all 
the raising except breaking out. 

The work described in the foregoing was designed and 
managed by Laurent Muller, at that time mine manager 
for the company mentioned. Considering the difficulties, 
and how they were met and mastered, it serves as an 
excellent example of how such work may be done. 

Recovery of Copper from Nitrate Solutions. — 
Until recently the acid liquors containing nitrate of 
copper produced in etching the copper rollers used by 
calico printers have been allowed to run to waste. The 
recent high price of copper has induced the Calico 
Printers' Association of England to experiment on the 
possibility of recovering the copper from these solutions. 
The method which they have adopted consists in adding 
metallic lead or litharge to the solutions, so reducing the 
copper to metallic form and producing nitrate of lead, 
which is a commercial product of some value. In carry- 
ing out the process, the spent solutions, which vary from 
1.3 to 1.4 sp. gr., are diluted with an equal volume of 
boiling water, and during vigorous stirring, lead or 
litharge is gradually added until no more will dissolve. 
The clear solution then contains nitrate of lead and 
copper. It is decanted and allowed to crystallize. The 
crystals so produced are re-dissolved by boiling in a 
saturated solution of lead nitrate obtained from a pre- 
vious operation. The liquor is again allowed to crys- 
tallize, when crystals free from copper are obtained. * A 
sheet of lead is then inserted in the liquor that has been 
used in cleansing the crystals in this way, and the copper 
is thus thrown down, leaving the solution available 
again for treating the next set of crystals. The mother 
liquor from the treatment of the acid with litharge con- 
tains nitrate of lead and copper. This is diluted to 1.275 
sp. gr. and sheets of lead are inserted in it. After stand- 
ing for some days all the copper will deposit on the lead. 
The clear liquor will contain nitrate and nitrite of lead. 

Petroleum Locations on Public Lands.— At 
present petroleum locations are made under the placer 
law, but the Los Angeles Chamber of Mines desires 
that changes be made in this law as applied to petroleum 
claims. It recommends that 160 acres of laud be consid- 
ered a petroleum claim, and that only this amount of 
land be open to a single individual ; drilling for oil is to 
begin within DO days from the date of the location, and 
shall be diligently continued until a discovery of oil is 
made. Then application for a deed to the land under the 
present Government regulations shall be allowed. An- 
other provision which the chamber desires adopted is 
that a prospector be permitted to pay $1 per acre rent on 
his holdings in place of doing actual development ; this 
is to assure his right to the laud for a period not exceed- 
ing one year. The intent of these recommendations is to 
render the prospector secure from having his territory 
usurped by homesteaders or mineral claimants before 
actual discovery of oil. 

Decisions Relating to Mining. 

Specially reported for the Mining and Scientific Press. 

A person located a placer claim, and subsequently re- 
ceived a patent for a lode claim, which was located so as to 
conflict with the placer claim. Thereafter he sold and con- 
veyed by deed a portion of such lode claim, and the deed 
was held to convey so much of the placer claim as was 
within the part of the lode claim conveyed by the deed. 
Collins v. McKay, (Mont.) 92 Pac. 295, Nov., '07. 

Where the land intended to be conveyed by a deed to a 
part of a mining claim could be identified, it was held to be 
immaterial by what name the grantor described the prop- 
erty in the deed. And as between the parties to a deed to a 
part of a lode claim described by name, it was immaterial 
whether the location was a valid one as against others 
or not. 

Collins v. McKay, (Mont.) 92 Pac. 295, Nov., '07. 

Where a deed conveyed a portion of a mining claim, de- 
scribing it by a particular name, the purpose of the name 
was to identify the property; and the presumption of law is 
that the grantor intended to pass the best title he had in 
the premises. 

Collins v. McKay, (Mont.) 92 Pac. 295, Nov., '07. 

The owner of a coal vein leased the same for mining for 
one year and as long thereafter as the lessee should continue 
to mine the same; the lessor was to receive 10 cents per ton 
for all coal mined, payable at the end of each 30 days: the 
mining to begin the next day. On failure to begin mining 
for two years and three months, it was held that equity 
would cancel the lease at the suit of the lessor. 

Starn v. Huffman, (W. Va.) 59 Southeast. 179, 
Oct., '07. 

The words "necessary to hold claims " in the statute pro- 
viding that the certificate of location and of labor and im- 
provement need not be sworn to, did not refer to "certifi- 
cates of location," but only to the words " labor and 
improvements," which referred to the statute requiring the 
expenditure of $100 annually in labor and improvements in 
order to hold a mining claim prior to the issuance of patent. 
Ford v. Campbell, (New) 92 Pac. 206, Nov., '07. 

A mining claim was located and the locator performed 
certain work which on survey was discovered to be on con- 
flicting territory, whereupon the locator posted a re-location 
notice to the effect that such work had been abandoned. 
The first notice was not removed from the location monu- 
ment, and the notice of re-location stated that the claim 
was re-located in order to better describe the place of the 
lode claim. These facts were held insufficient to indicate 
an abandonment of the rights under the prior location. 
Ford v. Campbell, (New) 92 Pac. 205, Nov., '07. 

The senior location was held to take the entire width of 
the vein on its dip, where the apex of such vein was partly 
within two or more adjacent lode mining claims. 

Lawson v. United States Co., 28 Superior Court Re- 
porter 15, Oct., '07. 

In mining leases, giving the lessor a share of the product 
or a tonnage of ore or other product, even where there is no 
covenant to begin work within a certain time, there is an 
implied covenant to begin in a reasonable time, because the 
consideration in contemplation of both parties otherwise 
fails. This rule prevails where no time is fixed in the lease 
for the work to begin, where it appears from the lease that 
time was the essence of the contract; and under the further 
rule that in such contracts where no time is expressed, the 
law implies a promise to perform within a reasonable time. 
Starn v. Huffman, (W. Va.) 59 Southeast. 179, 
Oct., '07 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 
















































S 4nz*-/&sr «7^ ///?tf >4 — ^. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining in Panama. 

Written for the Mining and Scientific Press 
By Scott Turner. 

Some mining has probably been carried on in Panama, 
in a desultory fashion, for over 300 years. Traditions of 
early production and remains of old workings lead to the 
belief that at one time a substantial amount of gold was 
produced, almost entirely by placer mining, during the 
era of Spanish occupation. At present there is but little 
activity in mining anywhere in the Republic, the one 
important property being the well known Darien mine 
at Cana, 150 miles to the south and east of the city of 
Panama. This was an antigua, re-discovered after a 
good deal of prospecting; the ore ran well in the upper 
levels, but is becoming poor with depth, which has led 
to the use of the caving system of mining, in place of 
square-setting. There is practically no placer work being 
done in Panama at this time, although several schemes 
for dredging have been considered. 

Manganese mines on the Atlantic coast produced some 
ore for shipment to the States, but they have been closed 
down for several years. These mines were developed by 
American capital, but became unprofitable. Mining 
companies have been organized to exploit properties at 
various points along the present Canal Zone, but they 
have been failures. The same may be said of the dis- 
tricts west and north of the city of Panama. During the 
past ten years, four or five attempts have been made by 
American organizations to operate properties in the 
province of Veraguas, and while this district has thus 
far proved disappointing, it is perhaps the most promis- 
ing place to prospect in the Republic, although that is 
not claiming much for it. 

To reach this district, it is necessary to travel by coast- 
ing steamer to Aguadulce or Sona, thence overland to 
Santiago. The distance from the city of Panama to 
Aguadulce is about 90 miles, including a six-mile trip up 
a narrow estuary to the new Government dock that lies 
about three miles from Aguadulce and Pocri, in the 
province of Code. Three years ago the trip into the 
interior from this point was an unpleasant one, starting 
with disembarkation from the steamer into a muddy salt 
marsh, through which it was necessary to wade, often 
waist-deep, for a couple of miles. But since the payment 
by the United States of $10,000,000 for the Canal Zone 
strip, a good deal of money has been spent— much of it 
foolishly— in the improvement of highways into the inte- 
rior, so that now a wide roadway has been built to the 
water-front, and a straight and level road leads through 
a flat open country for 12 miles to the Santa Maria river, 
a swift stream about 250 ft. wide, over which General 
Jeffries, a professional soldier of fortune, has recently 
completed a steel-girder bridge. With the exception of 
some caliche, the prevailing soil is red clay, the result of 
the weathering of. the andesite country, which is the 
principal rock. Some small patches of limestone are 
reported along the coast, but for over 100 miles, with the 
exception of a small fossil-bearing bed of sandy shale 
near Santiago, nothing is to be seen but a vivid red clay; 
black sand glistens in every gully and ravine. To the 
left, on the peninsula to the east of Montijo bay, the 
Boston-Panama company owns 500 square miles of 
ground on which it is doing some prospecting in a crude 
way, in the region about Peso and Los Minas. There is 
a small company operating near Los Santos. 

Numerous streams have to be crossed by ford or ferry, 
and across the Kanaka river is a novel swinging bridge, 
the passage of which causes a little flurry among the 
sluggish pack-horses. This trip from Aguadulce to San- 
tiago is made once each week by ox-cart freighting cara- 

vans, but in the wet season transportation of this kind is 
extremely unreliable, and a pack-train is more expedi- 

Santiago is the terminus of the regular mail service 
and of the Government telegraph line. It is connected 
by trail with the ports of Montijo, Sona, and Puerto 
Mutis, but the Aguadulce route is the most traveled. 
From Santiago to Caflazas, the country is more broken, 
as the foothills of the main mountain range that forms 
the backbone of the country are here encountered. A 
cart-road, branching to the right a few miles beyond San- 
tiago, leads to the Remance mines, owned by a corpora- 
tion financed in Scotland. This company has operated 
for 20 years, developing and stoping a six-foot vein 
standing nearly vertical. The ore is a hard vitreous 
quartz, Ailing a probable fissure in an andesite country, 
and averages about $7 per ton. The mine has never been 
a dividend-payer. Stamp-milling was tried, but dis- 
carded in favor of dry crushing and cyaniding. The 
mill has a capacity of 50 tons per day, but the mine is 
seldom able to supply this amount. The frame of the 
mill-building is steel; the crushing is done by a jaw- 
crusher and two sets of rolls; the extraction is about 75 jo . 
Half a dozen white men are employed, the underground 
work being done by native laborers on the contract sys- 
tem. The supply of labor is quite irregular, and frequent 
shut-downs of two or three months, waiting for roll- 
shells or other supplies, would seem to indicate rather lax 

Caflazas, a native village of 400 inhabitants, is situated 
at an altitude of about 800 ft., and may be considered 
the centre of the recent mining activity in Veraguas. 
Five miles to the southeast, at a property known as La 
Guaca, stand the remains of an old 20-stamp mill, the 
mortars bearing the name of the Pacific Iron Works. 
A concrete dam collected water to run the water-wheel, 
and an old engine and boiler show that auxiliary power 
was necessary during the dry season. This mine was 
originally located in 1833, but not worked much until 
the early 'eighties, when an arrastre was constructed. In 
1887 a company was formed in New York City to operate 
the property, and a mill was ordered from San Fran- 
cisco. Louis Janin Jr. had charge of the mill, which 
only ran a few weeks. The vein is a flat impregnation 
zone, slightly rolling, between andesite walls. On the 
foot-wall is a streak of hard, iron-stained quartz; above 
this, the siliciflcation decreases and the ore grades grad- 
ually into the barren overlying porphyry, the pay-streak 
averaging about three feet wide, the amount of iron 
stain being indicative of the degree of siliciflcation and 
the amount of gold. Several thousand feet of work still 
stand open, and a good deal of ground was stoped, all 
operations being carried on through adits. Samples 
from the old stope-walls gave assays varying from $1 to 
$05. No work has beeft ■ done on the property since 

Two miles west of Caflazas, the Detroit-Panama com- 
pany started operations about three years ago. This 
company cut a wagon-road from Santiago, brought in 
an engine and boiler, and some new inventions in the way 
of coarse and fine crushers and amalgamating devices; as 
the work was done without reliable technical advice or 
direction, the mill only ran a short time. The company 
was floated on the strength of a report of a large deposit 
of $15 ore, but careful sampling after the mill had been 
built revealed nothing richer than $2.50, so the project 
was abandoned. The gold occurs in seams in a jointed 
andesite, and apparently there is a mountain of low- 
grade material. While old prospectors had been able to 
clean up a little bullion by running a diminutive three- 
stamp mill on ore secured by 'candle-stick mining,' it is 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


impossible to stope anything rich enough to treat on a 
large scale. 

The district to the north of Caflazas, marked by the 
two peaks of Viriguas that rise to an altitude of about 
3500 ft. and are visible for a radius of 20 or 30 miles, 
is perhaps the most interesting region in Panama, 
not as much from any chance of successful mining in the 
future as from the evidence of work that has been done 

impatience for perhaps a few hours, perhaps several 
days, until the water subsides. In the beds of these 
streams are rounded boulders of granite, brought by 
floods from the granite core that forms the backbone of 
the main range. Granite and andesite are the only rocks 
encountered. The country is steeply rolling, cut with 
heavily-timbered steep-sided ravines, the ridges being 
barren of tree or shrub, but covered with long grass that 

Test- Pits in the Bed of Corutu Creek. 

A Prospector's Camp. West Viriguas Creek in the Background. 

there in days gone by. Viriguas is about 30 miles from 
Caflazas, over extremely rough trails, and three good- 
sized rivers, the Caflazas, Piedra, and San Pablo, must 
be crossed, together with many smaller streams. This Is 
easy enough during the dry season, which lasts from 

affords excellent grazing for the long-horned sleek cattle 
that roam at will over the ranges. The export of beef is 
the only industry that the country has. Once or twice 
each year the herds are rounded up, driven to some port, 
and shipped to Panama. 

0$5 Jtk 





Open- Cut on Viriguas Peak. 

A Ford on San Pablo River. 

December to May, but during the rainy season the trip is 
hazardous. The streams all have their sources in the 
main Cordilleran range, whose peaks are forever en- 
shrouded in clouds. A heavy rainstorm in the moun- 
tains, of which the traveler may know nothing, in a few 
hours will cause a quiet peaceful stream to become a 
roaring raging torrent. If the traveler is caught between 
two streams, he must sit down and smoke, curbing his 

On the more northerly of the twin Viriguas peaks, the 
remains of an elaborate system of ditches and reservoirs 
are visible, and at several points open-cuts and pits show 
where a good deal of ground was sluiced. Work of this 
sort was done years ago, ail the way from the up[>er por- 
tion of the north side of the peak, to the San Pablo, Tol- 
erica, and Viriguas rivers, which lie alwut 1600 ft. lower 
and three or four miles distant. The gravel in the beds 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 25, 1908. 

of two creeks, Corutu and Limon, which have their 
sources on the peak, have been worked for nearly their 
entire length. Between these two streams and around 
the peak, the ridges have ^>een worked in spots. The 
material here, however, isiof rather peculiar character, 
being a stiff, iron-stained, residual clay, and not gravel 
at all. The method universally employed by the original 
operators was ground-sluicing, probably through bed- 
rock sluices, most of the ground being so stiff as to 
necessitate breaking with a pick. As a result, there are 
large cuts standing open, with their sides often 50 or 60 
ft. high, and nearly vertical. Nearly all this clay shows 
some gold in the pan, but not enough to encourage 
mining on a commercial scale. Along the banks of the 
streams, small hand arrastres, made from granite boul- 
ders, are to be seen; they were probably used in cleaning 
up the black sand. 

Within the past five years, two companies have been 
formed in Michigan to work this placer ground, and to 
develop a quartz vein at the head of Corutu creek. As 
is often the case, the directors had the mistaken impres- 
sion that ground that could not be profitably worked a 
century ago could be made to pay with modern methods. 
They neglected to consider that work was formerly done 
by enslaved natives, the labor costing nothing, and the 
old methods for this kind of placer work were every bit 
as efficient as any that could now be applied. Test- 
pitting and prospecting with open-cuts and a tunnel 
proved the supposed quartz vein to be an irregular lens 
of granular chert, lying in andesite, that averaged SI. 30 
per ton in gold, and all work was abandoned. Several 
foreign companies have prospected in this region, and, 
while some traces of copper, lead, and zinc are to be 
found, nothing of importance has as yet been un- 

Three possible sources of the placer gold are apparent. 
The andesite in the vicinity of the peaks always carries 
some finely disseminated pyrite, which undergoes surface 
concentration on a rather rapid scale, as the igneous rock 
carries no quartz whatever, and weathers easily. Another 
possible source of gold is the small seams with calcite, 
quartz, and zeolite minerals, which are sometimes found 
in the andesite; and occasionally small irregular veins of 
quartz are found in the unaltered country, all carrying 
traces of gold. 

The petrographic features of the Viriguas district, and, 
as I have said before, of this whole part of the Republic, 
are extremely simple. There is but one rock of wide 
occurrence, and that is an augite-andesite, showing typi- 
cally as a hard, compact, crystalline rock of blue color 
and porphyritic texture, with phenocrysts of striated 
plagioclase feldspar, no quartz, some augite, and always 
some pyrite. This typical rock grades in alteration 
phases, through the intermediate stages of green and 
hard, then gray and soft, spheroidal boulder forms, then 
a soft red rock still showing a porphyritic texture, to the 
ultimate stage of the decomposition of all the feldspars 
and the oxidation of most of the iron, making a deep-red, 
soft, and talcose rock, with the original texture almost 
unrecognizable. Some few modifications of this typical 
rock occur, such as an occasional amygdaloidal form of 
what is probably a more basic phase, the amygdules 
being filled with quartz or some hydrous silicate, usually 
a zeolite. Also, rarely the more acid phase occurs in 
limited areas, possibly approaching a dacite. One of the 
most common forms of andesitic weathering is in rounded 
boulders, of a green color. The surface of these boulders 
is dark; they show concentric weathering, with shell- 
like layers, looking, as they lie scattered about, not 
unlike the concentric basalt bombs of volcanic origin 
found in the Cinder Buttes region of Idaho. These 

masses weather out at the surface, or even lie imbedded 
in the residual clay. 

This lithological sameness gives rise to a topographical 
monotony throughout the entire region, there being no 
sedimentaries, intrusives, or extrusives to modify the 
landscape by their differential weathering. Across the 
broad trunk valleys, and for a radius of 30 miles from an 
observation point on an exposed peak, the topographic 
features are seen to be everywhere the same. 

Labor, throughout the Veraguas province, is scarce 
and inefficient. The standard of living is so low that the 
native has no use for money. The inhabitants are igno- 
rant, speaking broken Spanish, and are indifferent 
workers. A wheelbarrow is an unsolvable mystery to 
them, and they gingerly attack a muck-pile with a shovel 
with about the same motion that a billiard player uses in 
making a mass6 shot. Twenty-five cents per day, with- 
out board, is the standard wage, and it would be impos- 
sible to carry a payroll of any size, as the population in 
the mountains does not exceed five men to the square 
mile, with no villages near-by. However, workmen 
often come as far as 25 miles and work a few days, or at 
most two or three weeks, to get a little money with which 
to purchase a new machete or a few gallons of aguardiente. 
Considered as a whole, the Republic of Panama does not 
offer a very attractive field for the prospeetor or the pro- 
moter. Many tales may be heard concerning the rich- 
ness of spots in inaccessible regions and there is popularly 
supposed to be rich dirt at the headwaters of the Chagres 
river, but most of these points have been prospected at 
one time and another by intelligent prospectors, who 
deny that any rich fields have been overlooked. 

Assay of Mkkcury Oke. — The following method of 
assaying mercury ore is given by Hollo way in the 
Analyst: Mix the ore in a crucible with 10 gm. of iron 
filings, through 60 mesh, and cover with 5 gm. of iron 
filings through 30 mesh. Set the crucible in a hole in a 
tin plate or asbestos board in such a way that the bottom 
of the crucible may be heated by the flame, while the top 
remains cool. Cover the crucible with two/ pieces of 
clean silver foil which have been weighed, and which 
are of unequal size, the upper piece being the larger. Set 
on top of the silver covers a copper or metal vessel 
through which cold water may be passed in order to 
keep the plates cool. Heat for 20 min., allowing only 
the bottom of the crucible to become red hot. Cool the 
crucible, dry, and weigh the covers. If tarry substances 
appear on the foil, they may be rinsed off with alcohol 
before drying. The amount of ore to be taken for assay 
depends upon its richness. For less than 1 % of mercury 
use 2 gm.; between 1 and 2^ mercury, use 1 gm., and 
so on. 

Cold ix Alaska. — Although gold is universally dis- 
tributed along the coastal mountains of southeastern 
Alaska in lodes, and less commonly in placer deposits, 
there are relatively few localities which show a sufficient 
concentration of auriferous minerals to make valuable ore- 
bodies ; in these few places the ore is usually low-grade. 
The possibility of mining such ores, however, is obvious 
when one considers the available water-power and the 
favorable means of transportation that the country af- 
fords. In the gold-quartz veins or lodes, the gold is 
found both in the native state and also combined with 
metallic sulphides, which usually penetrate into the in- 
closing country rock. These quartz -filled fissures were 
formed subsequent to the general metamorphism of the 
coastal mountain range and after the intrusion of the 
grauodiorite ; their content is in genetic relation to the 
intrusive rock. — Alfred H. Brooks. 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press 


Progress in Southeastern Alaska. 

Mining development in southeastern Alaska during 
1907 has been greatest in the Ketchikan district, where 
several copper mines on Prince of Wales island are being 
exploited, says Mr. C. W. Wright, of the L'nited States 
Geological Survey, who has recently returned from 
Alaska. Mining was actively advanced on this island in 
the spring and early summer, and considerable low- 
grade ore was produced each month, but most of the 
mines suspended operations in September and October, 
with the fall in the price of copper, and the expected 
increase in the copper production for 1907 will not be 
realized. Many of the mines that were forced to dis- 
continue operations were in good condition for profitable 
production at the time they closed, and at some it was 
not the price of copper alone that caused suspension, but 
unfavorable conditions as to labor and transportation. 

The copper occurs in the form of chalcopyrite, either in 
irregular masses associated with magnetite, garnet, and 
epidote at the contact of intrusive rocks with limestone, 
as at the Mamie, Mount Andrew, and Jumbo mines, or 
in the form of lenticular bodies associated with pyrite, 
quartz, and calcite along shear zones in the slates and 
greenstones, as at the Ni black and other mines. Devel- 
opments at the Mamie mine disclosed new orebodies on 
the lowest level, and considerable ore was ready for 
extraction in the upper levels at the time o|*rations 
closed. A similar condition existed at the Mount 
Andrew mine, where large ore reserves were being 
developed and plans for more extensive oix-r.itions had 
been made. At the Rush A Krown mine the copper 
deposits were being explored 100 ft. l>elow the present 
working level, which is 90 ft. in depth, and the results 
were encouraging. Though the developments at the 
Jumbo mine and Xiblack mine are still beinn advanced 
and good orebodies are being opened, shipments have 
been temporarily suspended. Work has been discon- 
tinued for the winter at most of the prospects which gave 
promise of becoming copper producers 

In the Juneau mining district, to the north, where gold 
is the predominating metal, there has been a steady 
advance in mine development. At the Treadwell proup, 
on Douglas island, the use of oil instead of coal has been 
introduced for the steam-plants, and the capacity of the 
water-power plants has l>een increased, thus materially 
reducing the cost for power. The gold production for 
1907 from these mines was less than in 1906. This 
decrease is attributed to the Inefficiency of lat>or, a con- 
dition which has afTected the entire region. At the Per- 
severance mine a 100-stamp mill has been completed ami 
50 stamps have been in o|>eration most of the summer. 
Work at the Alaska-Juneau mine was continued from 
June until November and results similar to those in 
former years were attained. The Ebner mine suspended 
operations early in June and the mine has been idle 
since that time. Some exploratory work was done at 
Sheep Creek, but no actual mining. At the Eagle River 
mine developments have been vigorously advanced in 
search of the main vein, which is displaced by a fault. 
The developments now show both the character and the 
amount of this comparatively wide zone of faulting, and 
the vein is being developed at jxdnts further in the 
mountain, beyond the fault. Considerable interest has 
been shown in the prosj>eets north of F.agie River, at 
Yankee Rasin and at the head of Cowee creek, where 
auriferous quartz veins are being explored. The Jualin 
mine, which was being oj>erated under a lease during the 
summer, was the only mine in the Rerncrs Ray region 
where mining was in progress. Except a limited amount 
of prospecting and small scale o|>erations at the Crystal 

mine, near Snettisham, no work was done in the mines 
south of Juneau. 

In the Sitka district the only active mining operations 
during the year have been at the DeGroff mine. At this 
mine a 4-stamp mill was installed to treat the ore from a 
gold-quartz vein and some gold was produced. 

The Shipment oftSupplies and Freight by Rail. 

When property is delivered to a railroad company or 
other common carrier for transportation, the carrier 
must transport it to its destination with reasonable dis- 
patch at the agreed or published rate, and deliver it to 
the consignee in the same condition as that in which it 
was received. If it fails to do so, the carrier must pay 
the owner, if lost, or compensate him for damage, if any 
is done. Nevertheless the consignee is generally anxious 
to receive the goods, and in order that he may do so, the 
shipper should take certain precautions to ensure correct 
transmission. And, first, he should see that the property 
is properly crated to stand transportation, and clearly 
marked with the name of the consignee and the destina- 
tion. Next, he should make out (preferably in triplicate 
on a shipping receipt of the road by which the goods are 
to go) the name and address of the shipper, the name 
and destination of the goods, the number of packages or 
pieces and their weight, and note that they are in good 
condition when delivered. When the freight agent takes 
over the property he signs the receipt, which is in evi- 
dence of a contract, and, like a note, is good for the prop- 
erty it calls for. It is well to see that the agent checks 
these quantities and notes the condition of the shipment. 
In case the goods, as ore, grain, etc., are shipped in car- 
load lots, the shipper before loading should examine the 
interior of the car, if necessary cover with pieces of board 
any holes by which the ore may leak out, and, after 
loading, see, if possible if the doors are locked and 
sealed by the agent. The shipper should also tack to the 
car at opposite corners printed cards showing the name 
of the shipper, the name of the consignee, the destina- 
tion of the car, and its numl>er. In case freight is 
wrongly way-billed by the agent, this will serve to cor- 
rect, or at least to call attention to the error. Through 
carelessness, thoughtlessness, or ignorance the following 
mistakes can lx- made by the agent of the railroad com- 

A. Receipting for more freight than has been actually 
received, or receipting for it as in good condition, when 
in fact it is in bad order. 

R. Way-billing freight to a wrong consignee or desti- 

C. Loading freight in one car and way-billing in 

D. Failure to see that all packages are marked with 
the name of the consignee or destination. 

E. Transferring freight carelessly. 

F. Improi>er loading and crating of freight, and rough 
handling of the cars when switching. 

<i. Delivering freight to the wrong person, or with- 
out an order from the consignee. 

H. Delivering freight to a party who is to receive it, 
and who has failed to present an order from the party to 
whom it is consigned. 

At the CarilKX) hydraulic mine, situated :it Bullion 
in Rritish Columbia, the men work close to the over- 
hanging face of the bank, from which large masses fre- 
quently fall, but one of their number is detailed as a look- 
out; so exjx-rt has he become in judging the condition of 

the face of gravel that ample time Is guen the n in 

which to seek protection. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 25, 1908. 

Ore Testing at Salt Lake. 


Written for the Mining and Scientific Press 
By EltNEST Gayfokd. 

The testing plant of the General Engineering Co. at 
Salt Lake City, Utah, is in many respects the most com- 
plete and up-to-date establishment of its kind in exist- 
ence. Although it has only been in active operation a 
little over a year, it has already been instrumental in 
solving several metallurgical problems, thus saving 
thousands of dollars, as compared to attempts to solve 
similar difficulties in the mill itself. 

From the accompanying illustration it will be seen that 
the main plant is so arranged that tests in carload quan- 
tities can be made by any one of the following processes, 
or by combination of any or all of them: 

Amalgamation. (Plates and Pierce amalgamator.) 
Water concentration. (Jigs and tables.) 
Magnetic separation. 
(Ding's or Wetherill's.) 

Cyanidation. (Sand and 
slime treatment in conjunc- 
tion with filter-pressing.) 

Besides the main plant, 
which is equipped to 
handle ore in 10-ton lots, 
a miniature plant has been 
installed where all these 
methods can be adapted to 
smaller tests of a few hun- 
dred pounds each. 

From the flow-sheet, it 
will be seen that in design- 
ing the plant J. M. Callow, 
the president of the com- 
pany, has carefully borne 
in mind the need for elas- 
ticity in a testing plant, and 
that products from the dif- 
ferent machines can be di- 
verted, by a change of 
launders or spouting, to 
their correct destination. 

After the material to be 
treated is once in the feeder 

at the head of the Dod<?e crusher it is handled mechanic- 
ally throughout the whole plant, and no hand-feed, with 
its inherent errors, is resorted to. The floors, piping, 
and launders are so arranged that during the operation of 
a test nothing can escape, all waste material finding its 
wa y by gravity either to the sumps or tailing-pump; 
it is possible thus to account for every pound of feed that 
has been used, and to ascertain, by actual weights, the 
proportions of different products into which the ore has 
been divided. 

In the installation of every machine care was taken by 
the designer that, wherever necessary, accurate time 
samples could be taken; this is chiefly accomplished by a 
swinging pipe or launder and a stop-watch; in this way 
not only can reliable pulp samples be obtained, but also, 
where wet crushing is employed, the correct proportion 
of water can be determined, which is one of the most 
important factors in ore dressing. 

The General Engineering Co. recommends that the car- 
load of test ore should be first sent to a public sampler; 
this allows not only of a thorough mixing of the mate- 
rial, but also enables an average sample of about 500 lb. 
to be sacked separately and marked at the sampler. The 
sampler otherwise handles the car in a manner similar to 
that pursued had it (the car) been sent them for sale on 
the open market, a head sample being sent to the shipper, 

one to the ore-testing plant, and one reserved for ref- 

Previous to starting operations in the main testing 
plant, a series of tests are made in the miniature plant, 
on the 500 lb. that the sampler has sacked separately, 
the ore being treated by any number of different meth- 
ods that its physical nature justifies, accurate weights 
and samples being taken, results systematically recorded, 
and comparisons made, with the idea of ascertaining 
the best metallurgical process for the ore in question, 
care being taken to give due weight to local conditions at 
the mine; in other words, the idea is to choose the partic- 
ular treatment that will yield the highest net returns. 

After a careful comparison of the results from the pre- 
liminary tests the main plant is adjusted to suit the 
method chosen and the carload is run through. It is of 
interest to state that the results from the preliminary tests 
check closely with those obtained from the carload test, 

r.v/s TA/fH FITTED 

scaeims 'f mnam 

\ arormrz* pumps,/'* 
oxers v moi eats 

bfe being an extreme variation; this is due to the fact 
that even in the miniature plant, in which the prelimin- 
ary work is done, the plate, table, or jig is fed mechanic- 
ally and not by hand. 

The best result in milling does not necessarily mean the 
highest extraction. Supposing the preliminary work on 
a carload of test ore showed that by amalgamation, con- 
centration, and cyanidation a 95jfc extraction could be 
obtained, but by amalgamation and cyanidation alone 
only a 90 fc . The point then to be decided is whether the 
extra 5 fc obtained by concentration is going to cost more 
than it is worth, and if the expense of converting the 
concentrate into money is going to exceed the yield from 
such extra extraction. The grade of the ore, local condi- 
tions at the mine, and good judgment are the factors em- 
ployed in reaching a decision. 

Again, supposing the ore in question is purely a con- 
centrating ore, the poiuts to be threshed out in the pre- 
liminary work would be the initial crushing, where to 
start jigging and where tabling, what products need re- 
crushing or re-treatment, whether fiual products be made 
by gravity methods, or whether a magnetic or chemical 
process is required before a finished product is made. 
Here, also, the commercial question comes in; if an 80^ 
saving can be made and a rejection made at each jig, it 
mav be better than an 85* extraction, obtained at the 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 



H o 

RH m o o 

: < z ^ -o 

rn Z 

c Z 
H O 

5 S 

iwrf* cmcuitTms Hurt 





&*«• ^>U«l»J 

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Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 25, 1908. 

expense of re-crushing all the jig tailing instead of a 
small quantity of jig middling. Further, conditions at 
the mine may call for a high-grade concentrate and a high 
ratio of concentration, and while this may have to be 
obtained at the cost of a small loss in the tailing, the pro- 









ferent combinations are worked back to the actual net 

The question is often asked whether results in a testing 
plant can be duplicated in a mill. Yes, provided the sample 
on which the test work was done is representative of the 
ore that will be sent to the mill, that the design of the 
mill incorporates the system that was found most appli- 
cable to the ore in the test, and that when the mill goes 
into operation it is in charge of some one familiar, at 
least, with the fundamental principles of ore treatment. 

A well-known mining engineer remarked to the writer 
recently that it was extraordinary, but nevertheless a 
fact, that no man would think of buying a suit of clothes 
without first taking the precaution to fit them on, but 

cess must not only fit the ore but also the mine from 
which the ore is taken. 

The report sheets employed by the General Engineer- 
ing Co. (a sample of which is shown in the accompanying 
cut), while elaborate, are concise, inclusive, and easy for 
the lay mind to understand, they show the saving of the 
different minerals at each stage of treatment, the propor- 
tion that each saving bears to the total amount of that 
mineral in the head sample, and finally a number of dif- 

that the same man might not hesitate to place an order 
for machinery for a $50,000 mill, and be surprised when 
it went into operation that it did not fit the ore it was 
built to treat. 

Assays of sea dredgings indicate that the bed of the 
Atlantic ocean carries appreciable amounts of gold and 
silver, and that the deep-sea bottom is relatively richer 
in gold than that nearer the shore-line. 

January 25, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 



Specially Reported for the Mining and Scientific Pkkss. 

ART OF ELECTRIC SMELTING.— No. 874,944; Frank 
Creelman, New York, N. Y.: assignor to The Willson Car- 
bide Works Company of St. Catherines, Limited, St. Cath- 
erines, Canada, a Corporation. 

The process of electric smelting which consists in subject- 
ing the material to be smelted to the heat of an electric cur- 
rent of substantially uniform amperage notwithstanding 
variations in the internal resistance of the furnace, and reg- 
ulating the furnace to restore the normal internal voltage 
and maintain an approximately uniform expenditure of 

222: Stanley S. Sorensen and George C. Westby, Murray, 

The hereinbefore described process of purifying smelter 
smoke and extracting values from ores or metallurgical 
waste products consisting in preparing the materials to be 
treated by comminuting the same, and then causing sul- 
phurous smoke to come in contact with the materials in the 
presence of moisture or water while they are being agitated, 
whereby the valuable bases or metals of the slag are con- 
verted into sulphates, thionates, thionites, and sulphites by 
means of the sulphur dioxides and sulphuric acid of the 

GLOMERATING ORES.— No. 875,331; Andrew J. Dull, 
Harrisburg, and Joseph Weatherby, Jr., New Cumberland, 
Pa.; said Weatherby assignor to said Dull. 

An ore roasting furnace having means for heating the ore 
to desulphurize the same, an electrode arranged in the 
furnace, a second movable electrode co-operating with the 
first-mentioned electrode to produce an electric arc to the 
action of which the heated ore is subjected, said movable 
electrode being adapted to move the agglomerated ore 
beyond the radius of action of the arc 

MINE-ROOF SUPPORT.— No. 875,182; Frederick C. 
Keighley, Uniontown, Pennsylvania. 

In a roof support for mines, a plurality of standards ar- 
ranged in opposite rows, timber-supporting means connect- 
ing opposite standards, and wedges to prevent downward 
displacement of said means. In a roof support for mines, a 
plurality of standards arranged in opposite rows, timber- 
supporting tie rods or stretchers connecting opposite stand- 
ards, and wedges to prevent downward displacement of 
said tie rods or stretchers. 

No. 875,424; James H. Gillies, Auburn, Victoria, Australia. 

An improved process for the treatment of zinciferous ores 
and metallurgical products consisting essentially of first 
roasting the ore, second feeding such roasted ore through a 
current of dilute sulphuric acid moving continuously in an 
opposite direction, and finally, continuously separating the 
solution of zinc sulphate from the slimes and undissolved 
particles by settlement, substantially as described. 

METALS.— No. 875,381; George M. Rice, Worcester, Mass- 

In the art of reducing complex zinc ores direct from the 
raw ore, the process step which consists in supplying to the 
ore a quantity of linely divided metallic iron in large excess 
of the amount required to combine with the sulphur from 
the volatilizable metals in forming monosulphide of iron 
(FeS) and an additional amount sufficient to form slag, 
with the silica contained In the ore during the melting 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

January 25, 1908. 

Mineral Resources of the United States. 

The twenty -third annual volume of the series ' Mineral 
Resources of the United States,' published by the United 
States Geological Survey, is now passing through the press. 
This volume contains a statement of the production of min- 
eral substances during 1906. 

Practically the same form of arrangement has been pre- 
served in all of the 22 preceding volumes of the series, and 
it has become so familiar to the mining fraternity as to ren- 
der any description unnecessary. But for those to whom 
this volume comes as a new book of reference it may be 
explained that the book is divided into chapters, each of 
which treats of a separate mining industry. The student 
who consults this report to find a combined statement of 
the mineral resources of a given State is referred to the 
tabular statement of output by States in the summary, and 
to the index, in which, under each State, is a list of the min- 
erals produced therein. The effort is also made to show 
the conditions of the domestic industry in relation to for- 
eign conditions in the same mineral industry. 

It is important, also, for the new reader to know that this 
volume is simply the consolidation of the separate chap- 
ters after they have been published in pamphlet form, fre- 
quently months in advance, and that these pamphlet 
reports, and not the final volume, mark the dates at which 
the reviews become available. P'urther, for greater statisti- 
cal promptness, it is the custom of the Survey to give the 
principal figures to the public press in advance of the publi- 
cation of the chapters in pamphlet form. 

Several new names appear as the responsible authorities 
in charge of individual chapters. This is in pursuance of 
the policy of the Geological Survey announced in the vol- 
ume for 1905 of assigning all subjects to members of the 
Survey staff' who, in this work and in allied problems, are 
employed solely in the Government service. The report on 
iron ores for 1906 was prepared by Edwin C. Eckel, who, in 
past years, has made a special study of the iron ores of the 
South. The series of iron ore reports for the United States 
owes its statistical development entirely to John Birkin- 
bine, of Philadelphia. Under his direction the statistics of 
iron ore production have been developed to an exceptionally 
high degree of accuracy. This has been due, fundamentally! 
to the great conlidence given him by iron ore producers, 
among whom Mr. Birkinbine has developed a spirit of fra- 
ternity similar to that which James M. Swank, the gen- 
eral manager of the American Iron & Steel Association, has 
evoked among the iron and steel manufacturers. The 
reports on copper, lead, and zinc in preceding years have 
likewise been developed entirely by Charles Kirchhoff, of 
The Iron Age, New York. These reports have become 
classic for their statistical accuracy and for their keen and 
fair analysis of the trade situation. The report on copper 
for 1906 was made by L. C. Graton, and those on lead and 
zinc by J. M. Boutwell. 

This volume also records the change of the administra- 
tive head of the division of Mining and Mineral Resources 
from David T. Day to Edward W. Parker, Dr. Day devot- 
ing his time to the important work of preparing the reports 
on petroleum and natural gas. The change of administra- 
tion includes the placing of the statistics of metal produc- 
tion (except iron ores) under the supervision of Waldemar 
Lindgren, who has, as chief assistants, Charles G. Yale, of 
San Francisco, Victor C. Heikes, of Salt Lake City, Chester 
Naramore, of Denver, and Messrs. Boutwell, Graton, 
McCaskey, and Siebenthal, of Washington. This arrange- 
ment has materially strengthened the work of the division. 
It is designed, also, to supplement the statistical data with 
the results of geological and chemical research in so far as 
they pertain to the economic development of our mineral 
resources. The division of Mining and Mineral Resources 
has been for some time an integral part of the geologic 
branch of the Survey, this incorporation having been accom- 
plished when the present plan of organization was adopted. 
By way of brief review and summary of the series, it may 
be said that in the 27 years covered by these 23 reports, the 
scope of the work has remained practically the same— an 
annual review of the mineral production of the United 

States, and of the state of knowledge of the mineral 
deposits from which the products come. But the work 
involved has multiplied in two directions. In the begin- 
ning the statistical feature of the work was satisfied by an 
estimate as to the total output of each useful mineral. This 
estimate was based upon the best commercial estimates 
available, and the statistical correspondence was limited to 
a few hundred letters each year. When the control of the 
work passed into the hands of Dr. Day, he took it with the 
intention of developing each statistical inquiry from an 
estimate into an accurate annual census through confiden- 
tial reports at first hand, as rapidly as facilities would per- 
mit. This result has now been achieved with every 
industry except petroleum, and to this particular and 
difficult task he will henceforth limit his work. The cor- 
respondence necessary for this annual census of the mines 
of the United States has grown from a few hundred letters 
to an average of three written or printed communications 
a year to every known mine operator of the United States, 
more than 150,000 in all. In order to make such corre- 
spondence successful, it has been necessary to send agents 
to the mines themselves, both for scrutiny of the statistical 
returns and in order to acquaint the operators with the 
nature of this inquiry, and thus to secure the co-operation 
essential to success. 

This growth of statistical work would have been neces- 
sary even if the mine development had remained stationary. 
Instead, the rate of increase has been far beyond all reason- 
ble prophecy. In the 27 years from 1880 to 1906, inclusive, 
the value of the mineral output of the United States has 
increased over five times. This marvelous growth is of 
additional interest in that it shows approximately by its 
fluctuations the financial ebb and flow of the whole coun- 
try. From $364,928,298 in 1880, the value has risen gradu- 
ally to the immense sum of $1,902,517,565 in 1906. This is 
the value of the mineral products in their first marketable 
condition, as shown in the first large tabular statement of 
the summary, where all unnecessary duplication isexcluded. 

It is of interest to note in passing that Pennsylvania pro- 
duced nearly $600,000,000, or about 30% of the total value of 
the output of 1906; Ohio about $200,000,000, or 11%; Illinois, 
$117,000,000, or 6%; New York and West Virginia, 
$81,000,000, or 4% each; Montana, Colorado, and Michigan, 
3.5% each; Arizona and Missouri, 3% each; Alabama and 
California, 2.5% each. The value of the mineral output of 
each of the twelve States named was in excess of $50,000,000. 
If the combined value of output of 11 of these States 
($905,000,000) be deducted from the total ($1,912,000,000), 
the value of output of the twelfth State, Pennsylvania 
($583,0(J0,000) , exceeds the combined value of output of all 
the remaining States of the United States by more than 
$150,000,(00. Keeping pace with this growth has been a 
strain, and it is gratifying that the system has so expanded 
that the statistics of this wonderful production continually 
increase in completeness and accuracy. This attainment is 
largely the result of the hearty co-operation of the pro- 
ducers, due to their faith in the Survey. 

In carrying out the plan of co-operation with the other 
divisions of the geologic branch, a twofold advantage is 
secured. It brings to the statistical work on the one hand 
a corps of trained men whose field observations have devel- 
oped a keen appreciation of the geologic and economic 
importance of each mineral product. This has been par- 
ticularly illustrated in the reports made by Mr. Lindgren 
and other mining geologists on gold and silver in the 
volume for 1905, and the reports on the same subjects and 
also on copper, lead, zinc, and quicksilver in the present 
volume. On the other hand, the mining geologists have 
obtained and will continue to derive from their statistical 
work an insight into the industrial and commercial condi- 
tions which so largely affect the demand for the differ- 
ent minerals, and lead to the search for, and development 
of, the mineral deposits with the geological relations of 
which their field work makes them acquainted. The 
bringing together of these two classes of study of our mineral 
resources, that of their geology and manner of occurrence, 
and that of their statistics and economic conditions, is to be 
one of the special features of the future work of this division. 


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Editorial : Page. 

Notes 139 

The Goldfleld Strike Mil 

Inventions and Patents 141 

Two Copper Mines 141 

Genera/ Mining Hews 14,'i 

Spec/a/ Correspondence 148 

London Butte, Montana 

Rossland, British Columbia Salt Lake, Utah 
Denver, Colorado Mexico 

Toronto, I anada 



Discussion : 

The Mechanics of Ore-Crushing 

Courtenay /)> Kalb 155 

Variations in Mining Costs Algernon Del Mar 156 

Psychology of Mining Booms Claud, Sacks 1S6 

Tube-Mill Lining, Slime-Filters, and Patents 

Arthur l)c W. Footr 157 

Articles : 

Analysis of Production of Two Great Copper Mines.. 

An Occasional Contributor 160 

The Great Gold Mines— II T. A. Richard 161 

National Mining Bureau Qeorg* Otis Smith 165 

Drills for Stoplng Ugernon 1><1 Mar 169 

Portland Cement 170 

I'nited Verde Mine /,. C. (iraton 171 

The Fault Problem T. C. Chamberlin 172 

Scale Charging-Car 174 

Mining and Metallurgical Patents 173 

Decisions Relating to Mining 170 

Departments : 

Personal 142 

Market Reports 142 

Catalogues Received 147 


ON ANOTHER PAGE we publish a letter from 
Mr. Claude Saehs, editor of The Mining Investor, 
criticizing a recent article by Mr. J. H. Curie. It is 
well that the other side of the case should be stated 
and while we disagree with the opinions expressed 
by Mr. Sachs, we appreciate his courtesy in contrib- 
uting to our columns, and leave Mr. Curie to submit 
a rebuttal. 

Ikjl ANY of those who read the President 's dis- 
■*• " * patches to the Governor of Nevada will have 
remarked on their peremptory and rather rough 
tone; this seemed to be contrary to diplomatic 
usage. The explanation is: the President knew the 
Chief Executive of the Sovereign State of Nevada 
was carrying a load in excess of the factor of safety 
usually allowed in good engineering practice. 

I T IS ESTIMATED that the mines of the Lake 
* Superior region produced 223.800,000 pounds of 
copper in 1907, as against 228,400,000 pounds the 
year before. Calumet & Hecla produced about 84,- 
000,000 pounds. Osceola and Tamarack decreased 
their production, and were the main factors in mak- 
ing the total less than that of 1!)06. Put this is not 
due to any marked curtailment of output after the 
price of copper declined toward the close of the 
year, for it is characteristic of the Lake Superior 
companies that they pursue the even tenor of their 
way, while other people take orders from the metal 
selling agencies and get entangled in market com- 

BY THE COURTESY of Mr. E. Jacobs, the sec- 
retary of the Western Branch of the Canadian 
Mining Institute, we have received an account of 
the first meeting of that organization, as held at 
Nelson. British Columbia, on January 15 and 16. 
The attendance was good, it was representative, and 
keenly interested in the proceedings. Mr. Frederic 
Keffer, the president of the parent Institute, was in 
the chair. On the first day Mr. A. P. W. Hodges 
was elected president of the branch association. It 
was decided to hold three meetings each year. Many 
new members were elected and it is expected that 
the organization of the branch will result in a large 
addition to the membership of the Institute. Owing 
to the fact that the mining districts of British 
Columbia are distant from the central points at 
which the Institute usually meets, it was argii'd 
that a local auxiliary organization would he of great 
service both to the mining industry of British Colum- 
bia and to the Institute itself, stimulating both. A 
good start has been made. We shall watch the 
experiment with interest, for it may suggest a simi- 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

February 1, 1908 

lar departure on this side of the boundary, with the 
formation of a Pacific branch of the American Insti- 
tute of Mining Engineers. 

The Goldfield Strike. 

THE march of events in Nevada has been rapid. 
By request of the Governor of the State, the 
President ordered Federal troops to Goldfield on 
December 4; a week later three commissioners were 
sent from Washington to ascertain the facts; they 
arrived on December 16, and upon the presentation 
of their report the President telegraphed to the 
Governor that the troops would he withdrawn on 
December 30, unless he called the Legislature in 
special session to provide means for policing the 
disturbed district. Thereupon the Legislature was 
convened for January 14. On the opening of the 
session a resolution was passed asking the President 
to permit the troops to remain at Goldfield pending 
the organization of a State constabulary. The 
President acquiesced. On January 24 the Nevada 
Senate passed the bill creating a constabulary, to 
consist of a force of 250 men, and on the same day 
a majority in the Assembly voted to request the 
Mineowners Association of Goldfield to abolish the 
card system, by which the members of the Western 
Federation of Miners are proscribed. This demand 
being accepted, the Assembly passed the bill cre- 
ating the State constabulary, and it became law 
by the signature of the Governor. It is recognized 
now that the operators at Goldfield made a mistake 
in lowering wages and issuing a ban against the 
Western Federation at the very moment when the 
troops arrived; it was this coincidence that led to 
the Federal investigation. By withdrawing the card 
system and requiring only a proof of competency 
and reliability on the part of those applying for 
work, the operators have recognized the force of 
public opinion. Black-listing is the complement of 
boycotting, both are tyrannical and unfair. An 
employer has the right to refuse to engage any 
workman he does not want, but he has no right to 
discriminate against a man on account of his mem- 
bership in any club, church, or association until such 
organization has been declared illegal by proper 
process of law. The open shop is a snare and delu- 
sion unless it means the absence of discrimination 
as between union and non-union men. A man is as 
much entitled to be a member of a union as an 
employer has to be a stockholder in a corporation 
or a member of an operators association. If the 
mine-owners want to free themselves from the 
tyrannical interference of the rowdy element in the 
Western Federation they will do so best by giving 
fair treatment to those members of the Federation 
who themselves object to such of their leaders as 
are responsible for the brutalities and atrocities 
perpetrated in Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada during 
the last ten years. By trying to be just and fair, 
the mine-owners will get the support of public opin- 
ion and this in the end will give them more of 
protection than any constabulary such as is now to 
be organized. We have no great confidence in this 

volunteer police. The men are to receive $20 per 
week, a fact worthy of mention in contrast to the 
$13 per month paid to the enlisted men of the regu- 
lar Army. The higher pay recognizes that the force 
is to be recruited from among a community accus- 
tomed to high wages, but the members of the con- 
stabulary will be, like the militia of neighboring 
States, efficient for defence against a foreign foe 
but incompetent as a protection against domestic 
turmoil. They have not the military instinct of 
the regulars and are half-hearted, in their obedience 
to orders requiring them to proceed against their 
friends and acquaintances, whether mine operators 
or mine workers. So, after a brief and unsatisfac- 
tory experiment, we expect to see the Governor of 
Nevada and the Legislature appealing again to 
Washington for Federal troops and the eventual 
establishment of an Army post in Nevada. 

In the meanwhile conditions at Goldfield are 
steadily improving. Many miners are returning to 
work and a few have come into the district from 
Utah and California. The new arrivals have not 
been intimidated by the pickets of the Western Fed- 
eration, for local opinion is opposed to lengthened 
inactivity at the mines. It is the general belief that 
75 per cent of the members of the Federation will 
be glad to return to work if they can be assured of 
protection, and the abrogation of the card system 
will encourage these more desirable men to break 
away from the extremists. We hope soon to be able 
to report that the strike at Goldfield is at an end. 

Inventions and Patents. 

I-IUMOR is the salt of literature and the savor of 
* * it makes digestible even technical contribu- 
tions. A little of it is as welcome as sunshine after 
rain, for this is a dreary world and only the man of 
pleasant fancy and delicate wit can lighten the 
gloom of industrial depression. At least that is 
what Mr. Arthur DeW. Foote has done, for his 
letter on tube-mills and slime-filters is so seasoned 
with Attic salt that we find even the cyanide pro- 
cess deeply interesting and patents positively funny. 
All our cyanide experts will chuckle at the simple 
story he tells and some of them will even be gen- 
erous enough to see that the joke is against them. 
The facts are clearly stated and in a courteous man- 
ner; no harm is done to anyone: some enlightenment 
is vouchsafed to those entangled in the. battle of 
the processes ; and, finally, a moral is pointed. With 
that moral we cordially agree. Patents are the out- 
ward and visible sign of inward and technical 
inventiveness, it is in the application of them that 
they are justified. To fight over priority of patents 
in a world running over with clever lawyers is to 
play into the hands of that one-eyed devil of litiga- 
tion who too often usurps the place of blindfolded 
justice. If inventors will cease their bickering and 
set to work to show the managers of mines how to 
apply their new metallurgical and mechanical ideas. 
with the adoption of new devices and processes, we 
shall soon see a notable stimulus to industry. More- 
over, the monev that might otherwise be wasted in 

February 1, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


litigation will become productive in the hands of our 
energetic engineers. 

One paragraph in Mr. Foote's letter is particu- 
larly pleasing. Here is an engineer, in charge of 
one of the most notable mines in America, almost a 
veteran in years and more than a veteran in expe- 
rience, who has hit upon a new idea and put it into 
mechanical shape. He is told — by our genial friend 
from Salt Lake — that his patent has been antici- 
pated, but that the scheme will work. Is he cha- 
grined? No. He says: "As we eared nothing about 
the patent, it was enough for us to have the assur- 
ance that the machine would work." That is it. let 
us have machines that will work and fuss less about 
the patents; let metallurgical specialists make 
money not by collecting — or threatening to collect — 
royalties on inventions, but by manufacturing spe- 
cial machinery and showing others how to use such 
machinery successfully. Not that we deny the right 
to a royalty on a basic patent. Once more we 
see demonstrated that in the evolution of scientific 
ideas and in the invention of the devices that embody 
them, there is a wireless telegraphy which conveys 
messages to those least intended to receive them and 
that one of the best tests of the value of a new idea 
is the fact that it occurs to the mind of more than 
one man at one time. 

Two Copper Mines. 

T SUALLY we avoid discussing the market value 
^-' of mining stocks, for accurate information is 
difficult to obtain and the subject is traversed by 
treacherous undercurrents. But on another page we 
give an analysis of the data obtainable concerning 
the production of the Anaconda and the Calumet & 
Hecla mines. The contributor to whom we owe this 
analysis is one well informed in such matters and 
without any financial interest in either of these two 
enterprises. As for ourselves, this is a fitting oppor- 
tunity for stating that the editor of this journal has 
no dealings whatever in mining shares, directly or 
indirectly, believing that such aloofness from specu- 
lation is essential to unbiased judgment. 

As to the Anaconda, the figures show that the 
mine has returned to the shareholders an annual 
dividend of $2.39 per share of $25 par value, that is, 
9.52 per cent per annum. The average yearly profit 
per pound of fine copper has been 2. S3 cents. There 
is some surplus of cash and supplies, the total liquid 
value of which is not known to the public. Each 
share is annually represented by an output of 84.4 
pounds of copper. The value of the ore produced 
has fallen in ten years from $15.9:5 to $10.54 per 
ton, while costs have diminished much loss, namely, 
from $9.30 to $8.01 per ton, the margin of profit 
being $6.63 in 1896 and $2.53 in 1906. It may be 
interesting to our readers to know that the eost of 
mining, transport of ore to smelter, and reduction 
there, with refining and marketing of bullion — that 
is. the total operating eost was in 1905. 12.4 eonts. 
less 2.4 for proeious metals, making 10 eents; while 
in 1906 it was 13.3 cents, less 2.2 for precious metals, 
making 11.1 eents per pound of fine copper. On 14- 

cent copper the profit is not quite 3 cents and of this 
over 2 cents is in precious metals, so that the profit 
on the copper itself is less than 1 cent per pound. 
As to ore reserves, the amount of them is not known ; 
as to these and other matters the shareholders are 
not informed. If the reserves are such as to war- 
rant the continuance of the past average production 
for a further 20 years, then the present value of the 
stock, giving an income of $2.39 per share, would, 
if capitalized at 5 per cent, be $29.30 as against the 
present quotation of $33. It is not likely that any 
investor would care to do business on such a basis, 
in a mine subject to the usual risks and in one that 
has already shown a diminishing ratio of profit. Of 
course, people that buy Anaconda shares are not 
investors, scarcely speculators, more properly gam- 
blers, for the information given is too scant for guid- 
ance and like the Amalgamated, this stock is a blind 
pool of the kind dearly loved by manipulators. As 
a matter of fact, we believe that more money is made 
out of the ups and downs of Amalgamated and Ana- 
conda stocks than in any exploitation of copper ore 
in the mines at Butte. The financial coterie con- 
trolling them can afford to keep these stocks far 
above their real value, even in times of panic, be- 
cause of the use of the shares as counters in a game 
thoroughly under their control. 

Turning to the Calumet & Hecla, the prospect is 
more pleasing. We note that the average annual 
dividend during the last ten years has been $52.50 
per share, the average annual production per share 
has been 855 pounds of copper, and the average 
profit has been 6.1 cents per pound of fine copper. 
The present yield of $52.50 per annum, if capitalized 
at 5 per cent for 20 years, is $654. The market price 
of the stock just now is $665. Moreover, as the data 
quoted by our contributor show, the Calumet & 
Hecla company is building up a handsome reserve, 
both of money and of new mining property. The 
Calumet & Hecla mines are bottomed, that is, the 
conglomerate lode passes at the bottom into the 
Tamarack ground, so that further possibilities in 
depth are barred, but by exploratory work on the 
Osceola amygdaloid lode and by purchases of the 
control in the Allouez and Centennial mines, the 
future capacity for production is ensured. The 
affairs of the Calumet & Hecla are wanting in the 
publicity that is reasonably to be expected of all 
corporations that exist under the laws of the State 
and in virtue of the protection given by those laws; 
and this obligation exists despite the fact that spec- 
ulation in Calumet & Ileela shares is confined mainly 
to the five or six hundred shares that are on the 
market, the large holdings being entirely non-specu- 
lative. While Messrs. Agassiz, Shaw, and Livermore 
have exhibited a secretiveness, as to technical mat- 
ters, that bespeaks an unprogressive and rather self- 
ish spirit, yet we are glad now. as in the past, to 
emphasize the honorable character of their business 
management and the fact that they do state the 
main facts to their shareholders, and we believe that 
the Calumet & Hecla is deservedly to be regarded as 
one of the best conducted mining enterprises in 
existence at this time. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

February 1, 1908. 


Henry W. Turner- is here. 

Walter Hovey Hill is at Seward, Alaska. 

Archibald A. C. Dickson is on his way from London to 

Geobge Kislingbuby has returned to Los Angeles from 
Pioche, Nevada. 

S. H. Brady is superintendent of the Belmont mine at 
Tonopah, Nevada. 

Edwin H. Davison has left for Mexico in the interest 
of an Oakland syndicate. 

Geobge C. Cabson, of Vancouver, Wash., has gone to 
Shasta county, California. 

F. M. Kirsch, of the Pacific Tank Co., has returned to 
Los Angeles from Arizona. 

W. T. Holberton has been appointed manager of the Llal- 
lague tin mines in Bolivia. 

W. A. Carlyle has been appointed consulting engineer to 
the Le Roi Mining Company. 

Thos. Hughes, Jr., is superintendent of the Chesterfield 
mines, near Tucson, Arizona. 

Joseph McGnxivRAY is preparing to operate a large hy- 
draulic mine in Trinity county. 

H. G. Heffbon has been appointed manager of the Gold 
Road mine, at Gold Road, Arizona. 

Pbank Holmes is manager for the Palmarejo & Mexican 
Goldflelds Co., at Chinipas, Mexico. 

W. A. Williams is here, on his return from a two years 
engagement in Chihuahua, Mexico. 

Chables Buttebs sailed on the City of Panama on Jan- 
uary 25, on his way to Copala, Mexico. 

H. P. Robebtson is now manager for the Gwalia Consoli- 
dated Company, in Western Australia. 

L. D. Mills, of the Homestake Mining Co., is in San Fran- 
cisco, on his way to Goldfield, Nevada. 

Robert Hawxiiubst Jr. is examining the Mifio silver 
mines, in the province of Tarapaca, Chile. 

W. W. Elmeb, of Sumpter, Oregon, is manager for the 
Consolidated Mining Co., at Santa Barbara, Mexico. 

S. Sykes, of Johannesburg, passed through San Fran- 
cisco on his way from London to China and India. 

Emile R. Abadie has moved his office from the Union 
Savings Bank Bdg., Oakland, to 422 Pacific Bdg., San Fran- 

Emile R. Abadie Jr. has returned to San Francisco from 
the mines of the United Mines Corporation in Tuolumne 
county, California. 

F. M. Leland resigned from the staff of the Risdon Iron 
Works recently to become manager of the Washington 
mine at French Gulch, California. 

J. B. Fleming has left the employment of the Joshua 
Hendy Iron Works to join the staff of the Goldfield Con. 
Mines Co. at Goldfield, Nevada, as mechanical engineer. 

W. A. Heywood has returned to London from Siberia. 
He goes shortly to South Africa to investigate the metal- 
lurgy of the Namaqua Copper ores. 

Gordon F. Janney, who is operating a dredge on Clear 
Creek, in Shasta county, was here this week. 
W. H. Weed is at Chilpancingo, Mexico. 

George O. Bradley, chief engineer to the Utah Copper 
Co., has been tendered the position of general manager for 
the Pittsburg Silver Peak Mining Co., operating at Blair, 

Arthur L. Walker has severed his connection as advisory 
metallurgist to the American Smelting & Refining Co.: he 
has opened an office as consulting engineer at 71 Broadway. 
On January 25 he left for Bermuda on a short holiday. 

Latest Market Reports. 

local mktal prices— Jan. 30. 

Antimony 12^16c Quicksilver (flask) *46ta 45.60 

Casting topper 17%@18%c Spelter 6%@ 7%c 

Pig Lead 4.10® 5.05clTln 33@34%c 


Cabled from London. 

Jan. 23. 

£. s. 

Camp Bird 14 

ElOro 1 1 

Esperanza 1 8 

Dolores 1 7 

Orovllle Dredging 12 

Stratton's Independence 4 

Tomboy 1 7 



3 ex dlv 


Jan. 30. 
£. s. d. 


1 5 
1 8 

3 ex dlv. 12 

6 1 8 


ex dlv. 




(By courtesy of W. P. Bonbrlght & Co., 24 Broad St., New York.) 


Closing Prices. 

Jan. 17. 

Alaska Mexican 

Alaska Treadwell 

Bingham Central % 

Boston Copper 14% 

Cumberland Ely 

El Rayo 1% 

Guanajuato Con 2% 

Glroux Con 4 

Nevada Con 11% 

Nlplsslng „ 7 

Tennessee Copper 29 

United AlaBka 

United Copper 6% 

Utah Copper 25% 

Jan. 30. 











(By courtesy of Hayden, Stone* Co., 25 Broad St., New York.) 


San Francisco, Jan. 30. 

Atlanta 8 40 

Belmont 1.00 

Columbia Mtn 23 

Combination Fraction 90 

Daisy 1.15 

Falrvlew Eagle 58 

Florence 4.80 

Gold Bar (Bullfrog) 40 

Goldfield Con 5.60 

Goldfield of Nevada 

Gold Kewanas 

Great Bend 

Jim Butler 


Jumbo Extension.. 


Laguna 1.00 

Manhattan Con 21 

Midway 80 

Mlzpah Extension 10 

Mohawk 15.00 

Montana Tonopah 1.80 

Nevada Hills 3.25 

Red Top_ 

Sandstorm 37 

Silver Pick 38 

St. Ives 61 

Tonopah Extension 1.20 

Tonopah of Nevada 5.05 

Tramp Con 18 

West End 30 

(By courtesy of W. C. Ralston, 353 Bush St.) 


Closing prices. 
Jan. 30. 

Adventure 2 

Ahmeek 60 

Allouez 30% 

Amalgamated 61 J^ 

Arcadian 4% 

Atlantic 12% 

Balaklala 2% 

Bingham Con 4% 

Boston Con 

Butte Coalition 19% 

Calumet & Arizona 112 

Calumet & Hecla 660 

Centennial 24% 

Con. Mercur 

Copper Range 64% \ 

Daly-West 8% j 

Franklin 9 

Granby j 

Greene-Canauea, ctf 8% | 

Isle Royale 24% I 

Mass 3% 


Closing prices. 
Jan. 30. 

Michigan 11% 

Mohawk _ 66 

Nevada Con.. 10% 

North Butte 48% 

Old Dominion. 37% 

Osceola 86 

Parrot 13% 

Phoenix 1 

Qulncy 90 

Raven 1% 

Rhode Island 4% 

Santa Fe 2% 

Shannon 12% 

Superior* Pittsburg 14 

TamaraeK 66 

Trinity „ 15% 

United Copper com 6 

Utah Copper 26% 

Victoria. 5 

Winona 5% 

Wolverine 125 

Structural Material. 

Base prices f. o. b. cars San Francisco. 

Brick, common, per M $8.50 

Cement, domestic, per bbl $1.90 

Cement, foreign, per bbl J2.75ia3.25 

Firebrick, domestic, carload lots, per M 837.50 

Firebrick, English " " $50@55 

Lime, per bbl $1.16#l.ffi 

Lumber, Old. Dimension Stock, f. o. b. Gray's Harbor, per M $10.00 

Mining timbers, f. o. b. Gray's Harbor, per M $9.00 

Nails, per keg $3.20 

February 1, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


General Mining News. 


(Special Correspondence). — Since the close of navigation 
several new and important placer discoveries have occurred 
on Seward Peninsula. Two of these are known as 'subma- 
rine beach pay -streaks,' (found in frozen ground below pres- 
ent sea-level) and have already developed into rich, pay- 
ing properties. All are being tapped at about the same 
level by a continuous line of shafts on the divide between 
Penny and Snake rivers, west of Nome, and three-quarters 
of a mile south of the foothills. Kennedy, Brown & Bru- 
ner Bros, have located the pay-line at a depth of 112 ft. 
The submarine beach found by Seiffert, Gibson, Elliott and 
others, west of Nome is being followed in a continuous line 
to Penny river; heavy pay-dumps are manifest along the 
route. In places good pay-ore of great extent and value 

has been blocked out. Halla & Webb are the fortunate 

discoverers of another rich beach-line that equals if not 
surpasses the famous 'third beach.' It was recently 
located about 360 ft. south of the former line, which ran 
through the Portland Beach, Bessie, and Cyrus Noble 
claims; it runs east and west, apparently paralleling its 
older rival. A strange thing happened on Nov. 25. Vol- 
canic ashes fell to such an extent over all parts of Seward 
Peninsula, from Kotsebue sound to Norton bay, that it 
covered the snow in many places like a great dark-brown 
blanket. The ashes were so gritty as to impede travel by 
sleigh and dog-teams everywhere. Natives from the Kobuk 
region arrived in Candle City yesterday and reported 
the disappearance of a prominent mountain near Cape 
Blossom, which sank amid "much noise, steam, and smoke" 
on Nov. 22. Thousands of tons of sandy ashes fell in 
Nome and vicinity, fully 250 miles south from the reported 
disturbance. A local chemist has promised an analysis of 
the strange substance, which, though very fine, greatly 
resembles the ruby sands found along the loaches of Ber- 
ing sea. The labor situation at Nome Is growing acute 

and, although the Western Federation of Miners has prac- 
tically won its closed shop regulation, a rigid adherence 
to this rule may prove very difficult. The latest move of 
this organization has been productive of great friction be- 
tween the labor unions of this section. The cause of this 
difficulty is the persistent refusal of the Western Federa- 
tion of Miners to recognize the cards of any of its local 
Bister unions that are affiliated with the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, except the Industrial Workers. An allied 
Trades Assembly has been formed in Nome to combat these 
conditions, and an attempt will be made to stop the Indus- 
trial Workers from 'scabbing' on members of the other 
unions. The latest addition of a number of Japanese, Rus- 
sians, and Italians, into the ranks of the Industrial Work- 
ers has caused much comment and excitement among the 
laboring element, of which Nome has already an over- 
supply. The Government has erected a Federal jail on 

the city square and a new edifice for the District Court, is 
In course of construction. Twelve acres of ground In the 
city of Nome have been requested from the trustees for the 
erection by the Government Telegraph Co. of a permanent 
wireless station, which will connect Nome direct with the 
States next summer. The action of the Juneau Repub- 
lican convention in repudiating Governor Hoggatt and 
Banker Whitehead, Is generally acceptable to the people 
of Nome, who are nearly a unit for Cale and territorial 

The pay-streak on the Lakeview claim, on the third 
beach-line. Is without question the richest ever found In 
Alaska. Pans from $60 to $100 have been found and there 
Is an extensive body of pay-gravel which readily yields $1 
per pan without picking. The rich strike was made re- 
cently by Nlebuhr & Bounds who are working the ground 
on a lease. 
Nome, Dec. 7. 

The Indications are that 20,000 miners and prospectors 

will go to Alaskan camps during this year. The steamship 
Saratoga left Seattle, Wash., on Jan. 25 with 200 miners 
for Valdez and Cordova. The Tanana Mine Owners' Asso- 
ciation is sending north 150 miners. Beginning in May, 8000 
to 10,000 men, it is expected, will go to Nome and other Sew- 
ard Peninsula camps. Prosperity and high wages obtain 
in every mining camp in Alaska. 



The Supreme Court of Arizona has decided to compel J. 
N. Gaines, the tax collector of Cochise county, to collect in 
full the taxes assessed against* the Copper Queen Co. for 
1905; Gaines and the board of supervisors had compro- 
mised with the company for a considerably less sum than 

the amount due. Rex McEwan has brought suit against 

the Denn-Arizona Mining Co. for $15,000 and costs of suit; 
he alleged that he has been crippled for life by injuries 
received from an accident in the shaft when the cage 
dropped onto the chairs at the 1100-ft. station with great 
velocity. — The Empire Copper & Gold Mining Co. has re- 
sumed sinking its two-compartment shaft at its mine near 


The Old Dominion company was forced recently to close 
one of its four furnaces on account of shortage in the sup- 
ply of sulphide ore, but this will only be temporary, as sul- 
phide ore from various outside camps has been contracted 
for and is now on the way to Globe. Work is being rap- 
idly pushed on the 16th level of the Old Dominion mine; 
from this level the management hopes in time to extract 
sufficient sulphide ore to make shipment from the outside 

unnecessary. Considerable excitement was caused in 

Globe by the reported gold strikes in Lost gulch and in the 
Pinal foothills 7 miles southwest of the city; rich samples 
were displayed in the city. The National Mining & Ex- 
ploration Co. has bought the Fumarole mine in the Gila 
mountains near Safford; a steam hoisting plant has been 
ordered for the property and a shaft will be sunk to a depth 

of 2000 ft. The orebody exposed on the 450ft. level of 

the Iron Cap mine is .10 in. wide: it carries 20'; copper. 

At the Gem shaft of the Globe Consolidated mine a cross- 
cut Is being driven on the 12th level. At the Gibson 

mine 50 men are at work and shipments of ore are being 

made dally to the Old Dominion smelter. T. E. Farish 

is developing the Independence mine; he is making ship- 
ments of high-grade sulphide ore. It is said that a sam- 
ple of the dump of a winze at the Black Hawk mine yielded 
at the rate of 10' ; copper, 4 oz. silver, and 0.02 oz. gold per 

ton. It Is reported that Charles E. Finney has secured 

$1,200,000 in Boston with which to build a 600-ton smelter 
on the property of the London-Arizona company near Win- 
kelman on the Phoenix & Eastern railroad. 


It is announced that the directors of the Arizona Copper 
Co. have appropriated $100,000 for Improvements in the 
smelter at Clifton; John W. Addles has been appointed 
consulting engineer and will have charge of the work on 
the Improvements. 


It Is reported that the Grand Traverse & Arizona Mining 
Co. has found a body of good ore at its mine in the Cave 

Creek district; C. F. Smurthwaite is general manager. 

The Copper Top Co. has contractors at work on some of its 

claims. Machinery Is now enroute from Denver for the 

working of 2000 acres of placer ground near Wickenburg. 
The ground has been prospected by Barth & Holden, who 
claim that the gravel carries about $1 per ton. 


The new Imperial smelter, south of Red Rock, has I n 

completed and blown In. The Copper Butte Mining Co., 

it is expected, will resume work at once on its properties. 

John McCabe is planning to build a 15-mile aerial 

tramway from the Silver King mine to Price station, where 
a 50-ton smelter is to be erected. 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

February 1, 1908. 


Th directors of the Jesse Mines Co. have decided to erect 
a 50-ton reduction plant; it will comprise stamps, concen- 
trators, and a cyanide plant. The Jesse mine has a record 
in gold production of over $750,000; it is opened by a shaft 
657 ft. deep, and it is said to have a large tonnage of ore 
ready to be stoped and treated as soon as the new mill is 

ready for operation. Three tons of ore from the bottom 

of the 200-ft. shaft of the Square Deal mine in the Cherry 
Creek district were milled for a test; they yielded a bar 
weighing 5.34 oz. The shaft is on the hanging-wall of a 
large porphyry dike that contains several veins of gold 

ore. The Majestic Mining Co. is unwatering the Lion 

shaft. It is also driving adits on other claims of the group; 

good ore is being mined from two of these adits. The 

Climax Mining Co. recently made a test mill run of its ore; 
it is said the mine has a large tonnage of ore in reserve, 

and needs a larger milling plant. Morgan Tillinghast of 

Philadelphia has made the final payment on the Monica 
group of mines; he has had this property under develop- 
ment for two years. The vein is cut at a depth of 1100 ft. 
by an adit 1300 ft. long. The vein is opened a distance of 
1500 ft., the orebody being continuous the entire distance. 

The property also has a mill. Ore averaging $100 gold 

per ton is being mined from an adit of the Wren mine in 
the Hassayampa district. High-grade ore has been found 
at a depth of 40 ft. in the Jayhawker mine, which is owned 
by the company that owns the Wren mine; R. A. Sweet is 

general manager. It is reported a very promising gold 

strike has been made on an extension of the Rockefeller 

mine on the divide between Big Bug and Lynx creeks. 

At the United Verde smelter three furnaces are at work; 
the installation of new machinery with which to work the 
large new furnace is rapidly proceeding. 


A. W. Womble has been investigating the Amavista 
strike; he is reported to have said that it looks better 

with every additional foot of development. E. Holden 

and T. J. Carrigan will put a force of men at work devel- 
oping the Northern Light mine near Bill Williams Fork 



Charles E. Hussner, who has been experimenting with 
the tailing from the Argonaut mill has arranged to install 
a plant and work this tailing; he hopes to catch the float- 
ing gold and amalgam that are now escaping from the mill. 


The Melones mine was closed on Jan. 11 by a strike of 
the 175 employees, who demand a 9-hr. workday. The 
management is determined to make no concessions and it 
is generally expected that the struggle will be a bitter one. 

At the Boston mine an ISOO-ft. three-quarter-inch steel 

cable has been put in; unwatering the mine is proceeding 

rapidly. The work of repairing the Cross shaft of the 

Utica mine, which was damaged by a recent explosion, is 
advancing satisfactorily; the management expects to have 

the mine in operation in a few days. Charles Hogan was 

assaulted and cruelly beaten by a gang of non-citizen min- 
ers at his home in Melones on the night of Jan. 19. His 
offense to them was that he would not unite with the strik- 
ers at the Melones mine. A citizens' protective association 
has been organized in Melones; this has let it be known 
that it has ropes and that trees are handy. 


Fred Schmeder has begun working his Barney mine. 

P. C. Drescher has purchased the Montauk Consolidated 
mine, in the northern part of the county; he intends to 

restore the mill and resume work in the mine. Louis 

Koerber is working on his claim north of the Taylor mine. 

Preliminary work is to be begun at the Collins- 

Bacchi mine near Garden Valley for the sinking of a 
shaft 500-ft. deep; buildings will be erected and machinery 
hauled to the mine as soon as the roads are in good con- 


P. Calderwood and H. Scott have 12 men driving a 500-ft. 
adit at the Ubehebe mine; this adit will cut the vein 760 ft. 
below the outcrop. At the Black Canyon mine an ore- 
body has been cut by a drift 25 ft. long; it carries more 

gold than any other in the mine. Al Stevens has a small 

force of men at work on his lease at the Brownie mine at 

Buena Vista. Stocking & Denison are employing 15 men. 

The 3-stamp mill at the foot of Queen canyon is run- 
ning on ore from a lease in the Buena Vista district; this 

ore carries $30 to $40 per ton. The Bishop Creek Gold 

Co. spent in 1907, $91,107.33 in labor, machinery, and ma- 


B. Ostick and associates have secured $1200 in a three 
weeks' run of the Kinyon 2-stamp mill on ore from the 
G B mine. — Peter McMahon has taken a new lease on the 
Butte mine and has some men at work. 


(Special Correspondence). — Good ore was recently struck 
in a winze in the Brunswick mine. Developments are going 
on at several points and a large force of men are employed; 
the mill is running on a fair grade of ore. Sinking con- 
tinues at the Central shaft; rapid work has been retarded 
by falling rock, but good progress is now being made and 

the shaft is considerably below the 5000-ft. point. A 

full force of men is working at the Empire mine and a 
large tonnage of excellent quartz is being handled. Ex- 
ploration and development work is going on in the lower 
levels. A large reserve of milling ore has been developed 

apart from the main lode. Several men are working at 

the Conlan mine in accordance with a private agreement 
with the company. It is understood that they are working 
on a royalty basis. It is reported that good ore is being 

extracted. The ore-shoot recently encountered at a depth 

of 800 ft. in the Idaho-Maryland is continuing to show well. 
Several men are employed and good ore has been extracted. 
The Sultana M. Co. is working a large force of men at its 
properties. Most of this work is being carried on through 
the Presscott Hill shaft. Good ore has been opened up at 

several points. C. K. Brockington is superintendent. 

The C. C. Mitchell ranch, lying near the Idaho-Maryland 
and Brunswick mines, has been acquired by the Lily G. M. 
Co., a Nevada City corporation, and will be extensively 
worked. There are three north and south lodes and an 
east and west vein. A shaft will be sunk and other work 
carried on. The ore assays from $1.60 to $20 per ton. The 

veins are from a few inches to 3 ft. wide. About 40 men 

are working at the Pennsylvania mine; considerable explo- 
ration work is being carried on. W. P. Martin and asso- 
ciates are developing a small body of good ore in the 
Golden Gate mine. The shaft is being sunk to enable the 

deposits to be worked at depth. The Champion Mining 

Co. has a large force of men at work; a large tonnage of 
ore is being treated. Most of the high-grade ore is coming 
from the vicinity of the Home shaft, while a large quantity 
of lower grade has been developed in the old Champion 
workings. The 10-stamp mill at the Ancho mine is run- 
ning on good milling ore. The vein in the lower adit is 
showing improvement in size with depth. The working 

force has been increased. Good results are being 

obtained from the working of several placers in the Wash- 
ington district. Several men are employed and the season 

promises to be a very successful one. The copper slump 

has forced the suspension of work on the copper prospects 
in the French Corral and Spenceville districts. It is 
reported that work will be resumed as soon as the market 
re-adjusts itself. Robert Johnson reports that the anti- 
mony lode recently struck on his ranch, a few miles below 
Grass Valley, is showing up well with limited develop- 
ment. The lode is being prospected by Johnson and 
sons, who believe that they have the makings of a 
valuable property. The present winter has been mode- 
rate and the mines have not been forced to use the large 
pumps which were installed last fall in anticipation of a 

February 1, 1908. 

Mining and Scientific Press. 


severe season. While the rain-fall is considerably less than 
that of last season, there has been heavy snow-falls in the 
adjacent mountains. This assures an adequate supply of 
water for the coming year. 
Grass Valley, Jan. 27. 


R. L. Fletcher has four men at work at the Paragon 

mine; Tom Brown is in charge. At the Three Star mine, 

stoping continues on the 1200-ft. level. The adit at the 

Hidden Treasure mine is still being driven along the blue 

lead toward the old Mountain Gate mine. -The lessees of 

the Big Dipper mine are taking good gravel from new 

ground. The Peckham Hill property has again been 

bonded. The Bellevue company has decided to prose- 
cute work on the 400-ft. level of its mine. The Home 

Ticket mine at Last Chance is yielding good gravel; the 
manager is still following the Pennsylvania system of 
blocking out the gravel. 


A new company has recently overhauled the mill at the 
Plumas-Eureka mine and has built a tramway from the 
upper workings of the mine to the mill. The company has 

25 or 30 men working, mostly stoping and driving. The 

Little Jamison mill is temporarily closed down on account 
of shortage of water; 50 to 60 men are employed in the 
mine. S. W. Cheyney is superintendent. 


The Summit group of 30 copper mining claims near the 
Mammoth mine has been sold by the Phoenix Securities 

Co. to the Stauffer Chemical Co. for cash. Ore is now 

being taken from the Mammoth mine to a smelter over 
the new rail-track haulage system; the capacity of this 
system is much greater than that of the old aerial tram 

system. The track of the Sacramento Valley & Eastern 

railway has reached Copper City. This will permit the 
shipment to Delamar of the great heaps of coke that lie 

at Pit station. The oil storage tank for the Delama- 

smelter has been completed; the steel furnace stack is 
nearly finished. 


While sinking a winze in the long adit of the Telegraph 
mine in search of a lost quartz vein, very rich gravel has 
been found. It is 3 ft. thick and Is supposed to be a contin- 
uation of a gravel channel which was worked several years 

ago. Piping has begun at the McNulty placer mine at 

Balsam flat; W. W. Tiner is superintendent. A full 

force of men is at work again in the Young America gravel 
mine near Forest. The Omega Gold Mining Co. has pur- 
chased a 3-stamp mill to treat the cemented gravel In its 

mine near Forest; Chas. H. Brown Is superintendent. 

It is reported that at the Ruby mine the vein has been 
cut In the adit and the company is now driving on it to 

get quartz for a mill-test. At Sierra City a good deal of 

development work is being done in mines other than the 
Sierra Buttes; at the Cleveland mill eight stamps are 

dropping. At Poker flat the Freeboroughs have finished 

a run of ore through their Huntington mill; the result i? 
said to have been satisfactory. 


Con Sullivan and William Ackers have found a gold- 
bearing porphyry dike in the Scott Mountain region. 9 
miles south of Callahan; it is 20 ft. wide and ore taken 

from a 6-ft. shaft sunk in it carried $12 per ton. Fifteen 

teams are hauling timber from the Manly saw-mill to the 
new dredge being built near Callahan by the Brownell & 

Mayhew Co. S. R. Gardner and Abner Weed have 

merged their mining interests in the Quartz Valley dis- 
trict and they are expected to make a successful run this 


Surveys for ditches and flumes have been commenced 
at the Qulmby mine in the New River district. J. A. Brent 

is manager. The Abram-Karsky Co. has won its suit 

against the Bullychoop Mining Co. to recover about $7000 

claimed to be due the mercantile company for goods fur- 
nished to the Bullychoop company. 


It is reported that eastern parties have deposited a suffi- 
cient sum of money to practically assure that they will 
buy the Dutch Mining Co.'s property for a sum ample to 
pay every creditor 100 cents on the dollar. The machin- 
ery for the United Mines mill is on the ground ready 
to be erected; the Lady Washington adit is being cleaned 

out. Good ore from the New Albany mine is being 

crushed in the old Grizzly 20-stamp mill. 


Machines are to be installed at the Blue Point mine to 
work the dumps for the platinum that they contain. G. L. 
Holmes of San Francisco is selecting the site for the plant. 


(Special Correspondence.) — A rich strike has just been 
made at the Columbia mine, situated on Silver mountain. 
The streak measures from 18 in. to 2 ft. wide, and carries 
$39 per ton in gold. Driving is in progress and as soon as the 
ground has been opened for 50 ft. stoping will be started. 
J. Graham, of Empire, is operating the property under lease. 

— ^^ 

Map of Northern California. 

—Report is current that the Doric adit holdings will shortly 
be consolidated with those of the Capital M. & T. Co. The 
Doric adit is in Saxon mountain 3008 ft., and by running a 
lateral to the west the heading would cut the veins con- 
trolled by the Capital company at a depth of from 500 to 
700 ft. under the present workings. The Capital company 
is being financed by four millionaires of Pittsburg, Pa., 
with Wm. M. Cooper of Georgetown serving as general 
manager. The Hoery group of claims on Griffith moun- 
tain is being developed in an energetic manner. The adit 
Is being driven steadily forward, and a cross vein will 
be reached within the next few feet. Considerable scat- 
tered mineral is showing in the heading, which carries 
much silver and lead. Shipments have been inaugu- 
rated from the Gambetta vein, Intersected through the 
Joplln adit. Stoping is in progress upon a streak of ore 
measuring from 12 to 15 in. wide; average returns of 70'^ 
lead and 48 oz. silver per ton are being realized. H. 1. 

O'Connell of Georgetown is resident manager. The adit 

being advanced to intersect the 700-ft. level of the sliaft 
workings of the Shively mine is nearing the objective. 
There yet remains ~~> ft. of ground to be broken, but head- 
way Is being made at the rate of from 3 to 4 ft. per day. 
With this work completed the old workings of the mine 
will be drained of their great bodies of water, while at 
the same time a good circulation of air will be obtained. 
B. J. Martelon of Silver Plume Is superintendent. The 


Mining and Scientific Press. 

February 1, 1908. 

Silver Leaf adit on Brown mountain is being advanced at 
the rate of 3 ft. per day, a Temple electric drill having 
been brought into use. Two veins have been passed, but no 

driving carried forward on them. Work will be resumed 

in a few days upon the Charter-Raton group of claims, 
situated on Breckenridge mountain. The La Moe adit is 
to be continued on into the hill and according to surveys 
the Charter vein will be reached within 150 ft. A com- 
pressor plant was installed a few months since. J. J. 
Bonner of Georgetown is resident manager. Chas. Carl- 
son, leasing on the Lucky Hesperus mine, on Democrat 
mountain, has encountered a streak of 700 oz. silver ore 
and shipments will soon be started. The discovery was 
made in running a cross-cut to get under the old workings, 
whence some of the richest ore ever mined in the George- 
town district was taken a few years ago. A carload ship- 
ment of smelting ore was made last week from the Sidney 
adit workings. The product was delivered at the Santiago 
sampler and settlement was made at the rate of 88 oz. 
silver per ton and 44% lead. Stoping is under way upon a 

streak of ore measuring from 4 in. to 2 ft. wide. Chas. 

Jones, leasing on the Bellevue-Hudson mine, on Columbian 
mountain, has found a 14-in. vein of 147-oz. silver ore. 
The discovery was made in sinking a winze from the sixth 
or main level. Considerable water has been encountered 
and it will be necessary to install a pump at an early date. 

A night shift has been put on at the American Sisters 

50-ton mill. The mill is to be fed upon the higher grade 
ore, as it has been decided to discontinue the treatment 
of the lead and zinc until the price of those two metals 
has advanced. The last shipment of concentrate after 
being run in two classes brought returns of 300 and 97 
oz. silver per ton and 25% lead. Over 300 tons of smelting 
ore awaits shipment; it will mill better than 300 oz. silver 
per ton. J. J. White of Georgetown is general manager. 
Georgetown, Jan. 27. 



Sinking has been suspended in the shaft of the Idaho 
Consolidated Mines Co. until the completion of the electric 
power plant. Work on the mill is being hurried, with the 
intention of completing the plant before the middle of 
April. Aldred & Smith, the contractors for the Idaho Con- 
solidated dam, are importing teams and men from Utah. 


A good body of free-milling gold ore has been found at 

the Star mine. It is reported that the owners of the 

Butte-Orogrande mine intend to resume operations in the 
spring. The cyanide plant is to be replaced by a mill 

using a new process for reduction of ore. A five-stamp 

mill will be erected at the South Fork mine as soon as the 
weather will permit. 


(Special Correspondence). — The Lemhi Smelting Co. has 
been organized by D. E. Coughanour, H. L. Fisher, A. E. 
Carlson, H. E. Neal, and C. M. Stolle, of Boise, to erect a 
one-furnace lead smelter at a place between Spring moun- 
tain and the Gilmore mine, 70 miles west of Dubois sta- 
tion on the Oregon Short Line. It is stated that the ore 
supply will come from the Iron Mask, High Ore, Russell, 
Bruce, Forrester, Lemhi, Gilmore, and other mines. The 
ores of the locality comprise lead carbonate and galena, 
accompanied by silver and gold. 

Salmon City, Jan. 25. 


Ore has been found in the upraise at the Village Black- 
smith mine; several tons of it in a bin at the mouth of 
the' adit contain $100 per ton. At the Potosi mine a sta- 
tion is being cut preparatory to driving on the lowest level 

where the vein has recently been found in a cross-cut. 

The Banner mill building has been completed and a trans- 
former building is being erected. Two batteries, a 35-h.p. 
motor, pans and settlers have arrived at the property. A 
body of high-grade ore has been cut in the mine. 


It is announced that the Panhandle smelter will resume 
operations about Feb. 1; it is to handle 6000 tons of ore 
per month. The Pennsylvania Smelting Co. will have a 
one-third interest, several of the producing mines in the 
Coeur dAlene will have one-third and J. H. Anderson and 
associates the remaining interest in the ownership of the 



Much development work is being done at Gold Circle. 

W. D. McClelland and John Slaven have found at their 
Water Witch claim an orebody 18 in. wide; the ore is said 

to carry $75 per ton. B. S. Tracey and associates are 

working the Elko Prince group of claims; they have found 
a lode 4 ft. wide containing ore carrying $5 to $114 per 

ton. Some good gold ore has been found at Frazer creek 

and between Frazer creek and Scraper spring, five miles 
northeast of Summit townsite. Two shafts on the prop- 
erty of Henderson & Pixley, 20 miles north of Carlin, 
develop an orebody 18 in. wide, that is said to carry 407 oz. 
silver and $2 gold per ton, besides a high percentage of 


The Nevada Legislature's police bill, which provides for 
a superintendent, inspector, sergeants, 25 subordinate offi- 
cers, and 250 privates, was passed by the Senate on Jan. 
24. It was then held up by a committee of the Assembly, 
pending a decision by the Goldfield Mine Operators' Asso- 
ciation to abolish the card